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LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 
DAVIS 



MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA 




THE GOLDEN BEAR NUGGET 

The Golden Bear Nugget is said to have been found in the mining town 
of Yanicee Jim, Placer County, California, in 1871 by a small girl who kept 
the nugget in her possession throughout her lifetime. The lost identity of 
the nugget's finder, and the lack of record of her lifetime and death, are 
part of the mystery that surrounds many famous gems and nuggets. 

The nugget was acquired by the California Federation of Mineralogical 
Societies by undetermined means in 1939, and became the organization's 
insignia on April 20, 1940. The nugget has been on display in the Cali- 
fornia Division of Mines and Geology mineral exhibit in San Francisco 
since 1952. 



MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA 

CENTENNIAL VOLUME (1866-1966) 



by JOSEPH MURDOCH 
University of Caliiomia, Los Angeles 

cold 

ROBERT WALLACE WEBB 
University of Caliiomia, Santa Barbara 

With sections by 
Ion Campbell and Eleanor M. Learned 



BULLETIN 189 

California Division of Mines and Geology 
Ferry Building, San Francisco, CA 94111 

1966 



LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 
DAVIS 



STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

RONALD REAGAN, Governor 

THE RESOURCES AGENCY 

NORMAN B. LIVERMORE. JR., Administrator 

DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 

i " JAMES G. STEARNS, Director 

DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 

LAN CAMPBELL, STATE GEOLOGIST 

BULLETIN 189 
Price $5.00 



Manuscript received December 31, 1965 



CONTENTS 

Page 
California's Golden Bear Nu^g-et Frontispiece 

Preface 7 

Introduction: Ian Campbell 13 

Josepli Murdoch 20 

Eobert W. Webb . 22 

Historical and geological sketches 25 

Aboriginal and Indian minerals 25 

The discovery of gold in California 28 

Borax 30 

Crestmore 36 

Pegmatite gem area of southern California 46 

Cerro Gordo 49 



History and development of the California Federation of 

Mineralogical Societies: Eleanor M. Learned 55 



'to' 



Description of California minerals and mineral localities 59 

Bibliography 395 

Serials consulted 395 

Keferences 402 

Counties of California: Minerals and mineral lists 517 

Mining Districts of California 543 

Unvalidated entries in the mineral localities of California 547 

Contributors of unpublished information on California mineral 

localities 549 

Index to mineral species of California , 553 



PREFACE TO THE CENTENNIAL VOLUME— 1866-1966 

Since 1914, the California Division of Mines and Geology has fol- 
lowed the policy of publishing, at approximately ten-year intervals, 
catalogs with commentaries on the minerals of California. This volume 
commemorates the publication in 1866 of the first systematic record of 
California minerals by W. P. Blake (9). In this Centennial volume, the 
writers have scrutinized all information included in volumes covering 
1866-1954. They have modernized and updated information reported 
earlier which has been superseded by studies of the past decade. In addi- 
tion, the publication of data on new minerals (which surprisingly are 
still found in ever-increasing numbers) and additions to the literature 
indicated by the restudy of old, established localities, are reported for 
the decade 1954-1964. Several new sections have been added. Tributes 
to serious students of California mineralogy are included in the form 
of photographs and brief biographies, acknowledging the indebtedness 
to pioneer contributors on mineralogical studies in the state. Kevisions 
and additions make the Centennial volume an historical as well as a 
scientific record of California mineralogy. The interest of laymen and 
scientists in the past publications is recognized ; the format and or- 
ganization of the Centennial volume continues the attempt to provide 
for the interests of both. The bibliography has been updated and ex- 
panded. County lists published by Collins (1) pp. 40-64, in Murdoch 
and Webb (40), have been revised and are presented in this Centennial 
volume as a separate chapter. Codification has been attempted to reduce 
the confusion resulting from references to the geographic term "Min- 
ing District," especially in the pre-1920 literature. 

Widespread interest in California minerals and mineral resources 
began early in the history of the state and has continued to increase to 
the present time. It has received a great impetus from the organiza- 
tion of many mineral societies, which have multiplied in number and 
now have large memberships in California. Recognition of the contribu- 
tion of such groups to California mineralogy is contained in the chapter 
in this volume on the California Federation of Mineral Societies. The 
increasing number of minerals and mineral occurrences which are still 
being reported reflects this growing interest and is shown in the in- 
creasing size of successive catalogs of California minerals. 

The first catalog was W. P. Blake's, (9) 1866, listing 77 mineral 
species in a small pamphlet of 31 pages. It was followed in 1884 and 
1886 by a list compiled by H. G. Hanks (12), (15), then State Mineral- 
ogist, with about 135 species. In 1914, A. S. Eakle (12) compiled a 
comprehensive list of minerals found in California, including 352 
species, which was published in Bulletin 67 of the California Division 
of Mines and Geology (henceforth referred to as CDMG). A second 
volume by the same author in 1923, Eakle (22), increased the number 
of known species to 417. Professor Adolf Pabst, University of California, 
Berkeley, issued in 1938 Bulletin 113 of the CDMG, Pabst (4), in 
which the number of known species increased to 446. 

In 1948, Professors Joseph Murdoch and Robert Webb published a 
completely reorganized catalog, CDMG Bulletin 136, Murdoch and 
Webb (21), in which it was endeavored to provide written or, at least 
authoritative verbal validation of all mineral occurrences already 

(7) 



8 



MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA 



[Bull. 189 



listed, of all new entries representing old occurrences not previously 
mentioned, and of occurrences discovered since 1938, up to and in- 
cluding 1945. This was not possible in all cases because many earlier 
references were apparently not documented and represented verbal 
information from some unrecorded source, personal observation, or 
hearsay. This is particularly the case with entries in Eakle (12), (22) ; 
he undoubtedly added many items from his own extensive investiga- 
tions throughout the state and rarely indicated which these were. 

In the preparation of Bulletin 136 in 1948, the writers personally 
scanned all the literature dealing in any way with California minerals, 
and many publications of a nongeologic nature which were suspected of 
carrying mineralogical information. In this search, nearly 160 serials 
were consulted, in most cases from their earliest numbers. Besides 
these, many individual publications were studied. From these sources, 
references to thousands of individual occurrences were accumulated 
and compiled, resulting in the addition of some 70 species to the catalog 
and increasing the total for the state to about 516 minerals and many 
subspecies or varieties. In 1956, CDMG Bulletin 173 (Murdoch and 
Webb (39)) increased the total to 523, even with the discrediting of 
several minerals noted earlier. The present volume has over 5,200 in- 
dividual entries of mineral occurrences, of which 678 are new since 
1954. Only 196 remain invalidated. Up to December 31, 1964, 57 pre- 
viously known and 22 entirely new minerals have been added to the 
Bulletin 173 list, making a current total of 602, of which 74 are new 
minerals, first discovered and described in California. A list of these 
with the dates of their published descriptions, follows. 



Partzite, 1867 
Melonite, 1867 
Mariposite, 1868 
Calaverite, 1868 
Metacinnabar, 1870 
Aragotite, 1873 

♦Trautwinite, 1873 
Stibioferrite, 1873 
Roscoelite, 1875 
Posepnyte, 1877 

♦Sonomaite, 1877 
lonite, 1878 
Tincalconite, 1878 
Colemanite, 1883 
Hanksite, 1884 
Napalite, 1888 
Sulphohalite, 1888 
Knoxvillite, 1890 
Redingtonite. 1890 

tiddingsite, 1893 

tCrossite. 1894 
Lawsonite, 1895 
Northupite, 1895 
Pirssonite, 1896 

♦Palacheite, 1903 
Bakerite, 1903 
Boothite, 1903 
Tychite, 1905 
Benitoite, 1907 

*Carlosite, 1907 



Arcanite, 1908 
Joaquinite, 1909 

*Neocoleraanite, 1911 

♦Palaite, 1912 
Salmonsite, 1912 
Sicklerite, 1912 
Stewartite, 1912 
Inyoite, 1914 
Meyerhofferite, 1914 
Searlesite, 1914 
Wilkeite, 1914 

*Crestmoreite. 1917 

♦Eakleite, 1917 

*Griffithite, 1917 

§Riversideite. 1917 
Plazolite, 1920 
Vonsenite, 1920 

*Jurupaite, 1921 
Merwinite, 1921 
Kempite, 1924 
Foshagite, 1925 
Kernite, 1927 

♦Chromrutile, 1928 
Probertite, 1929 
Curtisite, 1930 
Krausite, 1931 
Saubornite, 1931 
Schairerite, 1931 
Tilleyite, 1933 
Burkeite, 1935 



Woodhouseite, 1935 
Ellestadite, 1937 
Teepleite, 1938 
Veatchite, 1938 

♦Nuevite, 1946 
Sahamalite, 1954 
Galeite, 1955 
Gerstleyite, 1956 

*Lesserite, 1956 
Gowerite, 1959 
Haiweeite, 1959 
Metahaiweeite, 1959 
Schuetteite, 1959 
Tunellite, 1959 

*Woodfordite, 1959 
Nobleite, 1961 
Redledgeite, 1961 
Wightmanite, 1962 
Deerite, 1964 
Fresnoite, 1964 
Greigite, 1964 
Howieite, 1964 
Krauskopfite, 1964 
Macdonaldite, 1964 
Muirite, 1964 
Traskite, 1964 
Verplanckite, 1964 
Walstromite, 1964 
Zussraanite, 1964 



* Discredited mineral. 

t Described as a new species, but in fact a variety of glaucophane. 

t Validity doubtful. 

§ Discredited but suggested for reinstatement. 



1966] PREFACE 9 

As has been observed in earlier editions, special interest in certain 
minerals or particular elements has almost always resulted in the find- 
ing of new minerals or new oeeurrenees of minerals, sometimes in the 
reworkin<; of old de{)osits or in the intensified prospecting^ for new 
localities. An instance of this is the detailed study of the borate 
deposits of the Mojave Desert area and of Death Valley by a group of 
U.S. Geological Survey workers, with the collaboration of the Cali- 
fornia Division of IMines and Geology. As a result, a number of new 
borate minerals have been found. ]u-imarily in the Boron area, but 
also in the Death Valley region. Another example is a recent study of 
the glaucophane schists which has resulted in the discovery of several 
new silicate minerals (Agrell, Brown, and McKie : Am. Mineral. 50, 
p. 278). 

Hand in hand with the discovery of new minerals or localities goes 
the attrition of older ones. Prime examples of this are the Leona 
rhyolite locality in Alameda County and the lawsonite type locality 
in Marin County, which have been completely overrun by housing 
developments. Another is the famous Crestmore quarry, where the 
cement production has almost destroyed the collecting area, at least so 
far as the public is concerned. Besides these examples of loss due to 
progress, there are also some localities Avhere the natural wear and 
tear of continued collecting has removed practically all available ma- 
terial. 

In CDMG Bulletin 136, the introductory portion was considerably 
enlarged to include historical and geologic sketches of famous mineral 
localities — the Mother Lode, C'restmore, Searles Lake, Pala, Mesa 
Grande, and others — which contributed many minerals found for the 
first time in California. This was continued in CDMG Bulletin 173 in 
somewhat fuller fashion. 

In the present volume, as in earlier ones, minerals are arranged in 
alphabetical order, so that only the name of the mineral need be known 
to find it immediately. A very complete system of cross-referencing has 
been employed so that varietal names (such as chrysotile) are referred 
to the main entry (serpentine). It is recognized that this arrangement 
separates minerals which belong to common groups, but the conven- 
ience of the alphabetical scheme is thought to outweigh this scattering 
of groups. 

Occurrences of each mineral are listed by counties, and those of 
particular importance or interest are accompanied by a brief descrip- 
tion of their geologic setting. For each occurrence, whenever possible, 
one or more references to the literature are given, so that the user may 
turn to the original description, which is ordinarily more detailed than 
can be given here. Occurrences marked " (N.R.) " which still lack 
written or even adequate verbal documentation have also been sum- 
marized in a separate appendix. The writers will be glad to have any 
reference to or confirmation of such cases drawn to their attention. 
Occurrences verified by personal communication are marked "(p.c.)", 
and a list of the names of the individuals supplying this verification 
is given in a separate appendix. Those represented by specimens in the 
exhibit of the CDMG at San Francisco carry the letters CDMG 
and the specimen number, as, "CDMG (5158)." 



10 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Species first discovered in California are marked by an asterisk (*), 
and followed by the date of the first published description. Discredited 
species are marked by a dagger ( t ) . 

The bibliography, containing nearly 2,500 titles, does not, of course, 
cover all notices of California minerals; but it is by far the most 
comprehensive yet assembled on California mineral occurrences. It lists 
all important publications in the field and practially all those of 
lesser importance. 

Special note should be made that this volume does not purport to in- 
clude all references in the literature of California to minerals that are 
also mineral resources and mineral commodities. As an example, barite 
occurs widely throughout California, but no attempt has been made to 
systematically report occurrences of the mineral wherever it is men- 
tioned in the literature. Some localities of minor importance and of little 
general mineralogical interest are noted because they have been carried 
in early editions of Minerals of California. The authors consider it 
wise to retain these as part of the historical record, but newer and 
more important localities of the mineral as a mineral resource have 
not necessarily been added, and literature citations to articles on such 
localities have not necessarily been included. It is emphasized that 
validation of correct mineral identification in the literature has not 
been undertaken, so early identifications may be incorrect. 

Occurrences noted since December 31, 1964, are being currently ac- 
cumulated and filed for future supplements to the Centennial volume; 
corrections and information on new or omitted occurrences are solicited. 
Such items should be sent to the California Division of Mines and 
Geology, San Francisco. 

It would be impracticable to acknowledge the services of all who 
have cooperated in the preparation of this and earlier volumes, but 
the writers wish to express their thanks to the following, who have 
made important contributions to the work: Professor Adolf Pabst, 
University of California, Berkeley; Professor A. 0. Woodford, Pomona 
College; the late Professor Charles Palache, Harvard University; Dr. 
W. T. Schaller, U.S. Geological Survey; the late Dr. W. F. Foshag, U.S. 
National Museum; the late Mr. M. Vonsen, Petaluma, California; the 
member Societies of the California Federation of Mineralogical So- 
cieties; Professor George Tunell, University of California, Riverside; 
Professor C. Douglas Woodhouse, University of California, Santa Bar- 
bara; and the many individuals who generously wrote comments and 
criticisms. 

Thanks are also due to the past and present members of the staff 
of the California Division of Mines and Geology, including State 
Mineralogists W. W. Bradley and Olaf P. Jenkins. 

Special acknowledgment for direction on the Centennial volume are 
due Dr. Ian Campbell, Chief, CDMG, and California State Geologist. 
Mr. Charles W. Chesterman, Mr. Tom Gay, Dr. Eugene B. Gross, and 
Mr. Melvin Stinson, of the CDMG, offered many constructive sugges- 
tions in the preparation of the manuscript. Mrs. Mary Gill and Miss 
Shirley Henderson of the Department of Geology, University of Cali- 
fornia, Santa Barbara, offered expert stenographic and technical 



1966] PREFACE 11 

assistance. These services are gratefully acknowledged, but the writers 
assume full responsibility for errors and omissions. 

Financial support for the project was received, from time to time, 
from the State Department of Conservation through the CDMG. 
Acknowledgment should also be made of subsidies received during the 
period 1936 to 1942 for the study of mineral localities in California, 
from the Committee on Research, University of California, Los An- 
geles, and 1950-1964, University of California, Santa Barbara. The 
results of these studies, although published elsewhere, have contributed 
to the accuracy and completeness of this volume. 

Joseph Murdoch 
Robert W. Webb 

University of California 

Los Angeles and Santa Barbara, California 

December 31, 1965 



INTRODUCTION 

by Ian Campbell, State Geologist 

Viewed from the perspective of geologic time, one hundred years, a 
centennial, is scarcely discernible, even with the most modern of 
scanning techniques! Viewed from the perspective of recorded history, 
a centennial is still only a minute mark in the inexorable march 
(hopefully, a forward march) of time and civilization. Yet, viewed 
from the perspective of California's history — even more so from the 
perspective of California's statehood — a centennial looms large indeed. 

Moreover, from the beginning of geologic history minerals have 
played an essential role — perhaps the essential role — in the building 
blocks of our earth (if not, indeed, of our universe also) ; they played 
a most significant role in California's early history as a state; and they 
continue to fulfill an essential role in today's economy. 

Thus it is that, to those who have any interest — whether historic, 
scientific, esthetic or economic — in California's minerals, the appear- 
ance of a centennial edition of Minerals of California is an EVENT 
and deserves appropriate recognition and commemoration. It is in 
view of these considerations that the Division of Mines and Geology 
has, with the collaboration of the authors. Doctors Joseph Murdoch 
and Kobert W. Webb, brought out this volume to commemorate the 
publication, one hundred years ago, of the first official list of minerals 
produced from California, the prototype "Minerals of California". 

Entitled "Annotated Catalog of the Principal Mineral Species 
Hitherto Recognized in California, and the adjoining States and Terri- 
tories," this list was prepared by Professor William P. Blake as a 
report to the California State Board of Agriculture, for whom Blake 
acted as geologist, besides being professor of mineralogy, geology, and 
mining at the "College of California", parent to the University of 
California, Berkeley. Not counting synonyms, 77 mineral species appear 
on this list. 

From the earliest days that California was known to the western 
world, mineral wealth had been mentioned among the various accounts 
of the natural bounties of this region. Mineral riches — gold and silver, 
mainly — were among the chief attractions that brought the Spanish and 
other explorers to the western edge of the New World. For example, 
one early listing of some California rocks and minerals appeared as 
an appendix in Otto von Kotzebue's account of his visit aboard the 
vessel Eurik to San Francisco Bay in 1816. 

Blake's "Annotated Catalog", modest as it was, marked a real 
achievement. California, as a state, was less than sixteen years old. 
Yet in the very first year of her statehood, the Legislature had estab- 
lished the post of State Geologist and had filled it with an able 
scientist. Dr. John B. Trask,* a physician whose wide-ranging interests 
included both mineralogy and geology, who authored some of the very 
first reports on the mineralogy of the State, and who was a leader in 
organizing the California Academy of Sciences. Unfortunately, funds 
for Dr. Trask 's one-man survey were continued for only three years 

*It deserves to be mentioned that, in 19 65, Dr. Trask was honored by having a 
newly discovered mineral — one, so far, unique to California — named for hiin. Traskite 
is a hydrous barium silicate. 

( 13) 



14 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA fBull. 189 

(1851-54), certainly not time enough to plan and carry through any 
report with so ambitious a title as "Minerals of California". 

In 1860, the Legislature — again recognizing the importance of geol- 
ogy to the young State — appropriated funds to reestablish a Geologic 
Survey and appointed to the post of State Geologist a scientist of na- 
tional reputation, Josiah D. Whitney. Prof. Whitney, partly by virtue 
of his own reputation and partly by virtue of the scientific attractions 
already coming to be recognized in the geology of California, was soon 
able to assemble a small group of scientists who, in their ability and 
dedication, immediately placed the California Survey in the front rank, 
if not perhaps in the top spot, among all the State Surveys of that 
time. Whitney numbered among his assistants such men as Clarence 
King (later to become the first Director of the U.S. Geological Sur- 
vey), Arnold Hoffman (later to become Chief Topographer of the 
USGS), W. H. Brewer (later to become a professor at Yale and to 
be recognized as "the father of soil science"), and W. H. Dall (later 
to become one of the country's foremost paleontologists and Director 
of the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences). The Whitney Survey con- 
tinued — with some ups and downs — until 1873, when, largely because 
of hard times and partly for other reasons related to personalities, 
funds were cut off. Not until 1880 was a somewhat equivalent agency 
reestablished and at that time designated as "The State Mining Bu- 
reau" and placed in charge of a "State Mineralogist", an office first 
filled by Henry Hanks, for whom the distinctive mineral hanksite was 
long ago named. 

So much for that early history. Let us review briefly the contents 
of that first list of minerals of California. Of 111 entries, 19 are 
synonyms, and 15 occur only in "adjoining States and Territories", 
so actually only 77 mineral species are reported from California. 
These are nearly evenly divided between metallic ore minerals (37) 
and nonmetallic minerals (40). About half (22) of the nonmetallic 
species are "commercial" minerals, such as asbestos, gypsum, and 
fluorspar. And it was noted by Blake that altogether 59 of the 77 
species listed could be categorized as "useful minerals". 

Not surprisingly, the longest lists of localities were for gold, copper, 
quicksilver, and silver, because of the many active mines. Among the 
nonmetallic minerals, interestingly enough, there is a reference to 
diamonds ("well formed, highly modified crystals, from one-eighth 
to three-sixteenths of an inch in diameter, and generally of a pale 
straw color"— from Cherokee Flat, Butte County) ; and to borax 
("Lake County, in large crystals in the clay of the Borax lake; Boracic 
acid. Clear Lake, Lake County"— this is the total entry!). No hint 
foreshadows the subsequent discovery of immense deposits of borate 
minerals elsewhere in California leading to the State's current multi- 
million dollar borax industry ; wliile further finds of diamonds were to 
be limited to a few specimens and chips of little significance or value, 
and only from the one locality. 

Likewise, no clue appears in that early list to the future development 
of the State's dominant cement, clay, diatomite, or gypsum industries. 
As to petroleum, although "the localities are numerous in the counties 
of San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Tulare, and Los Angeles", Blake 
notes that "The purest and most limpid natural oils have thus far 



1966] 



INTRODUCTION 



15 



been obtained from the localities north of San Francisco, in Humboldt 
and Colusa counties." It is difficult to imagine what Professor Blake 
might think if he could see the trends in commercial minerals that 
have developed in the century following the publication of his hard- 
won list. What stronger lesson should be grasped from this hundred- 
year perspective than never to limit the search and reporting of min- 
erals to only those that happen to be currently in strong demand : the 
least significant-appearing mineral described today may some day 
provide just the right answers to some yet-to-be-imagined future need! 
Space does not permit equivalent comment on the successive editions 
of "Minerals of California". It must suffice here merely to present the 
following table, which provides some interesting statistical comparisons. 





TABLE 


1 




Reference 

Minerals of California 


Year 


Number of 

mineral species 

described 


Total mineral 

production in 

California for 

that year 


Blake (9) 


1866 
1884, 1886 
1914 
1923 
1938 
1948 
1956 
1966 


77 
135 
352 
417 
446 
516 
523 
602 


$30,986,530 


Hanks (12, 15) . 


(1865) 
$21,000,000 


Eakle (12) 


(est. 1887) 
$93,314,773 


CDMG Bull. 67 

Eakle (22) 


$344,024,678 


CDMG Bull. 91 

Pabst (4) 


$380,444,976 


CDMG Bull. 113 

Murdoch and Webb (21) 

CDMG Bull. 136 

Murdoch and Webb (39) 

CDMG Bull. 173 

Murdoch and Webb . 


81.174,674,000 
$1,551,524,133 
$1,700,000,000 


CDMG Bull. 189 


(est.) 



Is it a coincidence or a correlation that explains the rough parallelism 
between the increasing number of minerals recorded in the State and 
the increasing value of the State 's mineral production ? To what degree 
did the publication of these successively more informative volumes 
serve to enhance mineral production ; to what degree did the expanding 
mineral economy contribute to the increased data and increased demand 
for the Successive volumes? These things we may never know precisely. 
But that there has been more than coincidence — in all probability, a 
definite correlation — between the published volumes and the production 
figures seems altogether likely. 

Up-to-date indices to a state's known mineral occurrences constitute 
one of two principal guides to resource development that a forward- 
looking agency should supply to the public and to industry interested 
in the continued enhancement of such a basic factor in the economy as is 
the mineral industry. The other index, which likewise must be kept up 



16 



MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA 



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1966] INTRODUCTION 17 

to date, is the geologic map. The first permits reasoning from the 
particular to the more general ; the second, from the general to the 
particular. To be more specific : as our knowledge and understanding of 
minerals increase, we find that minerals provide ever more precise 
indices to the physical-chemical environment in which ore deposits are 
formed, and later (hopefully) found. Research on mineral relationships 
makes possible some tentative predictions: for example that, just 
from the occurrence of one species, conditions at that locality are favor- 
able for finding certain other specific minerals — perhaps needed by our 
expanding economy. At the same time, the construction of increasingly 
accurate geologic maps and increasing knowledge of geologic factors, 
are enabling predictions to be made that in such-and-such a forma- 
tion, or in this-or-that kind of rock, or adjoining a certain kind of 
contact, is a favorable environment for an ore deposit and is an area 
that particularly deserves detailed study and prospecting for certain 
specific minerals. 

It is therefore with some pride, and with a high degree of confidence 
for the future of California's mineral industry that the Division of 
Mines and Geology brings out this centennial edition of Minerals of 
California which, imperfect as it doubtless is in a number of respects,* 
nevertheless provides more details on more minerals within our State 
than have ever been brought together before. Coincidentally, the Divi- 
sion takes pride in pointing to the near-completion of the Geologic 
Atlas of California which — imperfect as it also may be — nevertheless 
presents a far more complete picture of the geology of the State than 
has ever before been assembled. 

These two items — important as they are— constitute only the record. 
Let us look a little more closely at some of the essentials. It has been 
well said that past history provides the best guide to the future. Cali- 
fornia's mineral history has been encapsulated in Table 1, above. Any 
projection based on this record of 100 years, predicts increasing de- 
mand, increasing development, and increasing production of minerals 
in this exceptionally favored State. And it is with good reason that 
California is referred to as an exceptionally favored State. From being 
a "one crop" (albeit what a crop!) State, mineralwise, during the 
gold-rush years, California has subsequently expanded her mineral 
production so that, although she is no longer the number one gold 
producer in the nation, she ranks number one in diversity of mineral 
commodities produced, and number one in the production of more 
individual mineral commodities than any other state. Mineralogists 
know, of course, that California has long been the number one State 
in the number of minerals occurring in the State and in the number of 
minerals found only within the State. 

Why should California be so fortunate? There is no simple answer. 
But it is well to recall the remarks of a distinguished engineer that 
"A mineral deposit is an accident of geology". And California's 
geologic setting is such as to provide opportunity for more of such 
fortunate accidents than anywhere else in these United States. Her 

*A11 users of this volume would do well to read the preface in order to know the 
"ground rules" that of necessity the authors felt should be followed in compiling this 
list of minerals. Thereby they will become aware of this volume's capabilities and of 
its limitations as a guide to mineral occurrences — and particularly to "ore deposits" 



18 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

position, adjoining the eircum-Pacific earthquake and volcanic belt 
guarantees a degree of geologic activity not found elsewhere in the 
conterminous United States. Her great variety of rocks, ranging in 
age from Precambrian to the Recent, and including a wide variety of 
sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic types, provides the setting in 
which "geologic accidents" develop and mineral deposits are formed. 
Largely because of these factors, "the law of diminishing returns" 
seems not yet to have taken any real toll from California's mineral 
production. In this connection it should suffice to point to three notable 
developments in the mineral economy of the State that have transpired 
very largely since just the last edition of Minerals of California 
(Bull. 173, 1956). 1) The bastnaesite deposit at Mountain Pass had 
been discovered a few years previously, development was underway, but 
returns at that time were somewhat disappointing. It took the sub- 
sequent discovery of practical methods for refining the rare earths and 
producing relatively pure europium oxide, as well as the discovery of 
the application of this rare earth to color television, to make the Moun- 
tain Pass deposit the bonanza that it is fast becoming. 2) In 1956, pro- 
duction of asbestos in California received only the barest mention in 
the U.S. Bureau of Mines Minerals Yearbook. In 1966 it will be reported 
as a multimillion dollar industry, with plans for expansion and enor- 
mous reserves of ore. This has come about partly through recognition 
that the curious "mountain leather" of the Coalinga area was not 
tremolite, after all, but a true chrysotile fibre in an unusual habit; 
partly through technological success in learning how to process this 
material ; and partly through the economic opportunities conferred 
by growth of population. 3) In 1956 "geothermal steam" was a 
commercial oddity reported only from Italy and beginning to be 
talked about in New Zealand. Today, the successful harnessing of 
geothermal energy in the last four years to produce electric power at 
The Geysers represents a "first" in this field in terms of the entire 
North American continent. And developments in the Niland area of the 
Imperial Valley presage the possibility of producing not only power, 
but potash ! 

How" fortunate can we be? Has California not been already more than 
sufficiently favored? Yet there is more to this "success story". A 
mineral is a mineral ; but for a mineral to be useful, man must enter 
on the scene. California has attracted more mineralogists (whether 
measured in the somewhat restricted scientific terms of numbers of 
Fellows of the Mineralogical Society of America, or in the broader 
and more popular terms of number of members of the Federated Min- 
eral Societies) than has any other state. Moreover, California has 
attracted more top flight scientists in all fields than most other states. 
The juxtaposition (if one may put it that way) of a wide variety of 
minerals in a diversity of geologic settings, and of numbers of imagina- 
tive scientists in general and mineralogists in particular, virtually 
guarantees that there will be more and perhaps bigger new discoveries, 
both of minerals and of useful application for minerals, than any we 
have yet seen. 

Probably no current reader of this volume — unless geriatrics suc- 
ceeds soon in significantly prolonging hmnan life — will be around one 



1966] INTRODUCTION 19 

hundred years hence to make the kind of comparisons we are makin<? 
now between California's mineral "empire'" as we see it in this current 
volume and as it was portrayed in Blake's modest catalog of 1866. But 
if man continues to gain mineralogic and geologic knowledge and if 
he succeeds in applying this knowledge wisely, there is little doubt in 
the mind of this State Geologist that the 2066 edition of "Minerals of 
California" will transcend this 1966 volume by an even greater amount 
than this Murdoch and Webb volume has transcended Professor 
Blake 's catalog of 77 species. So let us then be on to new discoveries and, 
above all, to new wisdom ! 



20 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 



JOSEPH MURDOCH 

Joseph Murdoch, professor of geology emeritus, University of Cali- 
fornia, Los Angeles, has been actively involved in the study of minerals 
of California since his appointment in 1928 to the faculty at UCLA. 
The Centennial Volume is the third volume of Minerals of California 
under Dr. Murdoch's name followinf? Bulletins 136 (1948), 173 (1956), 
and several supplements, in the intervenin"; years. Each of the volumes 
and supplements were joint efforts with Kobert W. Webb. 

Dr. Murdoch was born in Massachusetts in 1890. He was educated at 
Harvard University, receiving the A.B. degree in 1911, the S.M. in 
1912, and the Ph.D. in 1915, each in geology and mineralogy. After over 
a decade in the business world, he joined the UCLA geology faculty in 
1928, and rose successively to professor of geology in 1949. His special- 
izations involve ore mineral microscopy, including pioneer published 
works on opaque minerals, and studies on the crystal chemistry of sev- 
eral rare minerals, especially those of Crestmore, Riverside County, 
California, and pegmatite minerals. His extensive bibliography includes 
45 articles on California minerals and several articles on Brazilian 
and Norwegian pegmatite minerals. Dr. Murdoch served as president 
of the Mineralogical Society of America in 1959-1960. He became pro- 
fessor emeritus in 1959. 



1966] 



INTRODUCTION 



21 



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22 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA I Bull. 189 



ROBERT WALLACE WEBB 

Dr. Kobert W. Webb, professor of geology at the University of Cali- 
fornia at Santa Barbara and eo-author of this Centennial Volume, is one 
of the justly famous (especially among California mineralogists) team 
of "Murdoch and AVebb." Since 1940, this team has been responsible 
for continuing the important series of reference catalogs of California's 
minerals, begun in 1866 by W. P. Blake. During the last 25 years, 
Murdoch and AVebb have compiled three bulletins and numerous sup- 
plements for publication by the California Division of Mines and 
Geology. 

Born in Los Angeles in 1909, Bob Webb became interested in min- 
erals while still in high school — an interest that led him to major in 
geology at UCLA where he earned a bachelor's degree in 1931. He 
then started a graduate program, while serving as assistant and associate 
in geology at UCLA, at the California Institute of Technology where he 
received an M.S. degree in 1932, and a Ph.D. in 1937. Starting then as 
an instructor in geology and mineralogy at UCLA, he rose through the 
academic grades to full professor in 1951. In 1948 he transferred to 
the newly developing campus of UC at Santa Barbara where he served 
as chairman of the Department of Physical Sciences from 1953 to 
1959 and where he was largely instrumental in establishing in 1954 
a major in geology, leading to the establishment of a Department of 
Geology in 1960. 

In the course of his 40 years of continuous association with the 
University of California, he has served as coordinator of the Army 
specialized training program (1943-44), as associate dean of the col- 
lege of letters and sciences (1946-47), and as coordinator of veterans 
affairs for the UCLA campus and the statewide University of Cali- 
fornia (1944-1952) ; as Executive Secretary of the Division of Geology 
and Geography (now Earth Sciences) of the National Eesearch Council 
and as Executive Director of the American Geological Institute (1953) ; 
as Director of the Ford Foundation experimental program for college 
instructors in California (1960-1963) ; and as visiting professor of 
geology for summer sessions at the Universities of New Mexico (1952), 
Maine (1956), Columbia University (1959, 1960), University of Massa- 
chusetts (1964), and Northeastern University (1965). 

His bibliography comprises some 65 papers, many of which deal with 
the geology and mineralogy of California. 



I 



1966] 



INTRODUCTION 



23 




Robert W. Webb 



HISTORICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SKETCHES 

ABORIGINAL AND INDIAN MINERALS 

A number of minerals were known and used for one purpose or an- 
other by prehistoric races and by the later Indians of California. Many 
references are to be found in the following: C. C. Abbott (1) ; Halde- 
man (1) ; Heizer and Treganza (1) who give an extensive bibliography, 
with a list of minerals and occurrences; Kunz (24) ; Schumacher (1) ; 
E. F. Walker (1) ; W. V. Wells (1) ; Woodward (1) ; L. G. Yates (1), 
(3), (4), (5) ; others have also supplied information on this subject. 

The earliest known mineral used was apparently turquoise, which 
was mined by aboriginal tribes in the northeast corner of San Ber- 
nardino County in prehistoric times. The old workings here were re- 
discovered in 1897 by T. C. Bassett, who found in them a couple of 
stone hammers and called his claim the Stone Hammer mine. This 
find aroused so much interest that the San Francisco Call, in 1898, 
sent out an expedition conducted by Dr. Gustav Eisen of the California 
Academy of Sciences to explore the mines. His account was published 
[Eisen (1)] in an extensive article in the Call of March 18, 1898, and 
led to further investigation of the area. The following extracts from 
Kunz (24), pp. 107-109, provide a good description of the find and 
of the general character of the area, which is the Turquoise Moun- 
tains (T. 16 N., R. 10 and 11 E., S.B.) : 

"Mr. T. C. Bassett had observed in this neighborhood a small hillock where the 
float rock was seamed and stained with blue. On digging down a few feet, he found a 
vein of turquoise — a white talcose material inclosing nodules and small masses of the 
mineral, which at a depth of 20 feet showed fine gem color. Two aboriginal stone 
hammers were met with, as usual at all the turquoise localities in the southwest, and 
from this circumstance the location was named the Stone Hammer mine. 

"The State Mining Bureau reported at about the same time that turquoise had 
been found in the desert region between Death Valley and Goff's Mining District, 
nearer the former, and that good samples were in the museum of the Bureau. * * * 

"The turquoise district, as described by Mr. Eisen and others of the party, occu- 
pies an area of 30 or 40 miles in extent, but the best mines are in a smaller section, 
about 15 miles long by 3 or 4 in width. The region is conspicuously volcanic in 
aspect, being largely covered with outflows of trap or basaltic rock reaching outward 
from a central group of extinct craters. These flows extend for many miles in all 
directions, and appear as long, low ridges, separated by valleys and canons of the 
wildest character. Among these basaltic rocks and in the valleys are found smaller 
areas of low, rounded hills of decomposed sandstones and porphyries, traversed at 
times by ledges of harder crystalline rocks, quartzites, and schists. In the canons and 
on the sides of these hills are the old turquoise mines, appearing as saucer-like pits, 
from 15 to 30 feet across and of half that depth, but generally much filled up with 
debris. They are scattered aboiit everywhere. Around them the ground consists of 
disintegrated quartz rocks like sand or gravel, full of fragments and little nodules of 
turquoise. Whenever the quartzite ledges outcrop distinctly they show the blue veins 
of turquoise, sometimes in narrow seams, sometimes in nodules or in pockets. The 
mode of occurrence appears closely to resemble that at Turquoise Mountain, Ari- 
zone. * * * Stone tools are abundant in the old workings, and the indications are 
plain that this locality was exploited on a great scale and probably for a long period, 
and must have been an important source of the turquoise used among the ancient 
Mexicans. From an archaeological point of view this locality possesses remarkable 
interest. The canon walls are full of caverns, now filled up to a depth of several feet 
with apparently wind-blown sand and dust, but whose blackened roofs and rudely 
sculptured walls indicate that they were occupied for a long time by the people who 
worked the mines. In the blown sand were found stone implements and pottery frag- 
ments of rude type, incised but not painted. The openings to these caves are paitially 
closed by roughly built walls composed of trap blocks piled upon one another with 
no attempt at fitting and no cement, but evidently made as a mere rude protection 

(25) 



26 



MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA 



[Bull. 189 





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1966] HISTORICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SKETCHES 27 

against weather and wild beasts. The tools, found partly in the caves and largely in 
the mine pits are carefully wrought and polished from hard basalt or trap, chiefly 
hammers and adzes or axes, generally grooved for a handle and often of large size. 
Some are beautifully perfect, others much worn and battered by use. 

"The most impressive feature, however, is the abundance of rock carvings in the 
whole region. These are very varied, conspicuous, and peculiar, while elsewhere they 
are very rare. Some are recognizable as 'Aztec water signs,' pointing the way to 
springs ; but most of them are unlike any others known, and furnish a most interest- 
ing problem to American archaeologists. They are numbered by many thousands, 
carved in the hard ba-salt of the cliffs, or, more frequently, on large blocks of the same 
rock that have fallen and lie on the sides of the valleys. Some are combinations of 
lines, dots, and curves into* various devices; others represent animals and men; a 
third and very peculiar type is that of the 'shield figures,' in which complex patterns 
of lines, circles, cross hatchings, etc., are inscribed within a shield-like outline per- 
haps 3 or 4 feet high. 

"One curious legend still exists among the neighboring Indians that is no way 
improbable or inconsistent with the facts. The story was told Mr. Eisen by 'Indian 
Johnny,' son of the Piute chief, Tecopah, who died recently at a great age, and who 
in turn had received it from his father. Thousands of years ago, says the tale, this 
region was the home of the Desert Mojaves. Among them suddenly appeared, from 
the west or south, a strange tribe searching for precious stones among the rocks, who 
made friends with the Mojaves, learned about these mines, and worked them and got 
great quantities of stones. These people were unlike any other Indians, with lighter 
complexions and hair, very peacable and industrious, and possessed of many curious 
arts. They made these rock carvings and taught the Mojaves the same things. This 
alarmed and excited the Piutes, who distrusted such strange novelties, and thought 
them some form of insanity or "bad medicine,' and resolved on a war of extermina- 
tion. After a long desperate conflict, most of the strangers and Mojaves were slain, 
since which time, perhaps a thousand years ago, the mines have been abandoned." 

Other minerals were known to tlie Piute and other Indian tribes of 
more recent times. Cinnabar, hematite, and manganese oxides were used 
as color pigments, and talc in some cases as white. Talc in the form of 
steatite was formed into cooking vessels, beads or other ornaments, 
arrow straighteners, pipes, or finger rings. Fluorite was occasionally 
made into beads. Quartz crystals were collected, perhaps for their ap- 
pearance, or as part of the medicine man's equipment. Mica plates 
served occasionally as ornaments. Magnesite was made into tokens with 
value for exchange. 

Of these, talc, or steatite, was most commonly known. Practically all 
the old Indian sites have yielded steatite receptacles. The mineral was 
mined in a number of localities, of which the most important was on 
Santa Catalina Island. Steatite bowls or vessels partly carved out of 
the bed rock, and attached by a stem, which was later to be broken off 
and smoothed away, have been described as still remaining in the 
quarries at this place. Other localities for steatite are listed by Heizer 
and Treganza, (1) p. 307, as follows: Klamath River, two localities; 1 
mile east of Tuolumne ; 4 miles east of Lindsay, Tulare County ; near 
mouth of Carrizo Gorge, San Diego County ; west side of Williams 
Valley, Mendocino County ; Santa Ynez Mountains ; Santiago Canyon 
near Mount Pinos, Ventura County ; Table Mountain, Madera County ; 
Fish Creek Mountain, Fresno County ; northeast of Cloverdale, Sonoma 
County; near Burnt Ranch, north fork of Trinity River, Trinity 
County. 

Cinnabar was mined in at least two places in the State. One, the most 
important, was the famous New Almaden mine, near San Jose, and the 
other, Last Chance Peak, north of Death Valley. The New Almaden lo- 
cality was known in very early times, and Indians came to it from as 



28 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA | Bull. 189 

far away as Oregon and Washington. An interesting account of the 
locality is given by Downer, (1) p. 221. 

"We are still three hundred and thirty-three feet l)el()w the summit, where in 
1845 a shaft was sunk, and mining first commenced. This point had been the resort 
of the aborigines not only of this State, but from as far as the Columbia River, to 
attain the paint (vermillion) found in the cinnabar, and which they used in the deco- 
ration of their persons. How lonj;- this had been known to them cannot be a.scertained ; 
probably a long time, as they had worked into the mountain some fifty or sixty feet, 
with what implements can only be conjectured. A quantity of round stones, evi- 
dently from the brook, was found in a pa.ssage, with a number of skeletons ; the 
destruction of life having been caused. und()ul)tedly, by the sudden caving of the 
earth burying the unskilled savages in the midst of their labors." 

Quartz crystals appear in large numbers in Indian sites and were 
perhaps collected for their magical properties. One arrowhead, chipped 
out of a clear quartz crystal, is in the museum, CDMG (11562), but, 
in general, the cystals were untouched or occasionally pasted on one 
end with asphaltum. apparently so that they could be slung by a cord. 

Mica plates, several inches across, and perforated, have been found, 
apparently used as ornaments. 

Fluorite beads, from an unknown source, were found in some of the 
sites near Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, and along the north shore 
of Buena Vista Lake. 

Magnesite from near Sulphur Bank, in Lake County, was shaped into 
cylindrical forms, and baked, to produce reddish, creamy, or black color- 
ation, then polished, perforated, and used as money. 

THE DISCOVERY OF GOLD IN CALIFORNIA 

The history of gold in California far antedates James Marshall's 
famous discovery in 1848, although the early accounts are often vague 
or uncertain. In Hakluyt's Voyages, Drake in 1579 is said to mention 
the probability of gold "here: "There is no i)art of the earth here to be 
taken up wherein there is not some special likelihood of gold or silver." 
Since he did not go inland, it is a trifle difficult to see how he could have 
had more than wishful thinking as a basis for his comment. Tliis may 
Avell have been the source of the statement in 181() by Jameson (1) p. 13: 
"On the coast of California there is a plain of 14 leagues in extent, 
covered with an alluvial deposite, in which lumps of gold are dispersed." 

After Drake, there were many Spanish expeditions based on Mexico, 
but the journals of these make little or no mention of gold. A most 
entertaining story is told by Captain George Shelvocke, (1) p. 401, a 
British privateer, in his account of "A Voyage around the World by 
way of the Cxreat South Sea, perform 'd in the years 1719, '20, '21, '22 
in the Speedwell of London" published in 1726. This does not concern 
our own state, but lower California, just north of Cape San Lucas. It 
is, however, of sufficient interest to cjuoto briefly : 

"The .soil about Puerto Seguro (and very likely in most of the valliesi is a rich 
black mould, which, as you turn it fresh up to the sun, appears as if intermingled 
with golddust, some of which we endeavor'd to wash and purify from the dirt ; but 
tho we were a little prejudiced against the thoughts that it could tie possible that this 
metal should be so promiscuously and universally mingled with the common earth, 
yet we endeavour'd to cleanse and wash the earth from some of it, and the more 
we did, the more it appeared like gold, but in order to be farther satisfied, I brought 
away some of it. which we lost in our confusions in China." 



1966] HISTORICAL AND OEOLOniCAL SKETCHES 29 

Presumabl.y his "gold" flakes wore flakes of mica; but such an account 
might easily liave formed the foundation for later, supposedly authentic 
tales. 

The next account is more trustworthy, reporting placers worked in 
the "Carga Mucliacha" area near Yuma, in 1775, Hanks (12) p. 
217, and at St. Isadore [San Isidro] near San Diego in 1825, Wyld (2) 
p. 37, or in 1828, W. W. Jenkins (1) p. 70. Gold was reported from 
California in 1818 by Teschemacher (3) p. 287. Wyld (2) p. 37 also 
records a ''small thread of gold worked in the Saint Barbara district in 
1840." The San Francisco Alta Calif ornian about 1868 (?) carried a 
letter from Abel Stearns relating the discovery of gold at San Fran- 
cisquito in 1842, by Francisco Lopez, some of which gold he sent to the 
United States Mint in 1843. Duflot de Mofras (Dp. 186, an emissary 
of the French government, notes the discovery of a "* * * gold vein at 
San Francisquito, 6 leagues beyond San Fernando, in 1842, with pieces 
up to 2 or 3 ounces in weight." These two are apparently the same, and 
presumably refer to Placerita Canyon. Rickard (3) pp. 14, 15, quotes 
the report of Manuel Castefiares to the King of Spain in 1844 on the 
same locality: "Gold placers discovered in the course of the last year 
have attracted the greatest attention, for they extend nearly 30 leagues." 
These were near San Fernando Mission [Placerita Canyon again] 
discovered hy Francisco Lopez, March 9, 1842, and worked by him in 
company with Charles Barec. 

Rather surprisingly these reports either did not reach the east coast 
of America, or made verj- little impression on the public there, as it was 
not until after JMarshall's discovery at Coloma in 1848, that the gold- 
rush excitement broke. 

The accounts of the discovery of gold at Colonui by James Marshall, 
are, as is usually the case, conflicting in detail, even those purporting to 
be eye-Avitness reports. They are all in general agreement that the dis- 
covery was made by Marshall in the mill-race at Coloma in January or 
February 1848. W. W. Jenkins (1) p. 72 gives' the date as January 19 
without quoting any specific authority. J. Ross Browne and James W. 
Taylor (1) p. 14, state that on January 19, 1848, Marshall found some 
gold in the mill-race at Coloma. The first printed notice occurred on 
March 15, in the newspaper printed in San Francisco. Hittel (4) p. 529 
quotes the diary of Henry W. Bigler, one of Marshall's fellow w^orkers, 
which gives the date as January 24. He prints a facsimile reproduction 
of Bigler 's diary. Marshall took the gold to Sutter's 4 days after the 
discovery, where it was tested. 

George M. Evans (1) p. 385 notes the recoverj"^ of specks of gold 
from the bank of the San Joaquin river near Stockton, in September 
1846, and reports the news of abundant gold near San Diego and the 
river Gila in August, 1847. He then goes on to make the following 
statement : 

"On the 9tli of Fel)ru;iry 1S4S. I with Hender.son Cox. Heardsley Beers, two 
Shepards. and a nuinhei- more were in the lower end of the mill-race [at Coloma] 
when Mar.sliall, the overseer, and his little girl came in, and the child picked up a 
pretty stone as she called it. and showed it to her father, who pronounced it gold. 
He was so excited ahout it that he saddled his horse and that day rode to Sutter's 
Fort to tell Captain Sutter — hut he did not tielieve it worth notice, and for a while 
the idea died away." 



30 MINERALS OP CAr.IFORNlA [Bull. 189 

Evans also mentions a very early reference to gold supposedly made 
by one Lyola Cavello (or Cabello), a priest at "San Jose Mission on 
the bay of San Francisco," in Recordado en Historia el California Alta 
printed in Spain in 1690. This mentions small quantities of gold in 
"placeros" of streams to the north. There are various reasons for 
doubting the validity of this quotation. There were no missions in Cali- 
fornia as early as 1690; the title of the publication is not as it should be 
in Spanish; "Lyola" is not a given name, and should probably be 
"Loyola" in any case; and California was not known as Alta California 
until much hiter. There is probably some basis of truth behind this quo- 
tation, but in its present form it is quite valueless. It has been mentioned 
here as a matter of interest and to illustrate the general vagueness and 
unreliability of early reports. 

In those days of slow travel, the news of Marshall's discovery was a 
long time i-eaching the east, and it was not until late in 1848 and early 
in 1849, that letters began coming in. One of the earliest records was 
a letter written by T. L. Plasse, September 26. 1848, from New" York 
to a correspondent in Germany ainiouncing the discovery, Berg-u. 
Hutt. Zt. (1) p. 791. The first official record was a report to the War 
Department by K. B. Mason. (1 ) p. 528. After this time there was a 
flood of letters and reports about California gold. One early report, 
R. M. Patterson (1) p. 61, tells of the finding of a 15-pound nugget, 
perhaps the same as that picked up by a soldier of Stevenson's regiment 
on the Mokelumne River in 1848, and is of interest as recording for 
the first time the presence of platinum in the gold sands. 

A most unusual and spectacular story is told of an occurrence of 
gold in Califoi-nia, along th(> beach at ({old Bluff, Humboldt County, 
by S. Johnson (1), pp. 534—537. According to this account, a party of 
men travelling south from Oreg(»ii. in the year 1850, was forced by 
thick timber to turn out towards the shore. Reaching it. to their amaze- 
ment, the beach appeared to be literally paved with gold. They could 
not believe their eyes, but on closer examination, found that the waves 
had accomplished a perfect job of panning, and had sjn-cad thi^ gold 
particles almost uniformly over- the surface of the sands. They scraped 
off some handfuls from the surface, but as they were short of provi- 
sions, and travel-Aveary, jiushed on to their destination. The samples 
proved to be nearly half gold, and an expedition was innnediately 
organized to exploit the beach. Cnfortunately. but as was to be ex- 
pected, by the time the party i-eached the beach once moi-e. the Avaves 
and tide had completely dispersed the gold, so that the sands were no 
longer concentrate's, and of no particular value. 

BORAX 
Discovery in California 

The discovery of boi-ax in California is interestingly described by 
Dr. John A. Veatch. in a letter to the Borax Company of California, 
dated June 28, 1857, and quoted in J. R. Browne and Taylor (1) pp. 
179-185. The following quotations have been taken from this letter: 

"I believe I was the first to detect the horate.s in iiiiiitT.il waters in this State, .-ind 
perhaps, as yet, the onl.v observer of their localities. My attention was first drawn to 



1966] HISTORICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SKETCHES 31 

this subject l>.v noticinf? crystals of hi-horate of soda in the artificially concentrated 
water of a mineral spring which I chanced at the time to he examining for other 
matters. This water was from one of the several springs since known as the Tuscan 
springs, and which have gained some fame, and very justly, I believe, as medicinal 
waters. The spot has been described by Dr. Trask under the name of the Lick 
Springs, and is so designated on Britton and Rey's late map ; lying on the north 
part of Tehama county, eight miles east of Red Bluff. The crystals alluded to were 
observed on the eighth day of January, 1856. Several pounds were subsequently 
extracted by evaporating the water to a certain degree of concentration and allowing 
the bor.'ix to crystallize. The pioneer specimens of this product were deposited in the 
museum of the California Academy of Natural Sciences, as an evidence of the ex- 
istence of a new and important link in the chain of our mineralogical productions, 
showing that along with the rich productions of the noble and useful metals, we 
have al.so that mineral substance so essential to their easy api)licatiou to the pur- 
poses of man. * * * 

"My mind being now ali\'e to the subject, I learned, upon intjuiry, of other local- 
ities which I supposed might .yield the borates. One of these, near the mouth of Pitt 
river, forty miles north of the Tuscan springs, I had the pleasure of \-isiting in 
company with Dr. Wm. O. Ayres, in April, 1856. Specimens there obtained yielded 
the borate salts ; and, from a subsequent examination of the intermediate country, 
several similar localities v.-ere found. The quantity was too small to be of any prac- 
tical importance, but the prevalence of the salt gave encouragement to further 
search. A reconnoissance of the 'coast range' of mountains, from the neigliliorbood of 
Siiasta over a length of some thirty miles towards the south, brought to light i)orates 
in the numerous small springs abounding in that region, but only in minute quan- 
tities. These springs were found almost exclusively in the sandstone, or in the 
magnesium limestone overlaying it ; and the borates seemed to abound in localities 
bearing indications of volcanic disturbance. Thus a kind of guide was obtained in 
the in-osecution of further explorations. I began to entertain hopes of finding streams 
with stronger impregnations, or accumulations, of the borates in salt lagoons said to 
exist in Colusi county, where the sandstone formation was largely developed, the 
adjacent foot-hills presenting volcanic featiires. Hiuiters told tales of mineral springs 
of sulphurous ;ind bitter waters; of lakes of soda, and alk.nliue plains, white with 
efflorescent matters, in that region. Not being in a situation immediately to visit 
those inviting localities, I had, for the time, to content myself with pointing out to 
the hunters and others occasionally passing through that country such appearances 
as I wished particularly to be noted. Their reports, together with specimens some- 
times furnished, were all corroliorative of the correctness of my theory. Colonel .Tocl 
Lewis, of Sacramento City, who occasionally visited the coast range on hunting 
excursions, and to whom I explained the object of my search, and who, although not 
a scientific man, is an intelligent observer, had the kindness to look, in his peregri- 
nations, for certain indications. He subsequently informed me by letter that he had 
met with an Irishman, li\ing in Bear valley, who had found a "lake of bor.ix," as it 
was pronounced by an Englishman who lived with the Irishman, and who had been 
at one time employed in a borax manufactory in England, and therefore assumed to 
speak knowingly on the subject. He also informed me in the same letter that a 
Major Vanbibber, of Antelope valley, had discovered large quantities of nitre in the 
same neighborhood. These glowing reports led me to hasten the excursion I had so 
long contemplated. In a personal interview with the colonel he told me of an enor- 
mous mass, of a white, pulverulent substance, he had himself observed near the 
margin of Clear lake, of the nature of which he was ignorant. Mr. Charles Fairfax, 
who was with the colonel at the time, stated to me that a small rivulet running at 
the base of the white hillock was an intensely impregnated mineral water, totally 
undrinkable, as he had accidently discovered by attempting to slake his thirst with 
it. From the meagre information gathered frt)m these gentlemen, I was led to hope 
the 'hill of white powder,' as they termed it, might prove to be borate of lime. I 
determined to satisfy myself by personal examination at once, and I finally induced 
Colonel Lewis to act as my guide by furnishing him with a horse and paying ex- 
penses. It was some time in the early part of September of last year that he and I 
left Sacramento for the localities that had so much excited my hopes. At the town 
of Colusi. which we reached by steamer, horses were obtained, and we proceeded in a 
westerly direction across the Sacramento valley to the foot-hills of the coast moun- 
tains, a distance of about twenty miles. That portion of the plains skirting the hills 



32 MINKKALS OF CALIFOKNIA | Bull. 189 

gave unmistakable evidence of a lieavy chai'j?e vi mineral sails, and the exceedingly 
contorted and interrupted state of the hill strata enabled me at one to predict the 
presence of the I)eloved l)orates. which chemical trial on some efflorescent matter 
taken from a ravine proved to be the case in a slight degree. At this point we 
entered "Fresii-water cafion," which cuts the hills and forms a passwa,\- into Antelope 
and Bear valleys. Here I received information from a settler of a hot sulphur spring 
a few miles south of Bear valley, on one of the trails leading to Clear lake. This 
spring we succeeded in finding on the following day. It was with no small pleasure 
that I ol)ser\ed the outcropping magnesian limestone in the hills surrounding the 
valley of the springs. The strong smell of sulphurated hydrogen, and the appearance 
of a whitish efflorescence on the rocks, manifested, even at a distance, almost the 
certainty of finding the mineral I sought. The indications were not deceptive. The 
efflorescence proved to li(> l)oracic acid, in part, while the hot, sulphurous water held 
liorate of soda in solution, together with chlorides and sulphates. There are three hot 
springs ;it this jilace, and several cold ones, all alike strongly impregnated with 
common salt and borax. * * * The same phenomenon occurs here that is observed 
at the Tuscan springs, viz., free boracic acid in the efflorescence on the margin of the 
.springs, while the w^ater itself shows a decided .-ilkaline reaction. * * * 

"The following day we reached the 'Hill of White Powder,' the goal of our hopes, 
on the margin oi Clear T>ake. This 'White Powder Hill," the goal of our hopes, proved 
an illustration of how little the recollections of mere casual observers are to be 
depended upon. The hill, in place of consisting of materials in a state of disintegra- 
tion, so as to admit of l)eing 'shoveled up," as my friend supposed, proved to be a 
concrete \()lcanic mass, bleached white by sulphurous fumes, and looking, at a little 
distance, like a huge mass of slaked lime, which the inattentive observer might 
readily suppose to be a 'hill of white powder.' The hope of a treasure in the form of 
borate of lime vanished forever. 

"The road had been rather toilsome, the weatiier exceedingl.N hot. and my guide 
not very well ; and as he had gone the full length of the contemplated journey, and 
felt somewhat disgusted at the result so far, and bad nothing more to draw his 
attention in this direction, he proposed to return at once by the way of the Irishman's 
"borax lake' and Vanl)il)ber's nitre placer. This was agreed upon ; so, collecting a 
few specimens of efllorescent matters from the ground, and tilling a bottle with the 
water in the ravine, I closed the examination of the 'Hill of White Powder.' The 
ravine I afterwards called the 'boracic acid ravine,' and the white hill is now called 
'Sulphur Haid<." ( >f these I shall ha\'e occasicui to speak hereafter. 

"Before leaving the neighborhood T determined, however, to know something 
more of its surroundings. I learned, upon incpiiry of .Mr. Hawkins, who lives ne.-ir the 
spot, that a place not far off, known by the name of 'Alkali lake.' presented a rather 
peculiar appearance. Hawkins consented to act as my guide. After travelling a short 
distance, and clambering to the narrow edge of an almost precipitous mountain ridge, 
we looked down the opposite slope, eiinally steep, on a small nniddy lake that sent np, 
even to our elevated position, no pleas.ant perfumes. Thus, on one of the hottest days 
September ever produced, without a bre.ath of aii- to dilute the ex(]uisite scent exhaled 
from two hundred acres of fragrant mud, of an untold depth, I slid down the moun- 
tain side into "Alkali lake." waded knee-deep into its soap.\ margin. .Miid tilled a bottle 
with the most diabolical watery comp(Hind this side the Dead Sea. (iathering a few- 
specimens of the matter encrusting the shore. I hastened to escai)e from a spot very 
far from being attracti\'e at the time, hut which I have since learned to ha\e no 
prejudice against. Of this place I sh;ill have occasiiui to say more. '■' '■'■ * 

■"From ("olusi ui.v guide relumed to Sncr.inieuto .nid I to Red P.lulf': from tliei-e 
I came again to Sau Francisco, for the pui-pose of ti'stiug my s|ieciuit'ns more 
critically than 1 was able to do in the country. 

■'Convinced of the richness of my 'Alkali lake" si)ecimens, it remained to be seen 
whether the ipiautity was sulflcient to justify the hope of making it available for 
practical purposes. A further and m<u-e strict examination was necessary. I felt, too, 
the propriety of a thorough exploration betwixt the Bluff and (^lear lake, and more 
thence to the liay of Sau Francisco, thus rendering continuous the reconnaissance 
from Pitt river to the last-named point, a distance, in a direct line, of two hundred 
miles. After a hard struggle for the funds reipiisite, I retui-ned to Red I'luff; and 
from thence, in company with my son, commenced a pretty thorough examination 
of the coast range and the adjoining edge of the Sacramento valley. * * * 



1966] HISTORICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SKETCHES 33 

"In due time I a^ain reached the 'white hill.' The disgust of the first disappoint- 
ment had worn off, and I felt disposed to re-examine the locality more critically. I 
now discovered, for the first time, that the 'white hill' was mostly a mass of sulphur, 
fused by volcanic heat. The external dust, composed of sulphur, mixed with sand and 
earthy impurities, and formed a concrete covering of a whitish appearance, hiding 
the nature of the mass beneath. On breaking the crust, numerous fissures and small 
cavities, lined with sulphur crystals of great beauty, were brought to light. Through 
the fissures, which seemed to communicate with the depth below, hot aqueous vapors 
and sulphurous fumes constantly escape. The fused mass, covering many acres and 
exhibiting a bluff front some forty feet high, is exceedingly compact and ponderous 
in structure ; of various shades, from yellow to almost black. It seems to be very 
pure sulphur. The (piantity is enormous, and at no distant day may be made avail- 
able. 

"From the 'sulphur bank' I again turned my attention to the ravine. The water, as 
I had before ascertained, was strongly impregnated with boracic acid, in a free state. 
The stream is small, yielding only about three gallons per minute, and is soon lost in 
the sandy .soil, in its progress toward the margin of the lake. From the porous nature 
of the ground surrounding the spring, and saturated with the same kind of acid water, 
it is probable a large (piantity escapes without making its appearance on the surface. 
The soil for some yards on either side of the ravine is, to the depth of an inch or two 
impregnated with boracic acid in summer. Sulphurretted hydrogen escapes in con- 
tinued bubbles through the water, a feature common to all the borax localities I 
have yet found ; in some places, however, the carburetted takes the place of the 
sulphuretted hydrogen. The head of this ravine is about three hundred yards from 
the margin of Clear Lake, winding around the base of the 'sulphur bank,' receiving 
some small springs in its course, which seem to have their origin beneath the sulphur. 
The flat land bordering the lake, some eight acres in extent, through which the 
ravine runs, shows a strong impregnation of boracic acid in its soil. The point 
where the ravine enters the lake is marked by a large quantity of water of a boiling 
temperature, issuing through the sand, a little within the margin of the lake. This 
percolation of hot water covers an area of one hundred and fifty by seventy-five 
feet. This fact I observed on my second visit, but not until the third or fourth 
visit did I a.scertain that the water contained a considerable quantity of borax, 
along with an excess of boracic acid. From a gallon I obtained four hundred and 
eighty-eight grains of solid matter, consisting of borax, boracic acid, and a small 
portion of siliceous and other earthy impurities. On digging to a slight depth just 
outside the lake, the hot water burst up and ran off freely. From one of these places 
a stream issued of sixty gallons per minute. I have estimated the entire quantity at 
three hundred gallons per minute, and feel very confident of being largely within 
bounds. The stream .seems to come from the direction of the sulphur bank, and it 
would probably be easy to intercept it before it enters the lake, by digging a little 
above high-water mark. It may be well to note here, that the difference between high 
and low water marks in Clear Lake is never more than three feet. 

"The enormous amount of borax these springs are capable of yielding would 
equal half the quantity of that article consumed both in England and America. The 
large quantity of water in which it is dissolved would, of course, involve the necessity 
of extensive works for evaporation. Graduation, as a cheap and effective method 
of evaporation, would be exceedingly applicable here, from the continued prevalence 
of winds throughout the entire year. The.se winds blowing almost unceasingly from 
the west, form a peculiar feature of the country about Clear lake. 

"There is nothing to hinder the manufacture of many million pounds of borax per 
annum, at a cost but little beyond that of producing salt by graduation. Fuel for 
final evaporation could be had in any quantities from the extensive oak forest in the 
immediate vicinity. With these observations I dismiss this locality, adding, however, 
that Mr. .Joseph G. Baldwin located this with a four hundred and eighty acre school 
land warrant, for the benefit of a borax company. 

"Having wandered from my story of my second visit to the '.sulphur bank,' and 
blended with it obervations made in several subsequent examinations, I now turn to 
my second visit to 'Alkali lake,' or Lake Kaysa, as the Indians call it. I need only 
say, however, I became fully satisfied of the great value of the locality, the extent of 
which has only been recently developed. I observed that the lake itself contained but 
little water, but that wells dug anywhere near its margin immediately filled with the 
same kind of water ; the conclusion, therefore, was, that an almost inexhaustible 
supply was obtainable. I learned, too, that what .seemed to be mud at the margin and 
shelving off and covering the entire bottom to the depth of some feet, was a peculiar 



34 MINERALS OF CALIB^ORNIA [Bull. 189 

jelly-like substance of a soapy feel and smell. This matter I found to be so rich in 
borax, that I supposed it might be advantageously used for the extraction of the 
mineral. Thus satisfied of the value of the lake. I little thought that within a few 
yards of me lay an additional value in tlie form of millions of pounds of pure borax 
crystals, hidden by the jelly-like sul)stance I was then contemplating. This important 
fact was not observed until some six months afterwards. 

"This locality is by far the most important of any I have yet discovered. It is 
situated * * * jj^ (-jjp angle formed by the two i)rongs into which Clear lake is divided 
at its eastern extremity. The elevated hill land that fills the angle separates into two 
sharp ridges, each following its division of the lake and leaving a valley between, of 
a triangular shape, near the apex of which lies Alkali lake. Clear lake is, therefore, 
on two sides of it, distant to the north about a mile, and to the south about half the 
distance. The o])eT) part of the triangular plain looks to the east, and expands into 
an extensive valley, from which it is cut off, partially, by a low volcanic ridge 
running across from one hill to the other, and thus enclosing the triangle. 

"This ridge is composed of huge masses of rock resembling pumice-stone, which 
float like cork in water. A thin stratum of ashy-looking soil, scattered over with 
obsidian fragments, covers the ridge and affords foot to a stunted growth of 
manzanita shrubs. 

"The whole neighborhood bears marks of comparatively recent volcanic action. 
Indeed, the action has not ceased entirely yet ; hot sulphurous fumes issue from 
several places on the edge of the ridge just named, on the side next Alkali lake. 

"The 'lake,' as it is called, is rather a marsh than a lake. In winter it covers 
some two hundred acres, with about three feet depth of water. In the dry portion of 
the year it shrinks to some fifty or sixty acres, with a depth of only a few inches. The 
'soapy matter covers the entire extent with a depth of nearly four feet, the upper 
part, for a foot in depth, being in a state of semi-fluidity, the lower having the con- 
sistency of stiff mortar. Beneath this is a rather tenacious blue clay. This water was 
nearly as highly charged with solid matter as that of the lake in its highest summer 
concentration ; the proportion of borax to other substances being greater. The soapy 
or gelatinous matter, however, presents the greatest feature of attraction, being 
filled with the prismatic crystals of pure borax. They vary from a microscopic size 
up to the weight of several ounces. These crystals are semi-transparent, of a whitish 
or yellowish color. The form is an oblique rhomboidal prism, with replaced edges 
and truncated angles. In some cases the edges are l)evelled, and in others the unmodi- 
fied hexahedral prism exists. Beneath the gelatinous matter, and on the surface of the 
blue clay, and from sixteen to eighteen inches in it, crystals of a similar form, but 
much larger, are found. They weigh from an ounce, and seem to have been formed 
under different circumstances from the other crystals. My first impression was that 
they had been formed in the upper-stratum, and, sinking by their own gravity, had 
found their present position. An examination proves, however, that they were 
formed where they lie, as particles of the blue clay are found enclosed in their 
centers, which could not have been the case had the upper crystals been their nuclea, 
for no blue matter is ever found in them." 

Following this discovery, very vigorous prospecting for borax was 
carried on all through the desert regions of California. The famous de- 
posits of Death Valley were found in its playas in 1873, and less ex- 
tensive ones in the Searles Lake basin in 1862. A number of other 
localities, of lesser importance, were also recorded, even in the early 
days. 

Later (1882) the discovery was made of the immensely rich coleman- 
ite beds in Death Valley, along Furnace Creek; in the following year 
colemanite was found near Calico. Other important deposits of this 
mineral were discovered as time went on at Frazier Mountain, Ven- 
tura County (1898), Tick Canyon, Los Angeles County (1909), and in 
the Kramer region, Kern County (1913). These deposits were the 
principal source of borax until the discovery of kernite near Kramer 
(Boron) in 1927. This area, with Searles Lake, now (1964) produces 
practically all the borax in California. 



1966] HISTORICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SKETCHES 35 

Searles Lake Deposits 

Discovery of the Searles Lake borax deposits is described in the fol- 
lowing quotations from De Groot (3) p. 534 and H. S. Gale (13) p. 309. 

"This extensive and valnahle deposit i)f borax was discovered by John W. Searles, 
first observed sijins of this salt when crossinjc the marsh that now bears his 
name, in 1862, at which time he was engaged in prospecting for gold in the Slate 
Range, lying to the east. Being unacquainted with the nature of the substance, 
he did not at the time pay much attention to it. Afterward, however, when borax 
began to be an object of general inquiry, he recognized in some samples of this salt 
shown him the stuff he had noticed while crossing this alkaline flat several years 
before. Satisfied on this point, he at once took proper steps for locating such portions 
of the marsh as he considered most valuable." De Groot (8) p. 534. 

"The deposit is reported to have been located by J. W. Searles and E. M. 
Skillings on P>bruary 14, 1873. Borax was then obtained from the surface scrapings 
over the mud deposits about the margin of the main salt area * * * ." H. S. Gale 
(13) p. 309. 

In his report, H. S. Gale (13) pp. 271, 272, describes the geologic 
setting and character of the deposits as follows : 

"The most distinctive feature of this desert basin is the immense sheet of solid 
white .salts that lies exposed in its bottom. It is to this salt deposit that the name 
Searles Lake (Searles Dry Lake*) has generally been applied. So far as known at 
present the deposit is unique in this country in the variety of its saline minerals 

* * * " 

"The surface of the main or central salt deposit is a firm crust of salt crystals, 
mostly cubic halite, so hard and compact that it will support the weight of a * * * 
heavy drill rig. The surface shows a tendency to crack along irregular lines, so that 
it is divided into cakes or blocks. Flooding and re-solution tend to level inequalities 
that arise and the cakes and fractures are not so pronounced a feature here as they 
are on .some salt surfaces of similar type elsewhere." 

The following early description of the mineralogy of the Searles Lake 
deposits is also drawn from Gales 's report (13) pp. 296, 297 : 

"Of the commoner minerals characteristic of desert-basin salines generally, prob- 
ably the greater number are represented in the Searles Lake deposits, except ulexite, 
which is reported to be absent. 

"The deep well at Searles Lake, which was begun in 1SS7 and completed in 1896 

* * * has proved a veritable treasure house of unusual and entirely new minerals, 
including several that have never been found at any other place. The less soluble 
minerals were mostly found embedded in the muds or clay at the margin or under- 
lying the main saline deposit. Several are characteristically found in small but dis- 
tinctly formed crystals, many of which are unattached, as if they had grown within 
the mud. In places, however, layers of the crystalline material (as pirssonite) have 
become so consolidated as to present hard strata, offering considerable difficulty in 
drilling. Many of the specimens obtained as drill samples are fractured masses or 
even finely granulated material, but much perfectly preserved crystalline material 
has also been obtained in this way." 

A more recent and comprehensive study of Searles Lake gives a de- 
tailed stratigraphic section of the beds in the deposit, a map showing 
the location of drill-holes, a discussion of the mineralogy of the de- 
posit, and descriptions of the minerals present [G. I. Smith and 
Haines (3), pp. P5-P44]. The list of minerals reported from this de- 
posit, amended to December 31, 1964, is as follows : 

♦Footnote in G. I. Smith and Haines (3) p. P3 : "Searles Lake has been known by 
several other names which are used in older records. The commonest synonyms are 
Slate Range Lake, Alkali Flat, Borax Lake, and Searles Flat. The name Borax Lake 
has caused confusion in geologic literature because it is commonly not distinguished 
from Borax Lake in Lake County, California, which was the site of the earliest borax 
mining in the State." 



36 MINERAI.S OF CALIFORNIA |Bull. 189 

Adiilari:i ( orthoclase) Enibolite (San I'hillipsite 

Analcime Rprnardino Pirssonite 

Anhydrite County (S)) Quartz 

Aphthitalite Galeite RealKar ( N.R. ) 

Aragonite Gay-lussite Schairerite 

Borax Glauberite Soarlesite 

Burkeite Gypsum Sulphohalite 

Calcite Halite Sulphur 

Celestitp (San Hauksitt" IVepleite 

Bernardino Miraliilite Thenardite 

County (17)) Nahcolite Tinealconite 

Cerargyrite (Inyo Natron Trona 

County (S)) Northui)ite Tychite 
Dolomite 

In addition, colemanite, niter, and ulexite have been mentioned by 
hearsay from Searles Lake, but it is improbable that these minerals 
have as yet been identified. Celestite, cerargyrite, embolite, realgar, 
and gold have been reported "from Searles Lake." It is likely that 
these are from mines near Searles Lake, not from the lake itself. 

CRESTMORE 

The cement quarries at Crestmore, near Riverside in Riverside 
County, are the site of one of the famous mineral localities of the 
world. Here, in a contact metamorphie zone, have been found (through 
1964) more than 148 minerals, many of them new to science, some 
of them found nowhere else in California, and all in a complex 
grouping of species. Eakle (11), (15), in 1917, first described sys- 
tematically the Crestmore suite and thus initiated the study of this 
locality by mineralogists from all quarters of the globe, a study which 
has been pursued vigorously to the present day. 

The quarries form a cluster about the Chino and Sky Blue Hills 
(Wet Weather, Lone Star, Chino, Commercial) ; excavations have de- 
veloped these hills so that Sky Blue Hill stands as a narrow, fin-like 
projection above the surrounding country. The following abstract from 
Woodford (11), p. 333, outlines some of the early history of the 
locality : 

"A cement plant was started in 190!) at Crestmore, near Riverside. ">() miles ea.st 
of Los Angeles. Crystalline limestone and other rocks were (piarried from the twin 
Crestmore Hills for use in the manufacture of cement and for other purposes. 

"In 1914 Professor A. S. Eakle of the University of California called the attention 
of mineralogists to the numerous contact minerals which were being found at this 
promising locality. In the next two or three years Professor Eakle, Professor A. F. 
Rogers of Stanford, Mr. R. M. Wilke of Palo Alto, and especially Mr. L. .1. (^hilds 
of Rialto, collected many fine specimens of grossularite, diopside, wollastoiiite. ido- 
crase, and other minerals from the limestone contact zone. In 1914 Eakle and Rogers 
described the complex new mineral wilkeite, in 1917 Eakle published a general paper 
on the locality, and in 191S Rogers reported periclase. The first jieriod of good 
collecting came to an end in 1916 or 1917. 

"Important Crestmore discoveries were made by W. F. Foshag and E. S. Larsen 
in the twenties, including spurrite, thaumasite, centrallasite and the new minerals 
merwinite and plazolite. In the thirties M. A. I'eacock distinguished parawollastonite, 
using Crestmore material. Duncan McConnell rejiorted on members of the apatite 
group, recognizing ellestadite as a new end-member, and Larsen and Dunham de- 
scribed the new mineral tilleyite. 

"In 193cS new quarrying in the principal contact zone expo.sed not only minerals 
previously listed from the locality, but al.so many others. Part of the new finds are 
from the limestone contact and part are from the white dikes of intrusive pegmatite. 
A report on these finds was made in the American Mineralogist (Woodford, Crippen, 
and Garner, 1941)." 



1966] 



HISTORICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SKETCHES 



37 




Henry Garber Hanks was the first State Min- 
eralogist of California. He headed the State 
Mining Bureau (State Division of Mines and 
Geology today), from 1880-1886, and pub- 
lished contributions to California mineralogy 
as late as 1905. Hanks continued the mineral 
catalogs for the state as begun by Blake and 
described several interesting new California 
mineral localities. 

The mineral hanksite, described as a new 
mineral from California in 1884, was named in 
his honor. 



HENRY GARBER HANKS 
(1826-1907) 



George F. Becker was a pioneer California 
geologist, whose early studies defined the min- 
eralogy of California's mercury deposits. His 
paper "Geology of the quicksilver deposits of 
the Pacific Slope" is classic. He began his 
geological career in California on the Univer- 
sity of California (Berkeley) faculty in mining 
and metallurgy. His primary interest was in 
economic geology; he studied western mining 
regions as a member of the U. S. Geological 
Survey from 1879-1919. Photo courtesy U.S. 
Geological Survey. 




GEORGE FERDINAND BECKER 
(1847-1919) 



38 



MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA 



[Bull. 189 




GEORGE F. KUNZ 
(1856-1932) 



George Frederick Kunz was a distinguished self-taught 
mineralogist who, for more than a half-century, was the 
gem expert for Tiffany and Company, New York. He 
joined the U.S. Geological Survey staff in 1883, and pub- 
lished gem reports for the United States through 1909. He 
was a prolific writer, and his descriptions of gem finds in 
California, especially those from the pegmatites of San 
Diego and Riverside Counties, popularized California as 
a gem state. The gemstone kunzite, a variety of lilac 
spodumene, described from Palo, San Diego County, com- 
memorates Kunz's contributions to California mineralogy. 
Photo from American Mineralogist. 



Waldemar Lindgren was an economic geologist of in- 
ternational repute. Professor at the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology (1912-1933) and geologist for the U.S. 
Geological Survey, he early became expert on the Sierra 
Nevada Mother Lode. His paper "The Tertiary gravels of 
the Sierra Nevada of California" is a standard reference. 
In addition, he wrote many folios of the Geological Atlas 
of the United States on areas in the Sierra Nevada, and 
reported many early California mineral localities. Photo 
from American Mineralogist. 




WALDEMAR LINDGREN 
(1860-1939) 




As professor of geology at the University of California, 
Berkeley, appointed in 1892, Andrew Cowper Lawson 
pioneered geological and mineralogical studies in many 
parts of the state. He inspired and directed the education 
of some of the most distinguished professional workers in 
the geological and mineralogical fields. With George 
Davis Louderbock, he helped build one of the outstand- 
ing departments of geology and mineralogy in North 
America. Lawson's professional life spanned nearly seven 
decades, during which he described several new Califor- 
nia minerals. Lawsonite, a new mineral from the Cali- 
fornia Coast Ranges, was named in his honor. Photo 
courtesy A. O. Woodford. 



ANDREW COWPER LAWSON 
(1861-1952) 



1966] 



HISTORICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SKETCHES 



39 



Arthur S. Eakle was professor of mineralogy at the 
University of California (Berkeley) for many years. Eakle 
began publication on California minerals In 1901, and 
his contributions were continuous until his retirement. He 
described the new minerals vonsenite, foshagite, and 
probertite from California localities. Eakle revived in 1914 
the catalog "Minerals of California," first published by 
W. P. Blake in 1866, and continued by Honks in 1884 
and 1886. Eakle's volumes on California minerals ore the 
ones on which this Centennial Volume is based. Eakle 
also pioneered study of the world famous Crestmore 
quarries and first defined a large number of the nearly 
150 minerals reported from this locality. Phofo from 
Americon Mineralogisf. 




ARTHUR STARR EAKLE 
(1862-1931) 




Frederick Leslie Ransome was awarded the Ph.D. degree 
from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1896. Dur- 
ing his career with the U.S. Geological Survey, he pub- 
lished many papers on the mineralogy and economic ge- 
ology of California, in particular on the Mother Lode. In 
1923, Dr. Ransome was appointed professor of economic 
geology at the University of Arizona. He transferred in 
1927 to the faculty of the California Institute of Tech- 
nology, holding a professorship in economic geology at 
the time of his death. Ransome discovered and named the 
new mineral from California, lawsonite, in 1895. Phofo 
from Geographical Society of America. 



FREDERICK LESLIE RANSOME 
(1868-1935) 



Native son of California, Charles Palache received his 
Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1894. 
He joined the faculty of Harvard University in 1896, 
where he remained until his retirement in 1941. Author 
of many papers on mineralogy, and a crystallographer of 
note. Dr. Palache discovered many new minerals. His re- 
vision of Dana's "System of mineralogy" with Harvard 
coworkers, although incomplete at the time of his death, 
is the American standard for mineralogists. 




CHARLES PALACHE 
(1869-1954) 



40 



MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA 



[Bull. 189 



.f— 






^^Hnk JHI 



George Davis Louderbock was born in Cali- 
fornia, and educated at the University of Cali- 
fornia, Berkeley (Ph.D., 1899). After a brief 
interlude as professor of geology at the Uni- 
versity of Nevada (1900-1906), he joined the 
faculty at the University of California. He re- 
tired from the University officially in 1944, but 
was active until his death in University of Cali- 
fornia geological and , academic affairs. Dr. 
Louderbock served his native California with 
distinction in mineralogy, geology, seismology, 
and as a civic and academic leader. In 1907, 
he discovered and described the new and still 
rare mineral benitoite. Photo from American 
Mineralogist. 



GEORGE DAVIS LOUDERBACK 
(1874-1957) 



William Foshag had a distinguished career 
in mineralogy, terminated by his untimely 
death. He received his baccalaureate degree 
in chemistry from the University of California 
(Berkeley), but became fascinated by mineral- 
ogy through study of the Crestmore quarries 
with Professor Arthur Eokle. Foshag received 
his Ph.D. in geology in 1923, also from the 
University of California, and served as Curator 
of Mineralogy in the U. S. National Museum 
starting in 1919. Foshag described plazolite 
(1921), schairerite (1931), krausite (1931), and 
burkeite (1935), all new minerals from Califor- 
nia, in addition, he contributed substantially to 
the knowledge of other California mineral lo- 
calities and mineral suites through his writings 
that included more than 30 titles. The mineral 
foshagite, discovered in California and de- 
scribed in 1925, was named in his honor. 
Photo from American Mineralogist. 




WILLIAM FREDERIC FOSHAG 
(1894-1956) 



1966] 



HISTORICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SKETCHES 



41 



Hoyt S. Gale was educated at Harvard Uni- 
versity and upon graduation almost immedi- 
ately began geological studies for the U. S. 
Geological Survey (1903). His early assign- 
ments v/ere almost exclusively in the west, 
where he became involved in the pre-World 
War I search for nitrate, potash, and borax, 
in which his mineralogical interest grew. His 
papers on the saline lakes that followed the 
Pleistocene glacial lake sequences in the Mo- 
jave Desert and Basin Ranges, defined the his- 
tory of mineral suites in such basins os Searles 
Lake. Gale maintained his interest in saline de- 
posits, even after he resigned from the Geolog- 
ical Survey in 1920 to enter the petroleum 
industry. His lost two contributions, published 
in 1946 and 1951, dealt with borate deposits 
at Kramer in Kern County, and saline deposits 
of Bristol Dry Lake in San Bernardino County. 
Galeite, a new mineral discovered at Searles 
Lake, in 1955, commemorates his contributions 
to California mineralogy. Photo from Geolog- 
ical Society of America. 




HOYT STODDARD GALE 
(1876-1952) 




Dr. Austin Flint Rogers was professor of 
mineralogy at Stanford University for 40 years 
(1902-1942). He contributed 53 papers on 
minerals from California localities. He described 
the new minerals kempite and sanbornite and 
defined the crystallographic and mineralogic 
characteristics of many minerals from California 
localities. Photo, from American Mineralogist. 



AUSTIN FLINT ROGERS 
(1877-1957) 



42 



MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA 



[Bull. 189 



E. S. Larsen (Jr.) was born in Oregon but 
received his academic degrees from the Uni- 
versity of California, Berkeley (Ph.D. in 1918), 
after he had already distinguished himself as a 
mineralogist. Following service on the staff of 
the Carnegie Institution of Washington, and 
the U. S. Geological Survey, he became pro- 
fessor of petrography at Harvard University, 
He was widely acclaimed for his studi^ of 
properties of minerals. He described several 
new minerals from California, particularly from 
Searles Lake and Crestmore. Dr. Larsen's 
method for determining the age of minerals in 
botholiths from radioactive isotopic components 
of rarer accessory minerals is a standard to- 
day. Pbofo from American Mineralogisf. 




ESPER SIGNIUS LARSEN 
(1878-1961) 




Adolph Knopf, born in San Francisco in 1882, 
completed his academic preparation at the Uni- 
versity of California, Berkeley, (Ph.D., 1909), 
after earning earlier degrees also at that uni- 
versity. His first published contribution, in 1905, 
dealt with the geology and mineralogy of Min- 
eral King. In 1920 he joined the faculty at 
Yale University, where he taught until his first 
retirement in 1951. Moving back to California, 
he joined the geological faculty of Stanford 
University, an affiliation which continued until 
his death. 

His association with the U. S. Geological 
Survey took him widely over North America, 
but he regularly contributed to California's 
geological and mineralogical knowledge by 
field and laboratory reports extending almost 
to the close of his distinguished career. Dr. 
Knopf's papers on the Mother Lode (1929) and 
the eastern Sierra Nevada (1918) are classics. 



ADOLPH KNOPF 
(1882-1966) 



1966] 



HISTORICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SKETCHES 



43 



Vigorous proponent of mineral development 
and collection in California, Woodhouse joined 
the faculty of the Santa Barbara State College 
in 1938, after a career that included mine 
management and mineral exploration. In his 
years as a member of the faculty of Santa 
Barbara State College and the University of 
California, Santa Barbara, from v/hich he be- 
came Professor Emeritus in 1955, Woodhouse 
built one of the best private collections of min- 
erals in the United States. He fostered min- 
eralogical study in the Santa Barbara Museum 
of Natural History, taught stimulating courses 
in geology and mineralogy, and has been a 
personal benefactor of his department, his stu- 
dents, and the science of mineralogy. He dis- 
covered many minerals new to California. The 
mineral woodhouseite was named in his honor. 




CHARLES DOUGLAS WOODHOUSE 

(1888- ) 




Professor of geology at Pomona College since 
1916, Dr. Woodford was born and reared in 
southern California. Versatile student of Pro- 
fessor A. C. Lawson, under whom he earned 
his Ph.D. in 1923, he returned to his alma 
mater, Pomona College, to found the depart- 
ment of geology. Dr. Woodford has followed 
in his mentor's footsteps and has inspired many 
students to enter mineralogical and geological 
careers. Dr. Woodford made substantial con- 
tributions to mineralogical studies of the fa- 
mous Crestmore quarries, and to the mineralogy 
and geology of metamorphic minerals. 



ALFRED OSWALD WOODFORD 

(1890- ) 



44 



MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA 



[Bull. 189 



Waldemar T. Schaller was born in California 
in 1882 and received his baccalaureate degree 
from the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. 
Schaller's published record of California min- 
erals exceeds that of any mineralogist to date. 
He discovered and described the minerals boot- 
hite (1903), saimonsite, sickerite, and stev/artite 
(1912), inyoite and meyerhofFerite (1914), kern- 
ite (1927), and he defined and clarified many 
aspects of California mineral localities. He was 
a staff member of the U. S. Geological Survey 
as chemist and mineralogist for over 50 years, 
and received the highest awards the field of 
mineralogy can confer. 




WALDEMAR T. SCHALLER 
(1882-1967) 




Adolf Pobst is professor of mineralogy at 
the University of California, Berkeley, where 
he has been a staff member since 1927. After 
a baccalaureate degree from the University of 
Illinois, Pabst reecived his Ph.D. from the Uni- 
versity of California in 1928. He has published 
widely on the mineralogy of California, and 
has been responsible for identifying several new 
minerals. He was the author of the 1938 
volume of "Minerals of California". In 1965, 
he was honored by American mineralogists as 
the recipient of the Roebling Medal for dis- 
tinguished contributions to crystallography and 
mineralogy. 



ADOLF PABST 
(1899- ) 



1966] HISTORICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SKETCHES 45 

From 1942 througli 1964, many new minerals have been found in 
the course of continued collecting, and additions Avill probably con- 
tinue as additional study proceeds. 

The following generalizations concerning the occurrence have been 
drawn largely- from Woodford (11) and C. Wayne Burnham (1). 
Woodford in particular has published a complete list of minerals 
found here up to 1941, and a full bibliography, while Burnham has 
discussed the probable conditions of formation of the minerals. 

The contact metamorphic rocks occur between magnesian marbles 
and quartz diorite, and between the same marbles and a later quartz 
monzonite porphyry. The marbles occur as two roughly lenticular 
bodies, 400 to 500 feet in thickness, both composed of predazzite 
(brucite marble) and coarsely crystalline calcite, and are essentially 
free from silica, alumina, iron, and alkalies. The contact effects of the 
quartz diorite are minor, resulting in a narrow zone with diopside, 
wollastonite, and garnet (sometimes also epidote). In the course of this 
intrusion, the originally magnesium portions of the marbles were 
converted to periclase-rich rocks which in turn became predazzite 
rocks (with the brucite as pseudomorphs after periclase). 

The quartz monzonite intrusive, on the other hand, was intensively 
contaminated by assimilation of the marble ; the contact aureole is 
much more in evidence than that of the quartz diorite, and may be as 
much as 50 feet in thickness. In this aureole are found most of the 
complex mineral assemblages. Here is shown a well-defined zonal dis- 
tribution of mineral groups, listed outward from the intrusive : 
1) mainly garnet, with lesser wollastonite and diopside; 2) .mainly 
idocrase ; 3) primarily monticellite, but characterized by the presence 
of a considerable variety of minerals such as clinohumite, cuspidine, 
ellestadite, merwinite, perovskite, spurrite, tilleyite, and a host of 
calcium silicate-hydrates. In this region there is a tendency for the 
indefinite development of subzones : a silica-poor, calcite-rich outer 
portion (clinohumite, spurrite, etc.) and a silica-rich inner portion 
(merwinite, cuspidine, etc.). Textural relationships indicate also a se- 
quence in which the more highly metasomatized assemblages have 
been formed at the expense of the less highly metasomatized. To quote 
the conclusion of C. Wayne Burnham (1), p. 879: 

"Available evidence indicates that: (1) the contact metamorphic a.ssemblages 
at Crestmore and their zonation are largel.y the compositionally controlled products 
of .silica, alumina and iron metasomatism of relatively pure magnesian limestones; 
(2) temperatures of 625° C. or higher were reached prior to the introduction of silica 
into the present monticellite-zone rocks; and (3) the so-called "high temperature" 
assemblages, such as monticellite, spurrite and melilite, formed directly from the 
magnesian marbles without the intervention of "lower temperature" steps that involve 
diopside, wollastonite, and grossularite. Therefore it is proposed that contact meta- 
morphism at Crestmore should be viewed as progressive metasomatism with con- 
sequent decarbonation at elevated temperatures rather than as progressive decarbona- 
tion attendant simply upon rising temperature." 

The following is a list, complete through December 31. 1964, of 
known minerals from the Crestmore quarries. The list does not include 
new but as yet incompletely described species. 



46 



MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA 



Bull. 189 



9 

10, 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
l.'j, 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 
32. 

# 

33. 
34. 

35. 
36. 
37. 
38. 
39. 
40. 
41. 
42. 
43. 
44. 
45. 
46. 
47. 
48. 
49. 
50. 
51. 
52. 

53. 



Actinolite 

Afwillite 

Alhite 

Allanite 

(Treanorite) 

Andradite garnet 

Andesine 

Aiifflesite 

Apatite 

Apophyllite 

Aragonite 

Ar.senopyrite 

Augite 

Axinite 

Azurite 

Bayldonitt' 

Biotite 

Bornite 

Brucite 

Bultfonteinite 

Bytownite-anorthitc 

Calcite 

Ca.ssiteritH 

Centrallasite 

Cerussite 

Chalocite 

Chalcopyrite 

Chlorite 

Chondrodite 

Chrysocolla 

Clinofhlore 

Clinohuniite 

Clinozoisite 

Crestmoreite 

(see Tobermorite) 

Cuprite 

Cuspidine 

(Custerite) 

Danburite 

Datolite 

Deweylite 

Diallage 

Diopside 

Dolomite 

Ellestadite 

Epidote 

Ettringite 

Fluoborite 

Forsterite 

Foshagite 

Galena 

Gehlenite 

Geikielite 

Gonna rdite 

Graphite 

Greenockite (var. 

Xanthochroite) 

Grossiilarite 

garnet 



54. 'Gypsnm 

( Selenite) 

55. Hawleyite 

56. Hematite 

57. Hemimorphite 

58. Hillebrandite 

59. Hornblende 

60. Huntite 

61. Hydromagnesite 

62. Hydrotroilite 

63. Hypersthene 

64. Idocrase 

( Ve.suvianite) 
Jurupaite (see 
Xonotlite) 

65. Kaolinite (?) 

66. Labradorite 

67. Laumontite 
(Leonhardite) 

68. Limonite 

69. Liillingite 

70. Ludwigite ( ?) 

71. Magnesioferrite 

72. Magnesite ( ?) 

73. Magnetite 

74. Malachite 

75. Manganite ( ?) 

76. Margarite 

77. Melilite 

78. Merwinite 

79. Microcline 

80. Mimetite 

81. Molybdenite 

82. Monticellite 

83. Montmorillonite 
Mordenite (see 
Ptilolite) 

84. Mottramite 

85. Muscovite 

86. Nasonite 

87. Nekoite 

88. Nontronite 

89. Oligoclase 

90. Opal (common 
and hyalite) 

91. Orthocla.se 

92. Paigeite (?) 

93. Pargasite (?) 

94. Periclase 

95. Perovskite 

96. Phillipsite 

97. Phlogopite 

98. Plazolite 

99. Plombierite 

100. Prehnite 

101. Pseudowollastonite 
(Parawollastonite) 

102. Ptilolite 
(Mordenite) 



103. 
104, 
105. 
106. 
107. 
108. 
109. 
110. 
111. 
112. 



113. 
114. 
115. 
116. 
117. 
118. 
119. 
120. 
121. 
122. 

lis! 

124. 
125. 
126. 
127. 
128. 
129. 
130. 
131. 
132. 

133. 
134. 
135. 

136. 

137. 
138. 
139. 
140. 
141. 

142. 
143. 
144. 



145. 
146. 
147. 

14.S. 
149. 



Pyrite 

Pyromorphite 

Pyrrhotite 

Quartz 

Realgar 

Riversideite 

Rutile 

Scapolite 

Scawtite 

Scolecite 

Schorl (see 

Tourmaline) 

Sepiolite 

Serendibite 

Sericite 

Serpentine 

Siderite 

Smithsonite 

Sphalerite 

Sphene 

Spinel 

Spurrite 

Sternbergite 

Stibnite 

Stilbite 

Strontianite 

Szaibelvite 
Talc (?) 

Tetrahedrite 

Thaumasite 

Thomsonite 

Thorite (var. 

Orangeite) 

Tilleyite 

Tobermorite 

Tourmaline 

(brown) 
Tourmaline 

(var. Schorl) 

Tremolite ( ?) 

Uralite 

Uvarovite 

Vermiculite 

Vesuvianite 

(see Idocrase) 

Wightmanite 

Wilkeite 

Wollastonite 

Woodfordite 

(see Ettringite) 

Xanthophyllite 

Xonotlite 

Zinnwaldite 

Zircon 

Zoisite 

(var. Thulite) 



PEGMATITE GEM AREA OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 

Over a considerable area in southern California, extending from 
San Jacinto Mountain to the Mexican line, the pegmatite dikes are in 
many cases distinguished by a relatively high concentration of lithium, 



1966] HISTORICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SKETCHES 47 

with the result that many lithium minerals are present, such as spodu- 
mene, amblygonite, lepidolite, and the lithia-rich variety of tourmaline. 
This variety of tourmaline is typically more or less transparent, color- 
less, blue, pink, or green, and when clear becomes of value as a source 
of gem material. A relatively small percent of the pegmatites in this 
area are lithia-bearing, but even so, there are a considerable number 
which have produced gem tourmaline, sometimes in fairly large amount. 
Associated with the tourmaline are other gem minerals, such as beryl, 
topaz, kunzite (the transparent lilac spodumene) and occasionally clear 
garnet, and some of the not inconsiderable gem production has come 
from these varieties. 

Minerals new to California and occasional new species are still 
being reported from the pegmatites even though mining activity has 
been curtailed for nearly half a century. 

In general, the pegmatites are more or less irregular dikes in form, 
intruded into igneous rocks of the granodiorite type, or into schists 
closely associated with such rocks. They are not large, at least in the 
case of the gem-bearing dikes. Fifteen feet is probably near the maxi- 
mum thickness, and many are considerably narrower. Mineralogi- 
cally, they are composed mainly of quartz, albite and microcline, with 
minor amounts of garnet, muscovite or biotite, and occasional concen- 
trations of lithia minerals. Those carrying gem minerals are often 
characterized by cavities, in which quartz, tourmaline, topaz, etc., have 
had opportunity to crystallize freely. It is suggested by various writers 
that these gem-bearing dikes have been re-worked by later lithia-rich 
solutions, after their original intrusion as common pegmatites. In a few 
cases, notably at Pala, Rincon, and Ramona, the pegmatites show a 
curious "line" structure, which gives the effect of stratification roughly 
parallel to the dike walls. This pattern has not been satisfactorily ex- 
plained as to its origin, but it is produced by the concentration of tiny 
garnet crystals in sheets in a fine-grained facies of the dikes. 

The details of individual pegmatites have been well treated by Kunz 
(24), and the following has largely been quoted or abstracted from 
this source. 

The gem-producing localities are as follows: near the summit of the 
San Jacinto Range, in Riverside County ; Coahuila Mountain, Aguanga 
Mountain, Pala, Mesa Grande, and Ramona; also minor occurrences 
east of Julian, and in the Chihuahua Valley. In addition, gem-quality 
garnet was found in the Jacumba area. 

"The first discovery of colored gem-tourmaline in the State goes back as far as 
1872, when Mr. Henry Hamilton, in June of that year, obtained and recognized this 
mineral in Riverside County, on the southeast slope of Thomas Mountain. These 
colored tourmalines, now found at a number of points, were not encountered by Pro- 
fes.sor Goodyear, who particularly noted the black tourmalines in the pegmatite veins, 
in his geological tour through San Diego County, in the same year, referred to above ; 
but his reconnaissance was a little south of the gem-tourmaline belt. Some mining 
Avas done at this point, and fine gems were obtained. In the course of years, three 
localities were opened and more or less worked in this vicinity ; so that in the au- 
thor's report on American gem-production for 1893, the following statement appeared : 

" 'Tourmalines are mined at the California gem mine, the San Jf^cinto gem mine, 
and the Columbian gem mine, near Riverside, California. These three raining claims 
cover the ground on which the tourmaline is found, and are situated in the San 
Jacinto range of mountains in Riverside County, California, at an altitude of 6500 
feet, overlooking the Hemet Valley and Cahuila Valley, and 27 miles from the rail- 



48 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA [BuU. 189 

road. The formation in which the crystals are found is a vein from 40 to 50 feet wide 
runninR almost north and south through the old crystalline rocks which make up the 
mountain range. The vein in some places consists of pure feldspar, or else feldspar 
with quartz, in others all mica, and in others rose-cpiartz and smoky quartz. The 
tourmalines vary in size from almost micrograins to crystals 4 inches in diameter. 
They are most plentiful in the feldspar, l)ut are found in other portions of the vein, 
sometimes in i)ockets and .sometimes isolated. The larger crystals generally have a 
green exterior and are red or pink in the center. Some of the crystals contain green, 
red. pink, black, and intermediate colors; others again are all of uniform tint — red. 
pink, colorless, or blue. Associated with the tourmalines are rose-quartz, smoky 
quartz, asteriated quartz, and fluorite, and some of the quartz was penetrated with 
fine, hair-like crystals of tourmaline, strikingly like a similar occurrence of rutile.' 

"It may .seem remarkable that this locality of gem-tourmalines should have been 
unrecorded in the earlier lists of California minerals given by such authorities as 
Professor Blake and Mr. Hanks in the reports of the State Mining Bureau for 1882 
and 1884. But the parties who knew of the occurrence did not make it public for 
some years, juul the earlier specimens were taken out quietly and their locality not 
divulged. The writer had positive knowledge as to the facts, however, and possesses 
a fine specimen obtained prior to 1873. 

"The second important discovery in this region was made, or at least announced, 
twenty years later, in 1802. by Mr. C. R. Orcutt — the great locality of lithia minerals 
at I'ala. Some allusions to red tourmaline from iincertnin sources in this ])art of the 
State had appeared before, but nothing very specific. In the list of California minerals 
prepared by Prof. William P. Blake in 1880-82, and also quoted in that of Mr. 
Henry G. Hanks, published in 1884, references are made to the recent discovery of 
rubellite. for the first time in the State, a.ssociated with lepidolite. 'in the San 
Bernardino range, southern (California.' The general description is precisely that of 
the I'ala si)ecimens. but the location is very indefinite. Mr. Hanks refers to the same 
a.ssociation under lepidolite, and mentions a specimen in the State Mineral Bureau, 
from San Diego County, and remarks that 'this may at some future time be found 
profitable to extract lithium from it' — a prediction abundantly verified now. Mr. 
Orcutt. however, was the first to make the locality known. It was noted by the 
author in his report for 1893 where the folbnving account was given : 

" 'Mr. Charles Russell Orcutt has announced a new and remarkable occurrence of 
pink Tourmaline in lepidolite, similar to that of Rumford, Maine. 12 miles south 
of Temecuhi. near San Lus Rey River, in San Diego County., the southern county of 
California, and it lias already become celelirated from the abundance and beauty of 
the specimens yielded, as much as twenty tons having been sent East for .sale.' 

"In regard to the early history of this locality, Mr. F. M. Sickler. who grew up 
in the vicinitx" and has ex])lored for mines .nnd minerals there.-ibout a great deal, 
relates the following curious and somewhat romantic circumstances, in an article in 
the Kansas City -Jeiceler and Optician, of May, 1!>04. He states that the Pala 
lepidolite deposit had very long been known to the Indians, Itut that it was first 
brought to the iu)tice of the whites by an Indi;in deer-huutcr named Vensuelada, 
He found the si)ot while hunting and broke off i)ieces showing the beautiful pink 
rubellite in its nuitrix of pearl-coio;-ed le])idolite, and brought them to Pala. Henry 
Magee, an old miner and i)rospector, took the rtibellite crystals for cinnabar, and 
located the i)roperty as a (juicksiher mine. Failing to get any mercury from it, he 
nevertheless believed that the peculiar mineral must have some value, and sent 
samples to \arious chemists, but no one recognized it as a lithia comimund of any 
iiniiortance. Weary of his poor success, ^Nlagee g;ive it up and failed to do the annnal 
as,sessment work on the claim. Latei-, one Thomas Alvarado relocated the i)roi)erty 
as a marble (puirry I iNIagee claimed that some interest in the mine was rightfully 
due to himself, imt Alv.-irado refused to give him any. Upon this, Magee pointed 
eastward to the ridge now called Ileriart Mountain, and said. 'If this stuff is of any 
vahie, I know where there are tlionsands of tons of it over there." Magee died, how- 
ever, and his secret died with him ; but certain it is that several mines, with 
lepidolite aiul tourmaline, have lately been located on that very ridge. * * * 

"In Pala, a little west of Smith's Mountain, in the Peninsula range, * * * a ledge 
of lepidolite containing rubellite has been traced for over a mile. It ciuisists 
of a coarse granite, i)enetrating a norite rock, and including masses of pegmatite. 
Small garnets occur in the gr.-mite, and black touruialiiu-. with ;i little green tourma- 
liue. The leiiidoHte ai)pears in the southern portion, finally forming a definite vein 
which at one point is twenty yards wide. The rubellite is chiefiy in clusters and 
radiations, several inches in diametfr, also occasionally as single crystals, and the 



1966] HISTORICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SKETCHES 49 

specimens of deep pink tourmaline in the pale lilac mica are remarkably elegant. 
About eighteen tons were mined during 1892. 

"The next important discovery was made six years later, in 1898 ; this was the 
wonderful Mesa Grande locality, some 20 miles southeast of Pala. There are various 
stories about the Indians having known it for many years, and the most familiar 
account follows : 

"The first discovery in San Diego County is thought to have been made about 
twenty-five years ago [1880], when some Indian children, at play in a camp near 
what is now Mesa Grande postoffice, picked up an oddly shaped stone, six-sided 
like a quartz crystal, about three inches long and a little thicker than a common 
lead-pencil. On cleaning it off and rubbing it with a bit of hide, it was seen to be of 
a beautiful blue color, bright and partially clear, almost like a sapphire. The natives 
had no idea of its nature, but were attracted by its beauty and singularity. Subse- 
quently, other highly colored stones of like character — some blue, others green, others 
red — were picked up in the same vicinity by Indians and cowboys, but no one 
realized that they had any actual value. * * * 

"The fact that some of the highly colored crystals are found in Indian graves in 
the vicinity, suggests that they may have been known and valued perhaps for a very 
long time. The ledge in which they occur is exposed by erosion on the side of the 
mountain ; and the natives had certainly learned where to find crystals, and had 
them in their possession for some years before the whites knew anything about them. 
It is even said that they had learned to do a little rude blasting, and thus to reach 
the cavities in which the minerals occur. It was not until 1898, however, that this 
now famous locality was made known to the world. * * * 

"For several years, these above noted were the only gem mines of this region, and 
their product was highly esteemed. But in 1902 began a succession of new discov- 
eries that have attracted great attention. On Pala Chief Mountain and on Heriart 
Mountain began to be found not only fine-colored tourmalines, but the novel and 
remarkable gem-spodumene, designated as kunzite. This last-named mineral was 
found by Mr. Frederick M. Sickler, at which is now known as the White Queen 
mine, on Heriart Mountain, east of Pala, early in 1902 ; it is claimed, indeed, that 
he had obtained one or two pieces some time before, but it was not identified. In 
July 1902, Mr. Sickler visited San Diego and Los Angeles, and showed specimens to 
local jewelers and collectors, none of whom recognized it. The first determination 
was made by the writer, from specimens sent by Mr. Sickler early in 1903. 

"The great Pala Chief mine, which has given its name to the middle one of the 
three ridges or mountains at Pala, and has yielded magnificient tourmalines and the 
largest and finest gem-spodumene crystals, was located in May, 1903, by Frank A. 
Salmons, John Giddens, Pedro Peiletch, and Bernardo Heriart. The actual discov- 
erers were probably the two last named, the Basque prospectors who had already 
been working and locating mines with the two Sicklers, father and son, on Heriart 
Mountain, the ridge a little to the east. Mr. Salmons has been the principal oper- 
ator, however, of this very notable mine." 

In connection with the tourmaline mines at Mesa Grande, the follow- 
ing interesting bit of information has been supplied by Mr. John C. 
Snideeor of Santa Barbara. He states that the Big and Little Himalaya 
mines were bought in the early days (year unknown) by the grand- 
father of Mrs. Kong, a Santa Barbara gift shop owner. In 1912 or 1913 
some of the tourmaline was shipped to China to be used in making 
"Empress of China" perfume bottles. As a matter of fact, much of 
the tourmaline mined in California found its way to China for this or 
similar purposes. Mrs. Kong sold the properties in 1951. 

CERRO GORDO 

The Cerro Gordo Mining district lies near the summit of the Inyo 
Range, 5^ miles by air line and 8 miles by a steep mountain road from 
Keeler, on the shore of Owens Lake. The mine was discovered by 
Mexican prospectors in the early sixties (1861 or 1866), but no great 
production was reached until the area was taken over by Americans in 
1869. During the next eight years the total production was estimated 



50 



MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA 



[Bull. 189 



at anywhere from $6,500,000 to $20,000,000, with the probable truth 
somewhat near the lower figure. In this period, the bonanza silver-lead 
ores were worked out, and mining lapsed until the discovery of extensive 
zinc-carbonate ores about 1911, which led to a revival of activity. It is 
interesting to note that in 1871-72 a small steamer on Owens Lake ( ?) 
carried bullion from the Swansea smelter across to the south shore, 
thus saving a long trip around by road, R. W. Raymond (6) p. 21. The 
region consists of a series of westward dipping Carboniferous rocks 
(mainly limestone) with intrusive dikes of diorite and monzonite, 
nearly parallel to the bedding. An underlying mass of monzonite 
porphyry outcrops to the north of the mines. At Cerro Gordo itself, the 
mines are the Union and Santa Maria. Other nearby mines in the 
district include the Ignacio and Ventura, to the west and south. 

The primary ores were mainly argentiferous galena, with a very 
little dark sphalerite. The rich ores worked in the early days consisted 
of lenticular masses of massive cerussite, 5 or 6 feet across, in the lime- 
stone. These masses were concentrically banded, and usually had a 
small core of unaltered galena. The zinc from the sphalerite was con- 
centrated as large masses of relatively pure smithsonite, also in the 
limestone. In one primary vein, tetrahedrite and pyrite were prom- 
inent. 

The uncommon minerals for which the area is noted were formed by 
the oxidation of the original minerals. Some of these secondary min- 
erals, such as linarite, azurite, and caledonite are bright colored and 
showy. Others, including some of the rarer varieties, are less conspicu- 
ous. A good description of the geology and minerals of the area may be 
found in A. Knopf (5) and (8), C. W. Merriam (1). 

The following list includes all species recorded from the Cerro Gordo : 



Anglesite 

Anhydrite 

Argentite 

Atacamite 

Auriclialcite 

Azurite 

Barite 

Bindheimite 

Calcite 

Caledonite 

Cerargyrite 

Cerussite 



Chrysocolla 

Duftite 

Galena 

Halloysite 

Hemimorphite 

Hydrozincite 

Leadhillite 

Limonite 

Linarite 

Lironconite ( ?) 

Malachite 

Mimetite 



Mixite 

Plumbogummite ( ?) 

Pyrite 

Quartz 

Silver 

Smithsonite 

Sphalerite 

Stibnite 

Tetrahedrite 

Willemite 

Wulfenite 



The following list includes occurrences in the other mines of the Cerro 



Gordo Mining District : 

Bournonite 
Cervantite 
Dufrenoysite 
Fhiorite 



Goethite 
Greenockite ( V) 
Jamesonite 



Pyromorphite 
Realgar 
Stromeyerite 
Tetradymite 



Cinnabar and metacinnabar were wrongly reported from this Cerro 
Gordo mine through confusion with another Cerro Gordo mine in San 
Benito County. Probably realgar likewise is incorrect. 

Some of the minerals supposedly from this locality may have been 
from some distance away, since the smelter to which Cerro Gordo ore 
was shipped treated ores from outside the Cerro Gordo Mining District ; 
specimens of these may easily have been confused with true Cerro 
Gordo material. 



1966] 



HISTORICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SKETCHES 



51 




Ernest William Chapman was born October 
9, 1894, at Dunstable, Massachusetts. After 
serving in World War I, he moved to the 
Pacific Northwest and finally to Southern Cali- 
fornia in 1920. Mr. Chapman had an intense 
interest in rocks and minerals; in 1923 he 
started a collection of minerals, specializing in 
crystals. He was the second president of the 
Mineralogical Society of Southern California, 
and was very active in the organization of the 
California Federation of Mineralogical Societies, 
of which he was president from 1939 to 1940. 
Mr. Chapman was an enthusiastic and enjoy- 
able speaker and therefore was much in de- 
mand by the mineral societies. Phoio co*jrfesy 
of Mrs. John J. Mahanna. 



ERNEST WILLIAM CHAPMAN 
(1894-1947) 



William Burton Pitts was born in Thomasville, 
Georgia, in 1867. For ten yeors he worked 
as a prescription clerk in an Atlanta drug 
store, then sold mineral water and salts from 
Germany's Carlsbad Springs. Traveling in Cali- 
fornia, Pitts' purchase of a bloodstone started 
him on the career which earned for him the 
affectionate title of "Dean of Amateur Lapi- 
daries". In 1920, a Smithsonian Institution bro- 
chure on gem stones stirred him to duplicating 
the material pictured. His famous collection of 
flats, cabochons, rough gem material and trans- 
parencies was donated to the California Acad- 
emy of Sciences in Golden Gate Park, San 
Francisco, California. 

Until 1958, "Uncle Billy" Pitts alternated 
his time between the California Academy of 
Sciences (where he spent nearly every day of 
the week making his famed transparencies) 
and his native state of Georgia. He was an 
honorary member of the California Federation 
of Mineralogical Societies and honorary cura- 
tor of gem minerals at the California Academy 
of Sciences. Phofo courtesy California Acad- 
emy of Sciences. 




WILLIAM BURTON PinS 
(1867-1959) 



52 



MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA 



[Bull. 189 




John Renshaw was born in Prttsburgh, Penn- 
sylvania, October 14, 1888. He studied min- 
eralogy under Professor Edwin V. Van Amringe 
at the Pasadena Junior College (now Pasadena 
City College) and attended the famous Van 
Amringe field trips. During a field trip to the 
Natural Soda Products Company, Keeler, Cali- 
fornia, the host and plant manager, David B. 
Scott, suggested the formation of a local min- 
eral club. Influenced favorably by this sug- 
gestion, Renshaw and Van Amringe called a 
meeting at the Pasadena City Library June 23, 
1931. John Renshaw was elected president and 
on September 1, 1931, with 175 people pres- 
ent, a constitution was adopted. This group be- 
came known as the Mineralogical Society of 
Southern California and has the distinction of 
being the first organized mineral society in the 
State of California. 



JOHN RENSHAW 
(1888-1951) 



Henry H. Symons was born in 1894, and 
spent his school days at Butte, Montana. He 
earned his mining engineering degree from 
Montana School of Mines at Butte in 1922, 
although his college career was interrupted by 
service in the Armed Forces in V/orld War I 
and by work on a surveying crew for the 
Milwaukee Railroad. The year after he re- 
ceived his degree he came to California, where 
he held several jobs, including draftsman and 
miilmon before joining what is now the Cali- 
fornia Division of Mines and Geology in Feb- 
ruary, 1928. Mr. Symons is the author of many 
professional works, including papers on mining 
equipment, mineral statistics and fluorescent 
minerals. In 1937, as o member of the Northern 
California Mineralogical Society (now San 
Francisco Gem and Mineral Society, Inc.), he 
published the first issue of "Mineral Notes and 
News" for the newly organized California Fed- 
eration of Mineralogical Societies, and acted 
as editor of this magazine until 1939. Henry 
Symons retired from the California Division of 
Mines and Geology in February 1960. 




HENRY H. SYMONS 
(1894- ) 



1966] 



HISTORICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SKETCHES 



53 



Edwin Verne Van Amringe was born in Oak- 
land, California, on August 24, 1899. He was 
educated in Oakland public schools and re- 
ceived a bachelor's degree in chemistry (1921) 
and a master's in education (1923) from the 
University of California. In 1924 when the 
Pasadena Junior College (now Pasadena City 
College) was founded, he became a faculty 
member to teach industrial chemistry and later 
geology. His comprehensive field-trip program 
at the college earned for him the respect of 
many students over the years, who profited 
greatly through intensive, informative teaching. 
In 1931, Mr. Van Amringe, with other amateur 
and professional minerologists, organized the 
Mineralogical Society of Southern California, 
the first on the west coast. After serving as 
Secretary, Bulletin Editor, and President, he 
was selected to Honorary Life Membership. 

In 1951, he was appointed Chairman of the 
Department of Physical Sciences, at Pasadena 
City College, but continued his annual Easter 
field trips until his death in 1956. 




EDWIN VERNE VAN AMRINGE 
(1899-1956) 




PAUL VANDEREIKE 
(1871-1956) 



Paul VanderEike was born in Wisconsin on 
October 21, 1871. He earned on A.B. degree 
from Minnesota State University in 1911, and 
took further work in geology at that institution. 
From 1908 to 1911 he was Superintendent of 
the State Prison Night School, Stillwater, Min- 
nesota. 

In 1911, Mr. VanderEike became a faculty 
member of the Kern County Union High School 
District, Bokersfield, California. He also served 
OS teacher and administrator for Bokersfield 
College, when a department of the high school 
for junior college students was established in 
1913. 

Mr. VanderEike was proprietor of a county 
newspaper from 1903-1906 and owned a 
flower shop, 1920-21. He had considerable 
interest in mineralogy and was editor and pub- 
lisher of "Mineral Notes and News," a monthly 
magazine for "rockhounds" and "pebblepups" 
issued periodically for some years. Mr. Vander- 
Eike died August 1, 1956. 



54 



MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA 



[Bull. 189 




MAGNUS VONSEN 
(1879-1954) 



Magnus Vonsen was an amateur mineralogist 
whose interests led him to prepare himself on 
his own and by association with Professors 
Arthur Eakle of California, and Austin Rogers 
of Stanford, to become highly proficient in 
mineralogy. A long time and ardent collector, 
Vonsen was ^Specially successful in finding 
mineral localities and unusual specimen ma- 
terials in the northern Coast Ranges. Most of 
his life was spent in Petaluma. He had a 
special interest in borate minerals, and was 
the discoverer of the borate mineral from 
Riverside County that was named in his honor 
by Professor Eakle. He also first discovered 
teepleite in Clear Lake, and reported several 
new localities of pumpeilyite and lowsonite in 
the glaucophone schists of the Coast Ranges. 
Mr. Vonsen had one of the fine privote mineral 
collections in the United States, donated at 
his death to the California Academy of Sci- 
ences, Son Francisco. Photo courfesy American 
Mineralogisf. 



John Melhase, B. S., E. M., was born in 
Hannibal, Missouri in 1885. After graduating 
in 1908 from Oregon State College, he en- 
tered the service of the Southern Pacific Com- 
pany, where his career covered a lifetime of 
exemplary service. Beginning in 1912, he spent 
time in mineral surveys of railroad lands and 
oil fields geology throughout the Coast States, 
Arizona, Nevada, Utah and New Mexico. This 
work culminated in 1929 with his appointment 
as Chief of the San Francisco branch, which 
had headquarters in Houston, Texas. In 1923, 
he became Assistant Geologist at the main office, 
a position he held until his death. 

In 1938, John Melhase became the first pres- 
ident of the newly formed California Federa- 
tion of Mineralogicol Societies. He was a 
charter member of the Northern California 
Mineral Society (now The San Francisco Gem 
and Mineral Society, Inc.) and contributed 
much to the advancement of several of the 
early Son Francisco Boy Area groups. While 
doing geological field work, John Melhase 
died suddenly at Redding, California. 



NO PHOTO 
AVAILABLE 



JOHN MELHASE 
(1885-1938) 



HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CALIFORNIA 
FEDERATION OF MINERALOGICAL SOCIETIES 

By Eleanor M. Leaknkd* 

The history of earth science organizations, in general, and in Cali- 
fornia in particular, is one of rapid growth. Whether a group is 
labeled gem, mineral, lapidary, geology, or fossil, the keen, inquiring 
interest among the members is the same. 

Although mineral clubs had been formed as early as 1885 (Brook- 
lyn Institute Mineral Club and Spencer Blair Mineralogical Society, 
Philadelphia) and 1886 (New York City Mineral Club) in the eastern 
United States, it was not until 1931 that the first society in California 
was organized. This distinction belongs to the Mineralogical Society 
of Southern California in Pasadena, which was organized June 23, 
1931, with the John Kenshaw as the first president and Edwin V. Van 
Amringe the first secretary. 

Prom the beginning of earth science organizations in California, 
the membership rolls of the majority of societies, particularly the 
urban ones and those close to educational facilities, contained the names 
of professional men and women willing to share their wealth of min- 
eralogical knowledge with the "amateurs." From the records, it is 
evident that they gave unstintingly of their time and selves to de- 
velop good programs and classes in the related earth sciences and 
gemology and lapidary. How well they succeeded in laying good foun- 
dations is reflected in the many strong societies now geared to provid- 
ing learning and sharing opportunities in nearly every phase of earth 
sciences or lapidary. 

The phenomenal growth from 1931 to 1964 is reflected in the fol- 
lowing figures: California now has over 200 gem and mineral societies 
with a total membership of nearly 16,000. The smallest and newest 
societies have fewer than 50 members and the largest in the state has 
more than 675 ! 

Representatives of the several California societies met on June 16, 
1935, a day which had been declared "Mineral Day" at the San Diego 
exposition, to formulate the development of a California Federation 
of Mineralogical Societies. E. W. Chapman, president of the Mineral- 
ogical Society of Southern California, was chairman. The objective was 
"a meeting planned in anticipation of the formation of a State Organ- 
ization and an annual conference of the Mineralogical Societies of the 
Pacific Coast States." On January 4 and 5, 1936, the first convention of 
the Mineralogical Societies of California was held at the American Le- 
gion Club House in Riverside. Seven societies sent representatives, who 
organized The California Federation of Mineralogical Societies. The 
eight charter societies and their inception dates are : Mineralogical Soci- 
ety of Southern California (June 23, 1931, at Pasadena) ; Los Angeles 
Mineralogical Society (September 23, 1932, at Los Angeles) ; Orange 
Belt Mineralogical Society (April 6, 1933, at San Bernardino) ; San 
Diego Mineral Society (March 1934 at San Diego) ; West Coast Mineral- 
ogical Society (May 1934 at Fullerton) ; Northern California Mineral 
Society — now The San Francisco Gem and Mineral Society, Inc. 
(January 16, 1935, at San Francisco) ; Southwest Mineralogists (Janu- 

*Federation Director and Past President, San Francisco Gem and Mineral Society. 

(55) 



56 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

ary 1935, at Los Angeles) ; Kern County Mineral Society (March 18, 
1935, at Bakersfield). The present day results of federation and society 
activities is a lasting, growing tribute to those far-sighted individuals ! 
Annual conventions were held with the various societies serving as 
hosts until war conditions in 1942 necessitated the cancelling of the 
show scheduled at Pasadena with the Mineralogical Society of Southern 
California as host. At that time, the earth science organizations num- 
bered about 30, the majority being affiliated with the California Federa- 
tion. 

The "Golden Bear Nugget" purchased by the Federation for $300 
became the organization's insignia on April 20th, 1940. Since 1952 
the Golden Bear Nugget has been on loan to the Division of Mines 
and Geology in San Francisco where it has been on public display, 
except during the annual Federation shows where it is displayed in 
its own special case. 

John Melhase, a consulting mining engineer, mineralogist, and geol- 
ogist for the Southern Pacific Railway Company and a member of the 
board of directors of the Northern California Mineral Society, was the 
first California Federation of Mineralogical Societies president. Mr. 
Melhase lectured extensively among the early societies and wrote many 
articles on mineralogy. The April 1940 issue of The Mineralogist Maga- 
zine, edited by Dr. H. C. Dake of Oregon, was a Memorial Issue for 
Mr. Melhase, who died April 9, 1938. But a greater memorial to his 
intense interest in mineral societies and federations can be found in 
the Federation Bulletin which he suggested. William B. Pitts (Uncle 
Billy), formerly Honorar}"- Curator of Gem Stones at the California 
Academy of Sciences in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, and a 
charter and honorary member of the Northern California Mineral So- 
ciety and the East Bay Mineral Society, assisted John Melhase with 
the Bulletin. C. W. Marwedel Company (Norton abrasives agent) 
printed and distributed the Bulletin to the member societies of the 
Federation for a year free of charge for the privilege of including 
advertising. Henry H. Symons, Mining Engineer (retired) with the 
California Division of Mines and Geology and also a member of the 
San Francisco group, issued, in March 1937, Mineral Notes and News, 
Bulletin No. 1 for the California Federation. He acted as editor until 
April 1939 when Paul Vander-Eike, 1937 president of the Kern County 
Mineral Society, took over the editorial duties. Paul Vander-Eike con- 
tinued to do this through the war years until, editorship and teaching 
proving to be too much, he gave up teaching and devoted his time to 
editing the magazine. It was subsidized in June 1949 by the Federa- 
tion, which then became its sole owner. Paul Vander-Eike resigned as 
editor in June 1950 and the job was given to Don MacLachlan and 
Ralph Dietz as co-editors under a contract with the Federation officers 
that took effect June 1952. at which time the magazine became known 
as Gems and Minerals. At the 1964 annual meeting of the California 
Federation of Mineralogical Societies held at Vallejo. Don MacLachlan 
and the Federation signed a contract whereby GEMEC Corporation 
and Don MacLachlan became sole owners of Gems and Minerals with 
the original and better benefits accruing to the California Federation. 

The current list of honorary members of the California Federation 
of Mineralogical Societies includes Dr. Austin Flint Rogers (deceased), 



1966] CALIFORNIA FEDERATION OF MINERALOOICAL SOCIETIES 57 

William B. Pitts (deceased), Paul Vander-Eike (deceased), Orlin Bell 
(deceased), Charles S. Knowlton (deceased), Victor Arciniega, Car- 
roll F. Chatham, Don MacLachlan, Dorothy Craig, and Vincent 
Morgan. 

It has often been asked what are the values of a federation of min- 
eralogical societies or of an individual society. Intangibles are somewhat 
hard to define and are understood only by those who are firm believers. 
But a hard-to-convince questioner can't argue with the worth of tangi- 
bles such as those offered by the many hard-working federation com- 
mittees — many a new society has been helped during the formative 
period of growth, worthwhile programs of speakers and slides have been 
provided, society bulletin editors and field trip chairmen liave learned 
much and given more through yearly working symposiums, show chair- 
men have found their chores made easier through help offered when 
asked for, lists of mineral, lapidary, and fossil judges have aided 
societies having competitive sliows. societies and individuals are given 
the opportunity to help others through the American Federation of 
Mineralogical Societies Scholarship Fund ; yearly Federation shows 
with competitive and noncompetitive exhibits have upgraded individual 
and society collections to a point beyond that of amateur standing, 
society officers and chairmen have found help and encouragement from 
their Federation counterparts, safety programs and anti-litter cam- 
paigns have gained wide respect for all Federation members from the 
general public, an all-inclusive insurance program has been offered to 
societies wishing to take advantage of excellent savings, a nomenclature 
committee has done much to improve the education of society members 
and those who attend their annual shows; and last, but of much im- 
portance, mutual respect and working agreements have been effected 
with the California Division of Mines and Geology, the California 
Academy of Sciences in San Francisco, the various junior and senior 
State Colleges and Universities, the Los Angeles County Museum, the 
Santa Barbara County Museum, California Institute of Technology, 
local schools, museums, and libraries, local officials, newspapers, and 
radio and TV stations. 

The member societies and the California Federation of Mineralogical 
Societies are nonprofit organizations organized to disseminate knowledge 
of mineralogy and the earth sciences and to maintain the highest 
l)ossible standards of conduct at all times. Every member is fully aware 
of the public image and strives toward the betterment of societies and 
federations. 

In many instances the amateur has contributed much by his field 
work and discoveries that has helped the professional worker as well as 
the amateur. Many new minerals, and minerals new to the State of 
California, have been found by the amateur, and identified coopera- 
tively for him by professional staffs. During the war, mineral hobbyists 
aided materially in the discovery of vital mineral deposits. 

The steady growth of the mineral societies is a tribute to the faith and 
foresight of the early founders ; very few societies have ceased to func- 
tion. To the contrary, all have a history of almost spectacular member- 
ship increase, and boast of men and women from all walks of life, age, 
and intellect with the common bond of a thirst for knowledge and an 



58 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA | Bull. 189 

eager desire to create beauty from the vast mineral storehouse provided 
in the State of California. Many an amateur has progressed to an almost 
professional stage of mineralogical knowledge as attested by those who 
are members of the Mineralogical Society of America and the more 
than professional ability of those who hold degrees in the American 
and British Gemological Institutes. Even the smaller societies conduct 
classes for their members in lapidary, silversmithing, intarsia, micro- 
mounting, gemology, thumbnailing. mineral identification, geology, 
siglit identification, jewelry design, fossil identification, carving, and 
faceting. There are also junior activities in many of the aforementioned 
classes. 

Competitions and general pride in excellence of achievement have 
created groups of people in many societies attesting to the fact that 
mineral societies occupy a most enviable place in our culture today. 
This so-called "hobby" is one of the highest creativity and knowledge, 
and the many active members are secure in the belief that gem and 
mineral groups will continue to grow ! 



DESCRIPTION OF CALIFORNIA MINERALS AND 
MINERAL LOCALITIES * 

ADAMITE 
Basic zinc arsenate, Zn2As04(OH) 

Inyo County: 1, Adamite occurs as small, colorless equant crystals 
on fracture surfaces of limestone at Chloride Cliff in the Amarp:osa 
Range (T. 30 N., R. 1 E., S.B.). Crystals were measured by Murdoch 
(5) p. 811. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Colorless, yellow and green crystals of 
Adamite were reported from the Mohawk mine, Crippen (p.c. '51). 

Santa Cruz County: 1, Adamite has been identified in the mineral 
suite from the Pacific Limestone Products (Kalkar) quarry, Santa 
Cruz, Chesterman (p.c. '64). 

AENIGMATITE 
A titano-silicate of iron and sodium, Na4(Fe2*,Fe^*,Ti)]3Si]2042 

Sonoma County: 1, Aenigmatite is found as minute prismatic pheno- 
crysts in lavas (see. 13, T. 7 N., R. 8 W., M.D., and sec. 17, T. 7 N., 
R. 7 W., M.D.), Rose (p.c. '50). 

AFWILLITE 
Hydrous calcium silicate, Ca3(SiO.OH)2-2H20 

Riverside County: 1, Crystals and massive afwillite occur in veins in 
complex contact rocks composed largely of merAviuite, gehlenite, spur- 
rite, calcite, etc., on the 910' level. Commercial (|uarry, Crestmore, 
Switzer and Bailey (8) p. 629, Murdoch (30) p. 1347. ^ 

ALABANDITE 
Manganese sulphide, MnS 

Manganese occurs usually as oxides or oxygen compounds, but the 
sulphide is found occasionally as a vein mineral in metallic sulphide 
deposits, especially with sulphides of copper. 

San Diego County: 1, Specimens of alabandite have come from this 
county, perhaps from the Julian Mining District (N.R. ). 

Santa Clara County: 1, Alabandite was one of the manganese min- 
erals in the boulder at Alum Rock Park, associated with hausmannite, 
tephroite, and others, A. F. Rogers (27) p. 206. 

ALLANITE— Orthite 

Basic ca Icium/cerium/ 1 a nth anbm/sodium/akiminum/ iron/manganese/beryl- 
lium/magnesium silicate, (Ca,Ce,La,Na)2(AI,Fe,Mn,Be,Mg)3(Si04)30H 

Treanorite is considered identical with allanite. 

Allanite is a minor constituent of granitic rocks. As such, it is re- 
ported frequently in microscopic proportions from many localities. The 
listings that follow do not represent every report in the literature of 
California. Some of the early references may actually be chromite, 

• Species first discovered in California are marlced by an asterisk and followed by 
date of first publi.shed description. Species first discovered in California which 
have been subsequently discredited are noted and a dagger (t) placed before the 
asterisk. 

(59) 



60 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA | Bull. 189 

ilmenite, or magnetite since allanite is often confused with other 
common minerals, and validation of the accuracy of identification in 
published reports has not been systematically undertaken in the com- 
pilation of this volume. 

Calaveras County: 1, Microscopic brown crystals of allanite were 
found on the 300-foot level of the Ford mine, half a mile east of San 
Andreas, A. Knopf (11) p. 35. 

Inyo County: 1, Coarse-grained allanite occurs in a pegmatite, about 
4500' ft. S. 30° W. of Jackass Spring, on Hunter Mt., Ubehebe quad- 
rangle, McAllister (4) p. 52. 

Kern County: 1, Allanite is reported as a minor constituent of 
pegmatite dikes in the Kern River uranium area, MacKevett (2) pp. 
191, 197. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Abundant rough tabular crystals and grains 
of allanite as much as 2 to 3 inches in size occur in a pegmatite with 
zircon and apatite, in Pacoima Canvon (sec. 17, T. 3 N., R. 13 W., 
S.B.), Neuerburg (2) p. 833. P. F. Patchick (2) p. 237 gives detailed 
location diagrams. 2, Allanite, probably of clastic origin, has been ob- 
served in the Pelona schist, Ehlig (1) p. 170. 

Riverside County: 1, Microscopic crystals and grains of allanite occur 
in the gneiss of the Eagle Mountain iron deposit, Harder (6) p. 28. 
2, Allanite is found with serendibite and associated minerals in the 
new City quarry, 2 miles south of Riverside, Richmond (1) p. 725, 3, 
Treanorite occurs in tabular, black crystals at Crestmore in pegmatites, 
Woodford et al. (10) and in black needles, Murdoch (p.c. '54). 

Sail Bernardino County: 1, Allnnite occurs at Mountain Pass, Olson 
et al. (3) p. 38. 2, Allanite is found in tlie border of a quartz mass in 
the Pomona Tile quarry on the road between Old Woman Spring and 
Yucca Valley. Hewett and Glass (3) p. 1048. 

San Diego County: 1, Allanite is found as black masses in quartz 
veins about 2 miles northwest of Pala on the hill about half a mile 
west of the road, Schaller (p.c. '25). 2, Large rough crystals of allan- 
ite occur in a pegmatite on the N. S. Weaver Ranch 3 miles north of 
Pala, Wilke (p.c. '36). 

Santa Barbara County: 1, Irelan (4) p. 47 reported allanite from 
Santa Barbara and the Channel Islands, CDMG (10974). 2, Allanite 
is reported from an unspecified localitv in the county, L. G. Yates 
(2) p. 11. 

Tulare County: 1, Allanite in pegmatite, with rose quartz, occurs on 
the D. F. Gassenberger Ranch, northeast of Exeter, CDMG (19659). 

Tuolumne County: 1, Talus blocks from a pegmatite at the foot of 
Eagle Peak, on the northwest side of Yosemite Valley, carried small 
amounts of allanite, Ries (1) p. 229. 2, Crystals as much as 15 mm in 
size occur in a pegmatite in Lang Gulch, Hutton (3) p. 233. 3, Talus 
blocks of the Ragged Peak scree carry crvstals up to 45 mm in size, 
ibid. (3) p. 236. 

ALLEGHANYITE 

Basic manganese silicate, Mn5Si205(OH)2 

Alleghanyite may be identical with tephroite. 

Amador County: 1, Alleghanyite occurs with tephroite and other 
manganese minerals at the Germolis prospect near Fiddletown (SE ^ 



196()J DESCRIPTIONS ()1 

sec. 9, T. 7 N., R. 11 E., M.D.), Hewett et al. (6) p. 4!). 2, Alleghanyite 
is reported from the Lubanko prospect (SE 1 ser. 10, T. 7 N., R. 11 E., 
M.D.), Hewett et al. (6) p. 49. 

Santa Clara County: 1, A. F. Ro<=:ers (21 ) j). 44:-{ reports this mineral 
from the Alum Rock Park manganese boulder. The identity of alle- 
ghanyite with tephroite is suggested by C. S. Ross and Kerr (2) p. 13. 

ALLOPHANE 

Amorphous silica alumina gel, AljO, -35% -810222 to 28% 

San Bernardino County: 1, Allophane occurs in the veins of the Cali- 
fornia Rand silver mine, Ilulin (1) p. 97. 

San Luis Ohispo County: 1, A specimen has come from Arrovo 
Grande (N.R.). 

ALSTON ITE—Bromlite 
Barium calcium carbonate, BaCa(C03)2 

Mari])osa County: 1, Alstonite reported from the sanbornite locality 
near Incline, may be witherite, A. F. Rogers (39) p. 171. 

ALTAITE 

Lead telluride, PbTe 

Altaite is found associated with hessite, petzite, and gold tellurides in 
a few localities. 

Calaveras County: 1, The Stanislaus mines on Carson Hill carry large 
masses of altaite with calaverite and hessite (T. 2 N., R. 13 E., M.D.), 
Genth (5) p. 312. 2, Altaite is also reported from the Morgan mine, 
Hanks (12) p. 68, and 3, from the Frenchwood mine near Robinson's 
Ferry with other tellurides (sec. 25, T. 2 N., R. 13 E., M.D.), Hanks 
(12) p. 388. 

Madera County: 1, W. W. Bradley (29) \). 311 reports altaite about 
200 yards east of the Chiquito trail and half a mile north of Fish 
Creek, in the North Fork Mining District. 

Nevada County: 1, Altaite is one of the minerals at the Providence 
mine, Nevada City, occurring in bunches in the Ural vein intergrown 
with native gold and associated with quartz, pyrite, and galena, Lind- 
gren (12) p. 117. 2, The ore of the Champion mine carries altaite, W. 
D. Johnston, Jr. (3) p. 27. 3, From the 5000-foot level of the Empire 
mine, in Grass Valley, W. D. Johnston, Jr. (4) p. 44 reports the pres- 
ence of altaite. 

Tuolumne County: 1, Hanks (12) p. 68 reports the occurrence of 
altaite in the Golden Rule mine near Tuttletown. 2, Crystals cemented 
by gold came from the Barney Pocket mine. Sawmill Flat near Colum- 
bia, Eakle (1) p. 324. 3, Clusters of crystallized gold and altaite in 
parallel grouping were found in the Bonanza and O'Hara mines near 
Sonora, Sharwood (5) p. 26. 4, Altaite is reported from the Adelaide 
mine by Hanks (12) pp. 68, 388, and 5, from the Sell mine (sec. 30, 
T. 2 N., R. 15 E., M.D.) as gray crystals on crystallized gold, Foshag 
(p.c. '35). 

ALUNITE 
Basic potassium aluminum sulphate, K Al3(S04)2(OH )4 

Calaveras Countij: 1, Small cfvstals are found at Railroad Flat, W. 
W. Bradley (32) p. 565. 



62 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Colusa Couniii: 1, Massive alunite can-yin*: <zold was collected at 
Sulphur Creek, "Woodhouse (p.c. '46). 

Inyo County: 1, Soda-beariiifr alunite has been analyzed from a de- 
posit in the Funeral Rano:e, Wherrv (1) p. 83. 2, A specimen, CDMG 
(20833), comes from the Cactus Ran<?e, W. W. Bradley (26) p. 85. 

Keryi County: 1, Abundant striufjers of coarsely crystalline alunite 
were collected by J. W. Bradley (p.c. '45) at Midclle Buttes, near 
Mojave. 

Lake County: 1, Some alunite is reported at Sulphiu" Bank, D. E. 
White and Roberson (2) ]). 406. 

Mariposa County: 1, Alunite occurs as a constituent of a (piartzite at 
Tres Cerritos, southwest of Indian Gulch. H. W. Turner (19) p. 424. 

Mono County: 1, iMassive pink and brown alunite occurs with anda- 
lusite at the andalusite deposit in the White Mountains, 7 miles east of 
Mocalno, north of Bishop, Kerr (3) p. 629. An analysis by A. Rauten- 
berg. Lemmon (p.c. '36), shows that a flesh-colored material is natro- 
alunite. 2, Alunite is a rare constituent of the clavs in Little Antelope 
Valley, Cleveland (1) p. 19. 

Orange County: 1, Alunite occurs as chalky nodular masses associated 
with grypsum in schist, exposed in a road cut at San Juan Capistrano 
Point, Woodford (p.c '36). 

San Bernardino County: 1, Alunite is abundant with krausite and 
other sulphates in the ".sulphur hole", below the old borax mines. 
Calico Hills, Foshaof (19) p. 352. 2, Minor tjreenish-yellow crusts occur 
on limestone in a barite deposit southAvest of Lead Mountain (T. 10 N., 
R. 1 W., S.B.). Murdoch (p.c. '45). 

Shasta County: 1, Isolated crystals and aErg:reo:ates of alunite are 
common in the muds of the hot sprinfrs south of Lassen Peak, A. L. 
Day and Allen (1) p. 120. C. A. Anderson (8) p. 242. 

Sonoma County: 1, Alunite is common at The Geysers, Vonsen (6) 
p. 290; 2, it is also abundant in Hooker Canyon (E ^ see. 1, T. 6 N., 
R. 6 W., M.D.), in a breccia, and fillin*]: seams up to several feet in 
Avidth, Laizure (9) p. 56. 

ALUNOGEN 
Hydrous aluminum sulphate, Al2(S04)3-18H20 

Alameda County: 1, White powder at the Alma mine, Leona Heights, 
is alunogen, Sehaller (1) p. 216. 

Inyo County: 1, Alunoaren occurs in fibrous masses with epsomite in 
clay at the mine of the American Mao;nesium Company near Ballarat, 
Hewett etal. (1) p. 96. 

Marin County: 1, Fibrous tufts of alunoiren are found with gypsum 
in shale at the road tunnel near Fort Barry, Vonsen (p.c. '32). 

Mariposa County: 1, Fibrous masses of alunogen occur with graphite 
on quartzite at the P and L mine, 2^ miles south of El Portal, AV. W. 
Bradley (28) p. 343. 

Nevada County: 1, Blue alunogen occurs in the Providence mine, 
Nevada City, Lindgren (12) p. 120. 

Placer County : 1, W. AV. Bradley (29) p. 107 reports alunogen from 
the Kilaga mine, 3 miles east of Lincoln. 

San Luis Ohispo County: 1, A white powder found near Paso Robles 
is alunogen, Schrader et al. (1) p. 42. 



1966 J DESCUIPTIONS 63 

Shasta County: 1, Iiicrustatioiis of aluno^en appear around the hot 
springs in the Mount Lassen area, A. L. Day and Allen (1) p. 118. 

Sonoma County : 1, Aluno^ren is present in abundance at The Geysers, 
near Cloverdale, E. T. Allen and Day (2) p. 45, Vonsen (6) p. 290. 

AMARANTITE 
Basic hydrous iron sulphate, Fe3*S04(OH ) -SHjO 

Riverside County: 1, Amarantite occurs with magnesium copiapite in 
the Santa Maria Mountains near Blythe, E. S. Dana (6) p. 612, 
Schairer and Lawson (1 ) p. 242. 

AMBER 
An oxygenated hydrocarbon 

Ventura County: 1, The occurrence of amber in minor amounts in 
Eocene beds on the northeast side of Simi Valley has been described 
by Murdoch (1) p. 309. 

AMBLYGONITE 
Lithium sodium aluminum fluophosphate, (Li,Na) AlPO^CFjOH) 

Amblygonite is an important lithia mineral, but only a few deposits 
are known in the state. 

Riverside County : 1, Amblygonite is found at the Fano mine (sec. 33, 
T. 6 S., R. 2 E., S.B.), on the north side of Coahuila Mountain in a 
pegmatite with kunzite, tourmaline, and lepidolite, Kunz (24) p. 122, 

(25), p. 968. 

San Bernardino County: 1, White, massive amblygonite is reported 
from Turtle Mountain, W. W. Bradley (26) p. 106. 

Sayi Diego County: 1, A large mass of white massive amblygonite 
occurred at the Stewart mine, Pala, in pegmatite carrying rubellite 
and lepidolite, Kunz (18) p. 259, (24) p. 125, Schaller (8) p. 122. 2, 
Amblygonite occurs also in the Caterina mine and others near Pala, 
Kunz (24) p. 86. 3, On Aguanga Mountain, at the Mountain Lily mine, 
amblygonite is associated with cassiterite and blue tourmaline, CDMG 
(18625). 4, Some white cleavable fragments of amblygonite were found 
at the Victor mine at Rincon, A. F. Rogers (4) p. 217. 5, Kunz (24) 
p. 135 reported amblygonite from the Himalaya mine at Mesa Grande. 
6, The mineral occurs with lepidolite at the Royal mine, on the north- 
east slope of Granite Peak, (probably NW \ sec. 18, T. 13 S., R. 5 E., 
S.B.), Kunz (23) p. 314. A further reference for the Pala region is 
Jahns and Wright (5) pp. 19, 40. 

AMMONIOJAROSITE 
Basic ammonium iron sulphate, N H4Fe3*3(S04)2(OH )j 

Lake County: 1, Ammoniojarosite has been tentatively reported from 
the Sulphur Bank mercury deposits, with buddingtonite and other 
minerals, Erd et al. (6) p. 833. This is the first report of this mineral 
in California. 

AMPHIBOLES 

In this group are a series of complex silicates of magnesium, iron, 
calcium, sodium and aluminum, or varying combinations of these ele- 
ments. They are very common rock-forming minerals, and are found 



64 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

in both igneous and metamorphie rocks. They are so widespread that 
only the most interesting: occurrences can be mentioned. 

Validity of varietal names in this group is sometimes subject to 
debate. 

The identification of the varieties of amphibole in the older litera- 
ture was often based on physical inspection. Confirmation of identifica- 
tion requires optical, chemical, or crystallographic data. Validation of 
identification in locality reports has not been undertaken in the entries 
given below. 

ACTINOLITE 
Basic silicate of calcium magnesium and iron with fluorine, 

Ca2(Mg,Fe2*5[Si302j](OH,F)2 

Alameda and Contra Costa Counties: 1, Actinolite schists are com- 
mon in the region around Berkeley and San Pablo. Boulders have been 
found with radiating crvstals up to 10 cm in length, Hanks (12) p. 69, 
Blasdale (1) pp. 328. 333. 

Kern County: 1, Actinolite schists are widespread in the Rand forma- 
tion, Hulin (1) p. 24. 2, Crystals of actinolite have been found in a 
contact deposit a quarter of a mile east of Hobo Hot Springs, associated 
with molybdenite and garnet, W. D. O'Guinn (p.c. '35). 

Madera County: 1, Coarsely crystalline actinolite occurs with epidote 
and garnet on Shadow and Johnston Creeks at the Iron Mountain 
magnetite deposit, in the Ritter Range, Erwin (1) p. 67. 

Marin County: 1, Actinolite and lawsonite are found in the schists 
half a mile east of Reed Station, F. L. Ransome (3) p. 311, and 2, 
large nests of crystals of actinolite occur in talcose rocks east of 
Sausalito Harbor, J. D. Dana (2) p. 634. 

Mendocino County: 1, Large and beautiful prisms of actinolite were 
found in a road cut on the Cloverdale Highway, 3 miles northwest of 
Pieta Creek, Vonsen (p.c. '45). 2, Good actinolite prisms in large 
masses occur near Potter Valley (N.R.). 

Riverside County: 1, Actinolite occurs at Crestmore in secondary 
veins and as a weathering product of other minerals, Woodford (11) 
p. 350. 

San Benito County: 1, lYctinolite is o)ie of the vein minerals at the 
benitoite locality, near the headwaters of the San Benito River, Louder- 
back and Blasdale (6) p. 360. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Actinolite has been found in the Hillis 
marble quarry 17 miles east of Victorville, The Mineralogist (3) p. 20. 
2, The mineral is found in the gravels at Cajon Pass, as pebbles of 
actinolite schist, Webb (p.c. '45). 3, An additional locality in alluvium, 
near Wrightwood, is reported by Berkholz (16) p. 21. 

Siskiyou County: 1, Massive bladed actinolite occurs near the mouth 
of Black Gulch on the South Fork, Salmon River, Goudey (p.c. '36). 

ANTHOPHYLLITE 
Basic silicate of magnesium and iron with fluorine, (Mg,Fe^*)7Sig022(OH,F)2 

Anthophyllite is a metamorphie mineral that occurs in schists and 
gneisses. 

Contra Costa County: 1, Fibrous masses of anthophyllite occur in the 
schists near San Pablo, and the mineral has been analyzed by Blasdale 
(Dp. 343. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 65 

Riverside County: 1, Anthophyllite occurs with tremolite and actino- 
lite in the Eagle Mountains (N.R.). 

San Bernardino County: 1, Hanks (12) p. 67 reports anthophyllite 
in the Slate Range. 

Shasta County: 1, The mineral at the Stock asbestos mine, 3 miles 
east of Sims Station, is apparently anthophyllite asbestos, E. Sampson 
(2) p. 317. 

Trinity County: 1, At Coffee Creek, 1 mile north of Carrville, dark, 
soda-rieh anthophyllite occurs as cross-fiber asbestos veins up to 5 cm 
in width in serpentine, Laudermilk and Woodford (1) p. 259. 

CUMMINGTONITE 
Basic silicate of magnesium and iron, (Mg,Fe2+)7Si8022(OH)2 

Cummingtonite occurs in brown fibrous or lamellar masses. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Cummingtonite has been reported from 
Daggett, CDMCx (11381)." 

HORNBLENDE 

Including edenite, pargasite, basaltic hornblende 

Basic silicate of calcium/sodium/magnesium/iron/aluminum with fluorine, 

Ca2Nao-,(Mg,Fe2^)3-5(Al,Fe3-)2-o[Si4-8Al2-o022](0,OH,F)2 

Hornblende is a very common constituent of igneous rocks, and of 
gneisses, and schists. In only a relatiyely few places does it occur with 
particular mineralogical uniqueness. 

Calaveras County: 1, Coarsely crystalline rock, made up almost ex- 
clusively of hornblende, has been found in considerable volume at 
Carson Hill, Moss (1) p. 1011. 2, A large mass of hornblende rock 
occurs just west of Vallecito on the road to Angels Camp, Wilke 
(p.c. '36). 

El Dorado County: 1, Large cleavage masses of black hornblende 
occur with orthoelase, sulphides, and axinite at the old Cosumnes cop- 
per mine near Fairplay (N.R.). 

Fres7w County: 1, Pargasite in fine light-brown prisms occurs in 
crystalline limestone with spinel and diaspore, in the Twin Lakes 
region on the trail from the easternmost of the Twin Lakes to Potter 
Pass, Chesterman (1) p. 274. 

Inyo County: 1, Hornblende occurs in large prismatic crystals up 
to 2.5 inches long in pegmatite near Little Dodd Spring, Panamint 
Range, McAllister (4) p. 52. 

Mono County: 1, Long, slender crystals of hornblende have been 
found with tridvmite in cavities of lava 8 miles west of Bridgeport, 
Schaller (8) p. 128. 

Plumas County: 1, The variety edenite is one of the constituents of 
the plumasite at Spanish Peak, A. C. Lawson (5) p. 225. 

Riverside County: 1, Good, dark-green ciystals of hornblend^e up to 
1 inch in length were found in a pegmatite just west of the Jensen 
quarry, 4 miles west of Riverside, J. W. Clark (p.c. '36). 2, Horn- 
blende, common variety, and pargasite are reported from the Crestmore 
quarries sometimes in large crystals, Woodford (11) pp. 351-252. Ural- 
ite is also reported by J. W. Daly (1) p. 638. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Poorly formed crystals of basaltic horn- 
blende are found in the volcanic ash deposits at Siberia crater, near 
Amboy. Occasionally these hornblendes form the cores of small volcanic 



66 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA | Bull. 189 

bombs, Brady and Webb (1) p. 406. 2, Pargasite occurs in coarsely 
crystalline masses in a diorite peprniatite, 4 miles southeast of Camp 
Irwin in the Mojave Desert (SE :} Sec. 11. T. 13 N.. R. 3 E., S.B.), 
R. D. Allen and Kramer (3) p. 527. 

Siskiyou County: 1, Hornblende occurs as prominent black crystals 
in andesite at Sugar Loaf. Diller et al. (15) p. 61. 

Tidare County: 1, C. Dnrrell (4) p. 160 reports hornblende crystals 
up to several inches in length, in a hornblende gabbro near Woodlake 
(sec. 9, T. 17 S., R. 26 E.. M.D.). and 2, crystals up to 10 inches in 
Yokohl Valley (NW^ sec. 17. T. 18 S., R. 28 E., M. D.). 

NEPHRITE 

The variety nephrite is tremolite or actinolite in compactly fibrous 
form, and is very similar in appearance to jadeite. 

Marin County: 1, Veins and lenses of nephrite have been found in 
massive serpentine at Massa Hill (sec. 19, T. 5 N., 7 W., M.D.), 
Chesterman (3) p. 3, (4) p. 1517. 

Mariposa County: 1, Nephrite jade has been found over a consid- 
erable area in the vicinity of Bagby, between David and Flyaway 
Gulches, Anon. (50) p. 21. ' 

Mendocino County: 1, Nephrite occurs in boulders at Williams Creek, 
about 6 miles east of Covelo, Chesterman (p.c. '51). 2, Nephrite with 
croeidolite and jadeite has been reported from boulders in the stream 
bed, on the north fork. Eel River, near Mina, Anon. (12) p. 2. 

Monterey County: 1, Good jade (luality nephrite has been found in 
serpentine in the western Santa Lucia Range, between Point Sur and 
Salmon Creek Ranger Station, mostly as rolled pebbles and boulders, 
A. F. Rogers (47) p. 1941. 2, Beach boidders and nodules of nephrite 
in mvlonite occur at Plaskett and Willow Creeks (sees. 19, 31. T. 23 S., 
R. 5 E., M.D.), Crippen (2) pp. 1-14. 

Riverside County: 1, Dark green nephrite occurs associated with 
magnetite and epidote at the contact between dolomite and quartz mon- 
zonite porphyry in the westerii })art of the Eagle Mountains, Chester- 
man (p.c. '64). 2, Nephrite, semi-opaque and jet-black to green in color, 
has been reported from the Storm Jade Mt. mines. Lost Mayan jade 
mines, Chiriaco summit, near Indio, Anon. (17) p. 590. The occurrence 
is associated with serpentine in dolomite (ophicalcite). 

Santa Barbara County: 1, A boulder of nephrite was found near Los 
Olivos in a creek bed. on the south slope of Figueroa Mountain, Wood- 
house (p.c. '51). 

Siskiyou County: 1, Nephrite was found at Chan jade mine, Indian 
Creek, near Happy Camp, some with flecks of gold, Kraft (1) pp. 34, 
35. CDMG (21119) from this locality, misidentified in 1943 as Cali- 
fornia jade, is nephrite of good (piality, containing flecks of gold, 
Crippen (p.c. '55). 

Trinity Courity: 1, Stream boulders of jadeite with nephrite are re- 
ported from the north fork of the Eel River, Anon. (8) p. 16. 

Tulare County: 1, Masses of nephrite, some of cutting quality, occur 
in serpentine at Lewis Hill, 2 miles nortli of Porterville, Anon. (11) 
p. 1, Anon. (12) p. 2, Crippen (2) p. 4. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 67 

PALYGORSKITE 

Hydrous basic silicate of calcium and aluminum, near 

Mg2Al2Si302o(OH2),(OH)2-4H20 

A fibrous amphibole. The occurrences reported below were originally 
described as attapulgite, which has been shown by Huggins et al. (1) 
p. 15 to be a short-fiber palygorskite. 

Kern County: 1, Veins in sediments in the Four Corners area have 
been identified as the clay mineral attapulgite, associated with mont- 
morillonite, Droste and Gates (1). See San Bernardino County (1). 

San Bernardino County: 1, Veins in sediments in the Four Corners 
area have been identified as the clay mineral attapulgite, associated 
with montmorillonite, Droste and Gates (1). See Kern County (1). 

TREMOLITE 
Basic silicate of calcium and magnesium with fluorine, CajMgsSigOjjCOHfF)] 

Mountain leather and ynountain cork are flexible sheets of interlaced 
fibers of tremolite. 

Amador County: 1, Fibrous sheets of tremolite in the form of moun- 
tain leather and mountain cork have been found at the liittle Grass 
Valley mine, Pine Grove Mining District, Planks (12) p. 70. 

Calaveras County: 1, Slip-fiber veins of amphibole asbestos are com- 
mon in basic rocks in the Calaveritas quadrangle. Hand specimens with 
fibers up to 2 inches were collected 200 ft. west of the triangulation 
station (SW \ sec. 1, T. 3 N., R. 13 E., M.D.), L. D. Clark (1) p. 17. 

Contra Cofsta County: 1, Tremolite is abundant with actinolite, in 
the schists near San Pablo, Blasdale (1) p. 333. 

Fresno County: 1, One- to two-inch crystals of tremolite have been 
found in contact zones in crystalline limestones in the Twin Lakes 
region, Chesterman (1) p. 254. 

Inyo County: 1, Tremolite occurs in altered carbonate rocks in the 
Quartz Spring area, McAllister (3) p. 36. 2, Tremolite is found in 
radial clusters near the Lippincott mine, Ubehebe Mining District, 
McAllister (4) p. 52. 

Kern County: 1, T^arge columnar, brittle tremolite occurs at Tollgate 
Canyon, north of Tehaehapi (N.R.). 

Madera County: 1, White fibrous asbestos is found in piemontite 
schist near Shadow Lake, A. M. Short (1) p. 493. 2, An extensive area 
of asbestos occurs at the Savannah mine, near Grub Gulch, W. W. 
Bradley and R. P. McLaughlin (3) p. 538. 

Marin County: 1, Tremolite is found with wollastonite in the schists 
on the shore of Tomales Bay, F. M. Anderson (1) p. 132. 

Placer County: 1, White "slip-fiber" asbestos up to 8 inches was 
found a quarter of a mile east of Iowa Hill (sec. 28, T. 15 N., R. 10 E., 
M.D.), L. L. Root (5) p. 237. 2, Tremolite occurs in long gray-green, 
silky fibers at the Morgan mine south of Towle (sec. 12, T. 15 N., 
R. 10 E., M.D.), C. A. Waring (4) p. 321. 

Plumas County: 1, Asbestos is found on the west slope of Fales Hill 
(sec. 25 ?, T. 25 N., R. 7 E., M.D.), Logan (20) p. 85. 2, Tremolite 
occurs at Rich Bar, Indian Creek, northwest of Meadow Valley, E. S. 
Dana (5) p. 1096. 



68 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Riverside County: 1, Slip-fiber asbestos has been reported southwest 
of Palm Springs, a quarter of a mile southwest of benchmark 3871 
(sees. 4, 5, T. 7 S., R. 6 E., S.B.), southwest of Pinon Flat, P. J. H. 
Merrill (2) p. 550. 2, Small amounts of white asbestiform tremolite 
occur in the crystalline limestone at the Jensen quarry, 4 miles west 
of Riverside, E. H. Peebles (p.c. '45). 3, Prismatic aggregates of tremo- 
lite occur in the contact limestone at the new City quarry. Riverside, 
G. M. Richmond (1) p. 725. 4, Well-formed small crystals of tremolite 
occur in limestone, with phlogopite, etc., at the Midland mine of the 
U.S. Gypsum Company, in the Little Maria Mountains, Ian Campbell 
(p.c. '36). 5, Mountain cork is reported in whitish, cork-like masses 
from Blythe, Anon. (5) p. 496. 6, Amphibole asbestos in fibers some- 
times a foot or more in length, is found in an extensive zone 1^ miles 
due east of Toro Peak (sec. 31, T. 7 S., R. 6 E., S.B.), DurreU (p.c. 
'54). 7, Tremolite is reported with questionable identification from the 
Crestmore quarry, Woodford (11) p. 353. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Tremolite occurs as residual grains in a 
large talc deposit 7 miles northeast of Silver Lake, Wicks (1) p. 319. 
2, Crystals up to several inches in length occur in the Furnace lime- 
stone. Furnace Canyon, Baker (1) p. 337, Woodford and Harriss (4) 
p. 268. 3, A pale blue soda-tremolite occurs with cliopside near the 
mouth of Cascade Canyon, R. H. Merriam and Laudermilk (1) p. 716. 
4, Coarse-fibered tremolite occurs at the Scorpion mine, 2 J miles from 
the Mojave River and 14 miles north from Oro Grande. Grossman (2) 
p. 236. 5, Gold-bearing tremolite was found in the AVild Rose group. 
30 miles southeast of Victorville. H. W. Turner (31 ^ p. 835. 

San Diego County: 1, Asbestos fibers up to 6 inches in length come 
from 3 miles east of Warner Hot Springs, Goodyear (5) p. 148. 

Santa Cruz County: 1, Mountain leather is reported from near Santa 
Cruz, Fitch (1) p. 9. 

Sierra County: 1, Fibers of asbestos 5 to 6 inches long were collected 
from Goodyear Creek, half a mile from Goodyear Bar, Crawford (1) 
p. 406. 2, Long slip-fiber asbestos occurs at the Green and Fair pros- 
pects (sec. 33, T. 20 X., R. 12 E., M.D.), Logan (13) p. 154. 3, Leathery 
asbestos came from the Plumbago mine, Alleghany Mining District, 
Ferguson and Gannett (6) p. 48. 

Sonoma County: 1, licnticular masses of slender prisms occur in the 
Culver-Baer area, Kramm (1) p. 344. 

Trinity County: 1, Asbestos occurs at several localities— near Cast- 
ella. Trinity Center and Weaverville, G. C. Brown (2) pp. 876, 877. 

Tulare County: 1, Small occurrences of asbestos are found near 
Porterville, Frazier Valley, etc.. Tucker (3) p. 905. 

Tuolumne County: 1, White fibrous tremolite occurs in the marble 
near Columbia, Hanks (12) p. 70. 

Yuba County: 1, Small amounts of slip-fiber asbestos occur south of 
Challenge, and in T. 19 and 20 N., R. 7 and 8 E., M.D., C. A. Waring 
(4) pp. 423, 424. 

ALKALI AMPHIBOLES 

BARKEVIKITE 
Ca2(NaK)(Fe2*,Mg,Mn3',Mn)5[Si4 5AI, 5022](OH,F)2 

Amphibole rich in ferrous iron and alkalies 

Fresno County: 1, Barkevikite occurs near the head of White Creek 
(SE i sec. 4, T. 19 S., R. 13 E.. M.D.), northwest of Coalinga, as 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 69 

crystals in cavities of a soda-syenite, accompanied by analcime, albite, 
and aegirite, Arnold and Anderson (8) p. 158. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Abundant barkevikite occurs in small dikes 
along South Riverside Drive at the north end of Griffith Park, Neuer- 
burg (p.c. '50). 

San Benito County: 1, A mass of barkevikite syenite occurs near the 
gem mine (sees. 25, 26, T. 18 S., R. 12 E., M.D.), Eckel and Meyers 
(2) p. 91. 

* CROSSITE, 1894 
Intermediate between glaucophane and riebeckite 

Crossite was described as a new mineral by Palaehe (3) pp. 181-192, 
belonging to the amphibole family. It has subsequently been placed in 
the family as a varietal sub-species of glaucophane. 

Contra Costa County: 1, Crossite was found in a boulder north of 
Berkeley, and described by Palaehe (3) p. 185, as a new amphibole; 
analysis by Blasdale, Washington (1) pp. 49, 50. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Microscopic crystals of crossite in schist were 
discovered in the San Pedro HiUs near Malaga Cove, Woodford (1) 
p. 54, and 2, from Santa Catalina Island, ibid. 

Mendocino County: 1, Prismatic grains of crossite occur in the Fran- 
ciscan schist near the headwaters of Jumpoff Creek, near Covelo, S. G. 
Clark (p.c. '35). 

Orange County: 1, Crossite has been found abundantly in the San 
Onofre breccia at Dana Point, Jenni (p.c. '57). 

San Diego County: 1, Crossite occurs in schist boulders of the San 
Onofre breccia, with glaucophane, Woodford (2) p. 186, R. D. Reed (5) 
p. 347. 

GLAUCOPHANE 

Basic sodium/magnesium/aluminum silicate 

Na2Mg3AljSi802j(OH,F)2 

Glaucophane is a widespread constituent of the schists of the Coast 
Ranges, from Mendocino County to San Diego County. 

Alameda County: 1, A general study of glaucophane-bearing schists 
of Berkeley Hills has been published by Brothers (1) p. 614. 

Calaveras County: 1, A specimen from the Collier mine, 6 miles 
northeast of Murphys, was identified as glaucophane by Michael-Levy, 
Hanks (12) p. 183, CDMG (4259). 

Lake County: 1, Glaucophane was described from Sulphur Lake by 
Becker (4) p. 102. 2, From the Wall Street quicksilver mine, Hanks 
(12) p. 183, CDMG (4720), reports glaucophane. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Glaucophane was found with crossite at 
Malaga Cove, Redondo Beach. R. D. Reed (5) p. 347. 2, W. S. T. Smith 
(1) p. 1 reports glaucophane from Little Harbor, on Santa Catalina 
Island. 

Marin County: 1, Glaucophane occurs with lawsonite near Reed Sta- 
tion, on the Tiburon Peninsula, F. L. Ransome (3) p. 311. 2, Extremely 
fine blue needles of glaucophane were found on Angel Island, F. L. 
Ransome (2) p. 206. 3, An outcrop of glaucophane schist with abundant 



70 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA | Bull. 189 

yellowish epidote has been observed on the north side of Tiburon 
Peninsula, Watters (p.c. '58). 

San Benito County: 1, Glaucophane occurs at the benitoite locality, 
near the headwaters of the San Benito River, Louderback and Blasdale 
(5) p. 360. 

San Diego County: 1, Glaucophane is found in schist boulders of the 
San Onofre breccia, with crossite, Woodford (2), p. 186. 2, Glaucophane 
(gastaldite) occurs as silkv fibers in diorite at the contact of a pegma- 
tite dike atRincon (sees. 25, 36, T. 10 S., R. 1 W., S.B.), Murdoch and 
Webb (6) p. 353. 

Santa Clara County: 1, Glaucophane occurs in eclogite and schists at 
the north end of Calaveras Valley, Nutter and Barber (1) p. 742. 2, 
In the Oak Hill area, Carey and Miller (1) p. 166 report glaucophane. 
3, Ilolway (1) p. 347 reports glaucophane as seams and segregations in 
eclogite on Coyote Creek 6 miles north of San Martin. 

Sonoma County: 1, Glaucophane is found 2 miles southwest of 
Healdsburg, Nutter and Barber (1) p. 740, and 2, at Camp Meeker, in 
crystalline schists, ibid. (1) p. 741. 3, Blue crystals of glaucophane 
occur with lawsonite and clinozoisite 2^ miles east of Valley Ford, 
CDMG (21318). 

Mendocino County: 1, A quarry 5.1 miles north of Longvale on U.S. 
101 has furnished glaucophane schist with associated lawsonite, stilpno- 
melane, and riebeckite, Watters (p.c. '58). 

RIEBECKITE 
Basic silicate of sodium and iron with flourine, Na2Fe2*3Fe3+2S'8022(0'^''^)2 

Crocidolite is the finely fihrou.-^ form ( "blue asbestu.s" ) of riebeckite. 

Lake County: 1, CDMG (11464) from near I.akeport is crocidolite. 

Mendocino County: 1, Crocidolite, with nephrite and jadeite, occurs 
in boulders on the north fork. Eel River, near Mina, Anon. (12), p. 2. 
2, Patches of prismatic riebeckite crystals occur in glaucophane schist 
in a quarry 5.1 miles north of Longvale on Highway 101, associated 
with stilpnomelane and lawsonite, Watters (p.c '58). 

Santa Clara County: 1, Crocidolite is reported by A. F. Rogers (7) 
p. 377, from a locality east of Hamilton. 

Sonoma County: 1, A specimen of crocidolite, CDMG (19626), is 
from Pine Flat. 2, Riebeckite is found with aegirite in cavities of soda 
rhyolite near Glen Ellen on the east side of Sonoma Valley, Chester- 
man (p.c. '51). 

Tulare County: 1, Clusters of riebeckite needles as much as a (juarter 
of an inch in length, are found along a serpentine contact, in quartz- 
albite schist, southeast of Rocky Hill, Durrell (2) p. 93. 

Tuolumue County: 1, Microscopic radiating tufts of riebeckite needles 
are found in albitite, at the Clio mine lialf a mile east of Jacksonville, 
A. Knopf (11) pp. 21, 40. 

ANALCIME— Analcite 
Hydrous sodium aluminum silicate, NaAISi205- HjO 

Analcime is a zeolite occurring as a secondary mineral in volcanic 
rocks, often in large, well-formed crystals. It is also found as an original 
constituent in some diabases and basalts. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 71 

Alameda County: 1, Analcime occurs in brilliant crystals, and mas- 
sive, in amvg:dnles of andesite in the Berkeley Hills, Lawson and 
Palache (4)"^ p. 418. 

Fresno County: 1, Albite, ae^^irite, and barkevikite with analcime are 
found in cavities in a soda-svenite near the head of White Creek (SE \ 
sec. 4, T. 19 S., R. 13 E., M.D.), Arnold and Anderson (8) p. 158. 
It appears that this may be the occurrence referred to under San Be- 
nito County (1) as White Creek. 

Inyo County: 1, Amygdules of a basalt near the Russell borax mine, 
Mt. Blanco, are filled with crystals of analcime associated with radiat- 
ing natrolite, Foshag (10) p. 10. 2, Analcime is one of the minerals 
formed in Owens Lake beds by post-depositional reactions. Hay and 
Moiola (2) p. 76. 3, A specimen of analcime lining vugs in basalt at 
Ryan is in the Smithsonian Institution collections. The specimen was 
donated by Rasor about 1927. This may be the same locality as (1). 

Kern County: 1, The lava flows of Red Rock Canyon carry associated 
analcime, natrolite, calcite, and occasionally opal, as amygdules, Mur- 
doch and Webb (14) p. 330. 2, Analcime has been identified along 
with other zeolites and gay-lussite, in clay and tuff layers in China 
Lake, Moiola and Hay (1) p. 47, Hay and Moiola (2) p. 76. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Crystals up to §-inch in diameter appear in 
seams of basalt near Lake Malibu, Schwartz (1) p. 414. 2, Analcime 
occurs with natrolite in cavities of "dolerite" on Mulholland Drive, 
Schiirmann (1) p. 12. 3, Analcime, with natrolite, prehnite, and apo- 
phyllite, is found in veins and cavity fillings in basalt in the Pacific 
Electric quarry in Brush Canyon, locality 3, Neuerburg (1) p. 158. 4, 
Small crystals occur with natrolite in cavities in lava at the head of 
Tick Canyon, near Lang, Anon. (20) p. 382. 5, A specimen of analcime 
crystals perched on a drusy crust of bakerite has been collected from 
the Stirling Borax mine. Tick Canyon, H. E. Pemberton (p.c. '58). This 
is an unusual mode of occurrence for this mineral. 

Mono County: 1, Small crystals of analcime are found in volcanic 
rock from Leavitt Meadows, W. W. Bradley (32) p. 565. 

Plumas County: 1, Analcime occurs as druses in pegmatites, and as 
an accessory in tlie igneous rocks at the Engels mine, H. W. Turner 
and Rogers (32) p. 373, Graton and McLaughlin (4) p. 18. 

San Benito County: 1, Crystals of analcime occur in seams of bar- 
kevikite svenite on White Creek (San Benito River?) (sees. 25, 26, 
T. 18 S., R. 12 E., M.D.), Watters (p.c. '51). See also Fresno County 

(1). 

San Bernardino County: 1, Analcime was observed in a single poor 
specimen from the Calico Mts., A. R. Palmer (1) p. 241. 2, Analcime 
in minute crystals has been found at several horizons in the mud layers 
at Searles Lake, G. T. Smith and Haines (3) p. 25, Hay and Moiola 
(1) p. 323. 

San Mateo County: 1, Glassy crystals of analcime occur in amygdules 
of basaltic rock at Langley Hill, Haehl and Arnold (1) p. 39. 

San Luis Obispo County: 1, Cavities carrying analcime are found in 
augite-tesehenite dikes on the north side of Cuyama Valley. The crystals 
are water-clear grains up to 6 mm disseminated through the rock, Fair- 
banks (12) p. 277. 



72 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Santa Barbara County. 1, Aiialcime is reported in large grains, and 
as inclusions in augite grains, in an augite-teschenite rock at Point Sal, 
Fairbanks (14) p. 21. 

Santa Clara County: 1, Analcime occurs on Coyote Creek, near the 
Cochran (e) Ranch, Kartehner (1) p. 18. 

Shasta County: 1, Chabazite, natrolite, analcime and tridymite are 
associated in an amygdaloidal basalt 7 miles east of Round Mountain, 
Melhase (3) no. 6, p. 1. 

Trinity County: 1, Analcime is reported in crystals more than 1-| 
inches in diameter from a placer mine in this county, Bixby (2) p. 168. 

Ventura County: 1, H. S. Gale (11) p. 439 found analcime and 
natrolite in amygdules in basalt in the Frazier Mountain borax area. 

ANAPAITE 
Hydrous calcium iron phosphate, Ca2Fe2*(P04)2'4H20 

Kings County: 1, Layers of pale green crystals of anapaite were 
found at a depth of 500 feet in a core from the Lewis well (sec. 23, 
T. 21 S., R. 21 E., M.D.), Melha.se (3) no. 7, p. 7. 

ANATASE— Octahedrite 
Titanium dioxide, Ti02 

Tliis form of titanium dioxide is rarer than rutile, and is found only 
in minute crystals. 

Coast Rayuje. Counties: Anatase is often present in weathered quartz 
diorites of the Coast Range batholith. Spotts (1) p. 237. 

El Dorado County: 1, Minute crystals of anatase with brookite were 
found on quartz crystals near Placerville, Kunz (5) p. 329, (6) p. 
.395, (7) p. 207, (15) p. 394. 

Lake County: 1, Anatase is rei)orted in minor amounts as an as- 
sociate of buddingtonite, in the altered pyroxene andesite of the 
Sulphur Bank mercury deposits, with stibnite. mercury minerals, and 
possibly ammoniojarosite, Erd et al. ((i) p. 833, D. E. White and Rober- 
son (2) p. 407. 

Nevada County: 1, Crystals of anatase have been reported in placer 
gravels near North Bloomfield, Crippen (p.c. '51). 

Riverside County: 1, Anatase occurs as a minor constituent of 
tonalite, in the tunnel south of Val Verde, R. W. Wilson (1) p. 124. 

Sa.n Benito County: 1, A few minute pale-brown crystals of anatase 
were found in the benitoite vein. Palache (6) p. 398, Louderback and 
Blasdale (5) p. 380. 

San Bernardino Count ij: 1, Niobian anatase, in numerous flat tetra- 
gonal crystals, occurs in masses of soft greenish mica in a pegmatite in 
the Cady Mountains, north of Hector, Ilewett and Glass (3) p. 1044. 

ANAUXITE 

A variety of Kaolinite 
Basic aluminum silicate, Al2Si307(OH )4 Si :AI to 3 : 1 

Alameda County: 1, Anauxite is a constituent of the sedimentary 
rocks near Tesla (sees. 11, 12, T. 3 S., R. 3 E., M.D.), V. T. Allen (5) 
p. 274. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 73 

Amador Count i/: 1, A characteristic constituent of the Io:ie sand- 
stone, especially on the Mokelumne River, 1 mile west of Lancha Plana, 
is anauxite, V. T. Allen (2) p. 145. 2, Anauxite from the Newman pit 
near lone was analyzed by Fairchild, R. C. Wells (3) p. 97. Brindley 
(2) p. 84, showed this occurrence to be kaolinite. 

Contra Costa Conntv: 1, Some sedimentary layers in the Brentwood 
area, east of Mount Diablo (T. 1 N., R. 2 and 3 E., M.D.) carry up to 
60 percent anauxite, V. T. Allen (5) p. 280. 

Fresno County: 1, Occasional layers of the sediments in the Panoche 
Hills are anauxite, V. T. Allen (5) p. 277. 

Plumas County: 1, A. F. Rop^ers (38) p. 160 identified as anauxite 
minute pale-brown tabular crystals in cavities of a pyroxene andesite 
at Drakesbad. 

Tuolumne County: 1, Thin brown crystals of anauxite occur in cavi- 
ties of an augite andesite, near Jamestown, A. P. Rogers (36) p. 160. 

ANDALUSITE 
Aluminum silicate, AljSiOj 

Chiastolite is andalusif- with symmetrically arranged black inclu- 
sions. Andalusite occurs as a constituent of gneisses and schists, quartz 
veins, and pegmatites. It is usually associated with kyanite, sillimanite, 
and staurolite. 

Alpine County: 1, Andalusite is found in some abundance, with lazu- 
lite, ilmenite, and rutile, in metamorphic rocks about 10 miles south- 
southwest from Markleeville, Woodhouse (p.c. '45). 

Butte County: 1, Andalusite crystals as much as 2 cm in size occur 
in andalusite schists, It} miles southeast of Big Bear Lookout (locality 
415), Hietanen (1) p. 575. 

Fresno County: 1, Large crystals of andalusite were found in peg- 
matite in Clarks Valley. 9 miles east of Sanger, Melhase (6) p. 22. 2, 
Radiating masses and prismatic crystals up to 10 by 15 cm of a pink 
to dark-reddish-violet andalusite, were found in a narrow pegmatite 
about li miles southeast of Sharpsville (S. I sec. 20, T. 11 S., R. 22 E., 
M.D.), G. A. Macdonald and Merriam (1) p. 588. 

Imperial County: 1, Excellent crystals of andalusite in mica schists 
were discovered in a lens as pale brown crystals at the Foster Bluebird 
mine 3 miles north of the abandoned station of Ogilby on the Southern 
Pacific Railroad, in the Cargo Muchacho Mts., Foster (p.c. '58). 

Inyo County: 1, The variety chiastolite occurs widely in the Rest 
Spring shale. An accessible occurrence is along San Lucas Canyon, 
near junction with the road to Cerro Gordo mine, McAllister (4) p. 53. 

Kern County: 1, Chiastolite schists occur on Walker Creek southeast 
of Bakersfield, R. J. Sampson and Tucker (4) p. 453. 

Los Angeles County: 1, The "spotted" (cordierite) slates at the 
junction of Franklin and Coldwater Canyons, Santa Monica Moun- 
tains, carry fair-sized chiastolite crystals. Funk (1) p. 33. 2, Chiasto- 
lite crystals are prominent in the Santa Monica "slate" at localities 
14, 15, 16, 17, in Nichols, Coldwater, and Franklin Canyons, Neuerburg 
(l)p. 159. 

Madera County: 1, Chiastolite was first noted by W. P. Blake (7) p. 
304, along the Chowchilla River, notably at Chowchilla Crossing on 
the old Fort Miller road, Hanks (12) p. 70. 2, Crystals of andalusite 



74 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

up to 1 cm in length, in a museovite matrix, were found half a mile 
below the junction of Bench Creek and the North Fork, San Joaquin 
River, Erwin (1) p. 29. 3, Large crystals (3 inches by \ inch) were 
found at the Ne Plus Ultra mine, near Daulton's "Ranch (sec. 35, T. 
9 S., R. 18 E., M.D.) Hanks (12) p. 70, H. W. Turner (4) p. 455, 
Logan (24) p. 42. 4, Fine specimens, up to 3 by 1^ inches, showing a 
rich black cross pattern on white or salmon-colored background were 
described by W. W. Jefferis from this county, but the exact locality 
is not known, Kunz (24) pp. 88-89). 

Mariposa County: 1, Small crystals in slate are found at Miller's 
Ranch near Hornitos, Hanks (12) p. 70. 2, Chiastolite is found on 
Moores Flat, ibid. p. 70. 3, Colorless to pink glassy crystals 3-6 mm bv 
20 mm occur in slates (SW -] sec. 17, T. 6 S., R. 16 E.. M.D.) in what 
is known as the Southwest of Three Buttes deposit. It is undeveloped, 
Bowen and Gray (2) p. 202. 4, Andalusite occurs in pegmatites at May 
Lake, Yosemite National Park, R. L. 'Rose (1) p. 635. 

Mono County: 1, A large commercial deposit of andalusite, which 
carries corundum, pyrophyllite, and many other minerals in small 
amounts, was worked at the mine of Champion Sillimanite Incorporated, 
on the western slope of the White Mountains about 7 miles east of 
Mocalno, north of Bishop, A. Knopf (7) p. 550, Peck (1) p. 123, Jeffery 
and Woodhouse (3) p. 461, Kerr (3) p. 621, Woodhouse (5) p. 486. 2, 
Andalusite occurs with lazulite, etc., in metamorphic rocks 1 mile west 
of Green Lake (sec. 28?, T. 3 N., R. 24 E., M.D.), Woodhouse (p.c. '45). 

Nevada County: 1, Andalusite has been reported from Grass Valley 
by Lindgren (12) p. 92. 

Riverside County: 1, Opaque pink andalusite occurs near Coahuila, 
Kunz (24) p. 99. 2, Pink crystals in a small pegmatite cutting the 
magnesite deposit near Winchester have been described by Murdoch 
(3) p. 68. 3, Giant pink crystals occur in pegmatite on Coahuila Moun- 
tain (see. 29, T. 6 W., R. 2 E., S.B.), Webb (11) p. 581. It may be that 
this is the locality from which Kunz reports andalusite, see locality 
(1). 4, An occurrence of andalusite north of Winchester (sec. 12, T. 
5 S., R. 2 E., S.B.) is also reported by Webb (11) p. 581. 

San Diego County: 1, Pink radiating masses of andalusite are found 
in a quartz vein about 3 miles northeast of Pala (sec. 12, T. 9 S., R. 
2 W., S.B.), Schaller (p.c. '46). 2, Masses of andalusite as much as 3 
inches in diameter are found in the northern parts of the Queen and 
Chief mines at Pala, Jahns and Wright (5) p. 42. 

Tulare County: 1, Crystals up to 5 cm long were found on the west 
side of the vallev of Sheep Creek (NW -j- sec. 34, T. 11 S., R. 28 E., 
M.D.),Durrell (p.c. '35). 

ANDORITE 
Lead/silver/antimony sulphide, PbAgSb3S4 

Inyo County: 1, Thin tabular crystals of andorite in the rich silver 
ore of the Thompson mine, Darwin Mining District, are reported by 
Hall and MacKevett (1) p. 17, (2) p. 59. 

ANGLESITE 
Lead sulphate, PbSO^ 

Anglesite is a common oxidation product of galena, and is often found 
in lead deposits in small amounts. The mineral is readily confused with 



1966] DESCKIPTIONS 75 

cerussite from whie'li it often cannot be separated in field inspection. 
Localities entered below have not had the reported identification vali- 
dated, and all occnrrences known in the State are not included. 

Inyo County: 1, At the Modoc mine, anglesite is associated with 
bindiieimite and azurite, as an oxidation product of galena, Hanks (12) 
p. 71. 2, In the mines of Cerro Gordo Mining District anglesite occurred 
as large masses and crvstalline crusts enclosing cores of galena, Silliman 
(12) p. 131, R. W. Raymond (5) p. 30, Charles W. Merriam (1) p. 43. 
3, In the Ubehebe Mining District anglesite occurs with cerussite as 
alteration from galena, C. A. Waring and Huguenin (2) p. 109. 4, 
Anglesite is sparingly present in the Darwin mines, A. Knopf (4) p. 7. 
5, In the Panamint Mining District, Murphy (2) p. 322 reports an- 
glesite. 6, Anglesite is abundant as an ore mineral in the Minietta and 
Modoc mining areas, Argus Range, Woodhouse (p.c. '54). 

Madera County: 1, Anglesite is reported as an alteration of galena 
in the Minarets Mining District on Shadow Creek, and with linarite 
in the Bliss claims. North Fork Basin, Erwin (1) pp. 67, 70. 

Mono County: 1, Anglesite is widely distributed in moderate quan- 
tity in the Blind Spring Mining District, A. L. Ransome (2) p. 192. 
Crystals a third of an inch in diameter were reported by W. J. Hoffman 
(ijp. 732. 

Plumas County: 1, Wulfenite and anglesite are associated in gold 
ores from the Granite Basin Mining District, H. W. Turner (12) p. 589. 

Riverside County: 1, A very small amount of anglesite has been 
found at the Crestmore (juarry, Eakle (15) p. 353. 2, Anglesite occurs 
with carbonates and vanadates, at the Black Eagle mine, in the north- 
ern part of the Eagle Mountains. Tucker (8) p. 195. 

Sa7i Bernardino County: 1, Anglesite, massive and in crystals, occurs 
at the Ibex mine in the Black Mountains, 6 miles north of Saratoga 
Springs, Cloudman et al. (1) p. 821. 2, The mineral also occurs in 
small amounts in the western part of the Calico Mining District, Weeks 

(2) p. 762; 3, in the Imperial lode. Lava Beds Mining District, with 
wulfenite. Tucker and Sampson (17) p. 351. 

ANHYDRITE 
Calcium sulphate, CaSO^ 

Imperial County: 1, Anhydrite is reported from the Fish Creek 
Mountains, Min. Inf. Serv. (22) p. 1. 

hiyo County: 1, Anhydrite is found in small amounts in the Pana- 
mint and Funeral Ranges, Kunz (24) p. 103. 2, Anhydrite is present 
with gypsum in drill cores from the Panamint Basin, G. I. Smith and 
Pratt (2) p. 40. 

Mono County: 1, In the mountains south of Mono Lake, Kunz (24) 
p. 103, reports anhydrite. 

Orange County: 1, The mineral was found sparingly near Anaheim, 
probably half a mile south of Santa Ana, Hanks (12) p. 72, Goodyear 

(3) p. 339. 

Riverside County: 1, Anhydrite occurs interlayered with gypsum in 
the Palen Mountains, A. F. Rogers (14) p. 134. 2, Massive white crys- 
talline anhydrite occurs at the Midland mine in the Little Maria Moun- 
tains, CDMG (20112), Anon. (23) p. 1. 



76 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA | Bull. 189 

San Bernardino County: 1, Anhydrite is one of the many minerals 
found in small amounts at Searles Lake, De Groot (2) p. 537 ; and 2, in 
the Owl Mountains near Owl Sprinfjs; 3, in the Avawatz Mountains 
near the Amargosa River, Kunz (24) p. 103. and 4, in the "sulphur 
pit" with krausite and other sulohates near Borate, in the Calico Moun- 
tains, Foshag (19) p. 352. 

Shasta County: 1, In the deep levels of the Bully Hill and Rising 
Star mines, anhydrite is found partly altered to gypsum. A. F. Rogers 
(14) p. 132, Albers and Robertson (3) p. 74. 

ANKERITE 

Carbonate of calcium magnesium/and iron, Ca(Mg,Fe) (003)2 

Ankerite is widely distributed in the Mother Lode Belt, and is espe- 
cially prominent in the mines of Mariposa County. 

The reader is reminded that validation of identification in reported 
occurrences in the following entries has not been systematically under- 
taken. Since ankerite is not readily separated physically from other 
members of the calcite group, some occurrences may in fact be in error. 

Amador County: 1, Ankerite occurs as incrustations on slate in the 
Plymouth mine, A Knopf (11) p. 35. 

Calaveras County: 1, Ankerite is abundant at Carson Hill. A. Knopf 
(11) p. 35; 2, it occurs at the Golden Gate mine, 1 mile north of San 
Andreas, Tucker (1) p. 82. 

El Dorado County: 1, One of the gangue minerals in gold quartz 
veins at the Larkin mine, 1 mile east of Diamond Springs is ankerite, 
Logan (16) p. 30. 

Mariposa County: 1, Ankerite Avas first reported as an associate of 
mariposite on the Mariposa Estate, Silliman (7) p. 350. 2, An enormous, 
massive belt of coarse white carbonate 300 to 500 feet wide, .iust west 
of Coulterville, is ankerite, A. Knopf (11) p. 35. 

Nevada County: 1, Ankerite is abundant in the veins of the mines at 
Grass Valley, W. D. Johnston, Jr. (4) p. 34. 

Plumas County: 1, Flat crystals of ankerite associated with pyrite 
and fine albite crystals in vugs, occur at the Shadv Run mine. 8 miles 
east of Dutch Flat, Reid (1) p. 280. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Ankerite is found in the scheelite veins, 
as part of the gangue, at Atolia, Hulin (1) p. 73. 

Tuolumne County: 1, Ankerite is widespread as a gangue mineral in 
the Mother Lode mines of this county. Storms (9) p. 131. 

ANNABERGITE— Nickel Bloom 
Hydrous nickel arsenate, NijAsjOgSH^O 

Coatings of annabergite are an indication of the presence of nickel 
minerals that have been oxidized, and it is often associated with eryth- 
rite (cobalt bloom). 

Inyo County: 1, Annabergite is associated with erythrite, smaltite, 
and argentite in the claims of the Bishop Silver and Cobalt Mining 
Company, east of Long Lake (sec. 14, T. 9 S., R. 31 E., M.D.), Tucker 
and Sampson (25) p. 378. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 77 

Las!<en ('onnty: 1, A s])eeinien, associated with smaltite and erythrite 
(?), from this county is in the California Division of Mines and 
Geolog\^ Museum (9981), but no detail of the locality is available. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Annabergite has been found with siderite 
and pyrrhotite in Pacoima Canyon, D'Arcy (3) p. 269; 2, it occurs 
with erythrite, smaltite, and native silver at the old Kelsey mine in 
San Gabriel Canyon, Storms (4) p. 244. 

Savfa Cruz County: 1, Annabergite (magnesian rich) is reported 
from tlie Pacific Limestone Products (Kalkar) quarry, as small, well- 
formed crystals, as well as fibers, E. H. Oyler (p.c. '59). 

Tulare County: 1, Specimens of annabergite have come from near 
Porterville, Noren (p.c. '54). 

ANTIMONY 
Native antimony, Sb. 

Native antimony occurs in metal-bearing veins with silver, antimony, 
and arsenic ores, especially with stibnite. It has been found at a few 
localities in the State. Many references to "antimony" in the litera- 
ture are to the sulphide stibnite. but there are some authentic oc- 
currences. 

Butte County: 1, Native antimonv is reported with bournonite in the 
gold ores of the Surcease mine (f. 21, N., R. 4 E., M.D.), O'Brien 
(6) p. 431. 

El Dorado County: 1, Native antimony has been reported from 
Pleasant Valley (N.R.) 

Kern County: Antimony has been found in a number of localities 
in the Havilah and Kernville areas, associated with stibnite. Notable 
occurrences are as follows : 1, On Erskine Creek, 4 miles south of Hot 
Springs, nodular masses up to 300 pounds have been found, Watts (2) 
p. 237. 2, The Rayo mine (sec. 36, T. 26 S., R. 33 E., M.D.), and 3, 
Erskine Creek (Tom Moore) mine (sec. 24, T. 27 S., R. 33 E., M.D.) 
have furnished specimens associated with stibnite, W. W. Bradley (11) 
pp. 21, 22, Behre (1) p. 332. Troxel and Morton (2) p. 31 report'native 
antimony with oxides of antimony and stibnite from a quartz vein at 
the Tom Moore mine. 4, Antimony was found at Little Caliente Spring, 
south of Piute, with stibiconite, CDMG (11671). 5, Antimony has also 
been reported from the old San Emigdio mine (N.R.). 6, Tucker (p.c. 
'36) reported antimony from Antimony Peak, 12 miles southwest of 
Sunset and 5 miles northwest of Cuddy Valley. 7, In Jawbone Canyon 
(sees. 5, 6, T. 30 S., R. 36 E., M.D.) antimony is presumed to occur 
(N.R. ). 8, Native antimony has been found in small quantity, with 
stibnite, in the Calf Creek area, Greenhorn Summit tungsten mining 
region, Troxel and Morton (2) p. 37. 

Riverside County: 1, Antimonv is reported from "South Riverside", 
E. S. Dana (7) p." 133. 

ANTLERITE 

Basic copper suphate, Cu3(S04) (OH)^ 

Antlerite is a secondary )nineral found in the oxidized zone of copper 
deposits in arid regions. 



78 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Inyo County: 1, Antlerite is listed by Hall and MacKevett (1) p. 16, 
as one of the supergene minerals identified from the Darwin Mining 
District; see also ibid (2) p. 64. 

Madera County: 1, A specimen of antlerite, CDMG (21752), is from 
the Bnchanan mine near Knowles. 

Shasta County: 1, Antlerite is reported as coatings on fractnres from 
the Old Mine ore body, Kinkel et al. (2) p. 89. 



APATITE 

Calcium phosphate, with other elements 

Fluorapatite, Ca5(P04)3F 

Chlorapatite, Ca5(P04)3CI 

Hydroxylapatite, Ca5(P04)3(OH) 

Carbonate apatite, Ca5(P04)3(C03) HjO 

Validity of varietal names in this group is sometimes subject to debate. 

Voelckerite, francolite, and flaor-coUop}wnc are fluorapatite. Dahllite 
and most collophane are carbonate apatite. A variety of voelckerite with 
little fluorine seems to be characteristic of the glaucophane schists in 
the Coast Ranges. CoUophane is the chief constituent of phosphorite 
and bone phosphate. Its general occurrence in Pacific coastal waters 
has been discussed by Emery and Dietz (3) p. 8. Apatite has been 
observed as small crystals in many of the rocks of the State. 

Amador County: 1, Apatite was the principal gangue mineral in some 
of the deep-level ore of the Kennedy mine at Jackson, Hulin (3) p. 348. 

Co7itra Costa County: 1, The variety voelckerite was found in tabular 
honey-yellow crystals, in a boulder of glaucophane schist west of the 
Berkeley Country Club, Coats (p.c. '36). 

Fresno County: 1, Apatite, in crystals up to 1 inch, was reported 
with andalusite in a pegmatite in Clarks Valley, 9 miles east of Sanger, 
Melhase (6) p. 22. 2, Gallilier (1) p. 258, has analyzed impure granular 
collophane from sediments penetrated by Pacific Western well KOC 
No. 27. 3, Apatite pseudomorphous after fossil wood has been found 
in nodules of the Moreno formation at the head of Escarpado Canvon 
(NW \ sec. 7, T. 15 S., R. 12 E. MD), Gulbrandsen et al. (1) p. ioi. 

Humboldt County: 1, Collophane occurs with dahllite near Yager 
(Stanford Museum specimen). 

Inyo County: 1, A small amount of ajiatite has been found in the 
contact zone in the Darwin Mining District, Kelley (4) p. 540. 2, The 
mineral is found 9 miles southeast of Keeler. W. W. Bradlev (29) 
p. 106. 

Kern County: 1, Minor amounts of apatite occur in the cassiterite 
ores of the Gorman area, Troxel and Morton (2) p. 294. 2, Thorium- 
bearing fluorapatite (francolite) has been found in radioactive bones 
in the northeastern part of the county, Troxel and Morton (2) p. 290. 
3, Massive blue apatite occurs associated with chalcedony, calcite, and 
wollastonite at the Jimmie Mack claim. Piute Mountain, Green Moun- 
tain Mining District, (CDMG identification, '64). 

Mono County: 1, Small white tabular crystals of apatite are associ- 
ated with lazulite and pyrophyllite at the andalusite deposit in the 
White Mountains, Peacock and Moddle (1) p. 105. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 79 

Monterey County: 1, Collophaiie occurs in beds of phosphate rock 
in Vaquero Canyon, Reed (3) p. 196; and 2, as concretionary pellets 
in shale in Reliz Canyon, Galliher (1) p. 266. 

Plumas County: 1, Larfje crystals of apatite accompanying abundant 
sphene occur in the country rock of the Superior mine near En^rels, 
Graton and McLaughlin (4) p. 34. 2, Apatite is also found at the 
Engels mine with magnetite, ibid. p. 11. 3, White apatite with black 
tourmaline is reported from Thompson Peak, Williams (p.c. '49). 

Riverside County: 1, Greenish-blue apatite occurred as granular 
masses in white calcite at the Crestmore quarry, Eakle (15) p. 348, and 
2, a small amount was found in the contact zone at the new City quarry 
in Riverside, G. M. Richmond (1) p. 725. 3, Apatite occurs in a scapol- 
ite-pyroxene dike at the eastern end of the iron-ore belt in the Eagle 
Mountains, Harder (6) p. 54. 

San Benito County: 1, Light green apatite crystals occur in a vein 
with orthoclase, near the Gem mine, Cureton (p.c. '62). 

San Bernardino County: 1, Small opaque crystals of apatite were 
found in limestone at the eastern end of the Kingston Range, Kunz (24) 
p. 102. 2, Apatite is a minor constituent in the bastnaesite occurrence at 
Mountain Pass. Olson et al. r3) ]). 38. 

San Diego County: 1, Apatite is a minor constituent of the dumor- 
tierite pegmatite near Dehesa, Schaller (7) p. 211. 2, Violet and pale- 
pink tabular crystals of apatite occurred at the old Mack mine, and pale 
dirty green crystals at the Victor mine, both near Rincon, A. F. Rogers 

(4) p. 217. 3, Thick tabular yellowish-green crystals of apatite up to 
1 cm occur in spodumene-petalite rock in the Clark dike, in the same 
locality, Murdoch (p.c. '45). 4, Apatite occurs in pegmatite on Smith 
Mountain, Schrader et al. (1) p. 42. 5, The mineral occurs at Mesa 
Grande, sometimes colored red-violet due to the presence of neodymium, 
Wherry (2) p. 146. 6, Apatite from the Gem mine No. 1 near Aguanga 
is in tabular crystals up to 1 inch across, Wilke (p.c. '36), and pure 
Aaolet in color from the Mountain Lily, Wherry (2) p. 146. 7, Apatite 
is found in pegmatite at Dos Cabezas mine near Jacumba, Kunz (24) 
p. 102, and 8, near Grapevine Camp (sec. 26, T. 11 S., R. 4 E., S.B.), 
F. J. H. Merrill (1) p. 717. 9, Apatite has been reported from the 
pegmatites of Pala, Kunz (23) p. 942, and tabular crystals, as much as 
a quarter of an inch in diameter, pink-violet or purple have been found 
in the Queen mine and on Heriart Mountain at Pala, Jahns and Wright 

(5) p. 41. 10, iMinute prisms of francolite, pale flesh-colored, occur 
filling fractures in massive amblygonite at the Stewart mine, Pala, 
Murdoch (p.c. '45). 11, Francolite is abundant in nodules dredged 
from the sea bottom off the southern California coast, Dietz and Emery 
(1) p. 1878, Dietz et al. (2) p. 818. 

Santa Barhara, County: 1, Apatite occurs as small concretionary 
masses in shale near Santa Barbara. Galliher (1) p. 266. 

Santa Clara County: 1, The variety voelckerite occurs as veinlike 
patches in glaucophane rock in Calaveras Valley, A. F. Rogers (9) 
p. 160. 

Sierra County: 1, White prismatic crystals up to three-quarters of 
an inch in length occur in cavities in the magnetite ore of the Sierra 
iron mine at Upper Spencer Lake, Durrell (p.c. '45). 



80 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Trinity County: 1, Phosphate-bearino: rocks near Hyampom have 
been found to contain hydroxylapatite and whitlockite, tofjether with 
tridvmite and cristobalite and an unknown mineral near AIPO4. The 
locality is (see. 13, T. 3 N.. R. 6 E.. H.), Lydon (2) p. 67. This is the 
first report of this variety of apatite from California. 

Tulare County: 1, Massive lio:ht blue apatite occurs in irregrular 
lavers up to 1 inch thick in marble at the Consolidated Tunprsten mine, 
Drum Valley (sec. 11, T. 15 S., R. 26 E., M.D.). The apatite is associ- 
ated with wollastonite and blue calcite, (CDMG 21868), John T. Alfors 

(p.c. '64). 

APHTHITALITE—Glaserite 
Potassium sodium sulphate, (K,Na)2S04 

Inyo Cuuiity: 1, Aphthitalite is reported as saline crusts and efflores- 
cences from Deep Spring Lake. B. F. Jones (1) p. B200, ibid. (2) 
p. 88A. 

San Bernardino CouvJy: 1, Colorless tabular crystals of trigonal 
aspect associated with octahedral halite and massive borax, came from 
well G. 75 at Searles Lake, Foshag (5) p. 367; see also G. I. Smith and 
Pratt (2) p. 27. G. L Smith and Haines (3) p. 9, describe the occur- 
rence as chiefly from the central facies of the Upper Salt. The mineral 
is found as colorless or yellowish-orange groups of bladed or tabular 
crystals, or fine-grained aggregates, and is associated with trona, borax 
and hanksite. 

APOPHYLLITE 
Basic hydrous calcium potassium silicate with fluorine, KCa^SigOjoCFjOH) ■ SHjO 

Apophyllite is a serondary mineral found in cavities of volcanic rock. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Thin tabular crystals of apophyllite up to 
the size of a silver dollar, associated with natrolite, analcime, and 
prehnite, occur as coatings on joints of basalt, in the Pacific Electric 
quarry, Brush Canyon (sec. 35, T. 1 N., R. 14 W., S.B.), Neuerburg 
(1) p. 158, confirming Murdoch (p.c. '45). 

Marin County: 1, Clear glassy crystals of apophyllite 1 to 2 mm in 
size occur with wollastonite and calcite in fissures of a quartzite, 1| 
miles northwest of Inverness on the west side of Tomales Bay, Vonsen 
(p.c. '37). 

Plumas County: 1, Crystals of apophyllite occur in cavities in basalt 
at the Buckeye mine near Onion Valley, Kunz (24) p. 97. 

Riverside County: 1, Cavities in limestone or in massive wollastonite 
in the Crestmore quarrv are lined with small clear pvramidal crystals 
of apophyllite, Eakle (15) p. 350, Woodford et al. (1) p. 370. 2, Skele- 
tal crystals up to 3 mm across have been found in the new City quarry, 
Riverside, E. H. Bailey (3) p. 565. 3, Similar skeletonized crystals were 
were also found with prehnite at Crestmore, ibid. 

San Francisco County: 1, Very minute colorless crystals of apophyl- 
lite were found with gvrolite at Fort Point in San Francisco, Sehaller 
(8) p. 126. 

San Mateo County: 1, A little apophyllite was found near La Honda, 
Sanford and Stone (1) p. 24. 

Santa Barbara County: 1, Apophyllite is reported from basic intru- 
sive rocks at Point Sal, C. D. Woodhouse, (p.c. '63). 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 81 

Santa Clara County: 1, Well-developed crystals of apophyllite with 
gyrolite and bituminous matter were found lining crevices in the rock 
at the New Almaden mine, F. W. Clarke (4) p. 22. 2, Quartz pseudo- 
morphous after apophyllite has been found at Mine Hill in the New 
Almaden area, E. H. Bailey and Everhart (12) p. 102. 

ARAGONITE 
Calcium carbonate, CaC03 

Flos-ferri is a fine snow-white branching stalactitic form of aragonite. 
Much of the banded onyx marble of the state has been erroneously 
called aragonite instead of calcite. 



"■t^^ 



Alameda County: 1, Coarsely crystalline aragonite in radiating pris- 
matic masses occurs in a limestone quarry on the Patterson Grade, 7 
miles east of Livermore, A. F. Rogers (p.c. '36). 

Calaveras County: 1, Stalactites of flos-ferri have come from a cave 
near Murphy, CDMG (13702). 2, CDMG (13684) is from Coyote Creek 
near Vallecitos. 

Colusa County: 1, Rich, deep-brown veins of aragonite up to 5 inches 
across, and banded masses occur at the head of Sulphur Creek, Fair- 
banks (6) p. 120, Goodyear (4) p. 159. 2, Beautiful snow-white and 
transparent crystals of aragonite have come from the Candace copper 
mine. Hanks (12) p. 73. 3, Aragonite has come from Stony Ford, 
CDMG (12796). 4, The mineral occurs near Smith ville. Hanks (12) 
p. 74. 

Fresfio County: 1, Beautiful clusters of acicular crystals of aragonite 
have been found coating fracture surfaces of serpentine at the Holman 
chrome mine (sec. 34, T. 18 S., R. 13 E., M.D.), Murdoch (p.c. '54). 

Inyo County: 1, Showy aggregates of aragonite crystals have been 
collected from an abandoned mine near the ghost town of Leadfield 
at the head of Titus Canyon, W. AV. Bradley (24) p. 253. 2, Aragonite 
has been found at the Whiteside mine, Mazourka Canyon (T. 12 S., 
R. 36 E., M.D.), D'Arcy (2) p. 74. 3, Aragonite associated with halite 
has been collected at Bad Water in Death Valley, Vonsen (p.c. '45). 
4, White to colorless crystals of aragonite as much as half an inch in 
length, line fissures in some of the workings of the Lippincott mine, 
McAllister (4) p. 53. 5, Slender crystals of aragonite have been formed 
in the muds of Deep Spring Lake, M. N. A. Peterson et al. (1) p. 6494, 
B. F. Jones (1) p. 201. 

Kern County: 1, Concretionary crystalline masses of aragonite occur 
with gvpsum in a bed near the south end of the Kettleman Hills (sec. 
10, T. 25 S., R. 10 E., M.D.), Reed (2) p. 830. 

Lake County: 1, Acicular crystals of aragonite occur with opal in 
basalt at Sulphur Bank, C. A. Anderson (9) p. 650, D. E. White and 
Roberson (2) p. 406. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Aragonite was found in Silver Canyon on 
Santa Catalina Island, CDMG (12415). 2, Rosettes of aragonite prisms 
occur on fractures in basalt, accompanied by natrolite and analcime, 
at locality 7, west of Laurel Canyon, Neuerburg (1) p. 151. 

Madera County: 1, Acicular crystals of aragonite are found in the 
copper deposit at Beck's Lakes, Goudey (1) p. 7. 



82 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA | Bull. 189 

Merced County: 1, Aragonite oceiirs in veins and replacement patches 
in the Franciscan rocks in the vicinity of Pacheco Pass. It is sometimes 
associated with lawsonite, pnmpellyite and stipnomelane, B. McKee 
(2) p. 382. See also Santa Clara County (2). 

Mono County: 1, Aragonite, with low- and hiwh-magnesinm calcite, 
form the pinnacles in Mono Lake. Scholl and Taft (Dp. 56. 

Monterey Comity: 1, Aragonite specimens from the cliff north of the 
mouth of Willow Creek are represented hy CDMG (21307). 

Orange County: 1, A specimen, CDMG (12658), comes from Coal 
Canyon, on the west side of Mount Downey (Sugarloaf Mountain). 

Placer County: 1, Aragonite has been doubtfully reported from Gold 
Run, Hanks (12) p. 73. 

Riverside County: 1, A small amount of fibrous aragonite occurred 
at Crestmore, Eakle (15) p. 348, and prismatic crystals occur on frac- 
ture surfaces of contact rock, Commercial quarry, Murdoch (p.c. '54). 
2, Aragonite in a magnesian calcite-aragonite-huntite assemblage as an 
incrustation on calcite-monticellite rock at Crestmore, has been de- 
scribed b.y A. B. Carpenter (1) p. 146. 

San Benito County: 1, Aragonite occurs as bunches and stringers 
in the country rock of the benitoite vein near the headwaters of the 
San Benito River, Louderback and Blasdale (5) p. 363. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Aragonite was reported as probable by 
Silliman (12) p. 130, near Calico. It is likely that the mineral is stron- 
tianite, which occurs here rather abundantly. 2, Clusters of prismatic 
crystals have been found in the upper quarries near Oro Grande (T. 
6 N., R. 4 W., S.B.), Huguenin et al. (3) p. 878. 3, Aragonite is re- 
ported from Holcomb Valley north and east of Big Bear Lake, Mary 
F. Berkholz (19), p. 14. 4, Aragonite occurs in very fine-grained nearly 
pure beds in the Parling Mud, lower salt and mixed layer, at Searles 
Lake, G. T. Smith and Haines (3) p. 25. 

San Diego County: 1, A cluster of slender prisms, associated with 
calcite and stilbite, was found in a cavity of the volcanic rock at the 
Calavera quarry, Murdoch (p.c. '45). 

San Francisco County: 1, Slender colorless prisms of aragonite were 
found in seams of the serpentine at Fort Point. Eakle (Dp. 316. 

San Luis Obispo County: 1, Aragonite is reported in a road cut on 
state highwav 466, 6.9 miles from Morro Bav, Marv F. Berkholz (15b) 
p. 25, (CDMG 21586). 

Santa Barbara County: 1, Aragonite occurs in small crystals with 
chromite in many of the chrome prospects in Happy Canyon, C. D. 
Woodhouse (p.c. '63). 

Santa Clara County: 1, Aragonite occurs sparingly in the New Alma- 
den area. E. H. Bailey and Everhart (12) p. 102. 2, Aragonite occurs 
in veins and replacement patches in the Franciscan rocks in the vicinity 
of Pacheco Pass. It is sometimes associated with lawsonite, pumpellyite 
and stipnomelane, B. McKee (2) p. 382. See also Merced County (1). 

Siskiyou County: 1, Aragonite has come from a mineral spring near 
the Soda Springs^ Hotel, Hanks (12) p. 73. 

Solano County: 1, Aragonite was reported at Tolenas Springs, Watts 
(1) p. 668. 

Sonoma County: 1, Needle-like crystals and crusts of aragonite were 
found in the Helen mine, Kramm (1) p. 345. 2, Aragonite has been 



lf)66j DESCRIPTIONS 83 

reported as a nietaniorphic mineral in Franciscan schists near Cazadero 
(SW i NE i, sec. 18, T. 8 N.. R. 11 W., M.D.), Coleman and Lee (2) 
p. 578, ibid., (3) p. 16. 

Tehama County: 1, Crystals of aragonite occur in fracture surfaces 
of chromite at the Gran pit on Elder Creek, CDMG (21143). 2, CDMG 
(11876) is aragonite from Tuscan mineral spring. 

Tulare ('onniij: 1, Aragonite specimens have been collected from 
near Tulare, CD'IMG (11643), and 2, from Three Rivers, (^DMG (9907). 

Tuolumne Cou)ii\i: 1, Aragonite is reported from Table ]\Iountain 
(N.R.). 

t*ARAGOTITE, 1873 
A hydrocarbon 

This material, no longer recognized by Dana as a mineral species, 
has been reported from several cinnabar mines. It is related to idrialite. 

Napa Couniij: 1, Aragotite occurred on cinnabar at the Redington 
mine, Knoxville, Durand (2) p. 218, Hanks (12) p. 289, (20) p. 674. 
2, Hanks (20) p. 674, reports aragotite from the Aetna mine, and 
gives a partial analysis. 

Santa Clara County: 1, Aragotite was first observed at the New Al- 
maden mine impregating siliceous dolomite, and was described by 
Durand (2) p. 218, Hanks (12) p. 289, (20) p. 674. 

Yolo County: 1, A specimen of aragotite from the California mine 
is reported by Hanks (12) p. 289. 

-ARCANITE, 1908 
Potassium sulphate, KjSO^ 

Orange County: 1, Eakle (9) p. 233, reported areanite as a new 
mineral in yellow crystals from Tunnel No. 1 of the Santa Ana Tin 
Mining Company in Trabuco Canyon. These are pseudo-hexagonal due 
to twinning, and apparently are actually orthorhombie ; thus the min- 
eral is different from aphthitalite, which it closely resembles. This is 
the first recorded natural occurrence of this mineral although the 
artificial compound was known earlier. 

ARGENTITE 
Silver sulphide, Ag2S 

Alpine County: 1, Argentite occurs sparingly in a number of mines 
in the Monitor area, south of Markleeville, associated with polybasite, 
pyrargvrite, and other sulpho-salts, Conkling (1) p. 184, Eakle (16) 
p. 13. 

Imperial County: 1, The mineral argentite is reported in a gold- 
quartz vein, with some silver, in the Marv Lode mine (sees. 14, 15, T. 
12 S., R. 18 E., S.B.), R. J. Sampson and Tucker (18) p. 122. 2, Tucker 
(11) p. 267, reports argentite from several mines 3 miles southeast of 
Midway Well. 

Inyo County: 1, Argentite was found with tetrahedrite and steph- 
anite in the Belmont mine, Cerro Gordo Mining District, Tucker (4) 
p. 283, and 2, it occurred with stephanite at the Oriental mine in Deep 
Spring Valley, Hanks (15) p. 93. 3, The mineral was found at the 
Cliff mine, Goodyear (3) p. 237, and 4, it was an important mineral 
in the Minietta Belle mine, Hanks (15) p. 93. 5, Argentite with native 



84 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

silver was collected on the southwest border of Saline Valley, T. War- 
ner (1) p. 938. 6, Masses of arpentite are reported from the Darwin 
Mininor District, Kelley (4) p. 543. 7, Crystals were reported by Aaron 
from the Kearsarpe Mining District, Hanks (12) p. 75. 8, Raoged 
masses, matted with quartz crystals and gold, came from the Silver 
Sprout vein, also from the Kearsarge Mining District, W. P. Blake 
(14) p. 125. 9, Argentite is associated with cerargyrite in the AA^ild 
Rose Mining District. DeGroot (2) p. 213, and 10, it is found in the 
Lee mine 18 miles east of Keeler, Tucker (11) p. 488. 11, At the Sun- 
rise mine in the Panamint Mining District, Stetefeldt (1) p. 259, re- 
ports argentite, and 12, small amounts of the mineral occur with nickel 
and cobalt minerals at Long Lake (sec. 14, T. 9 S., R. 31 E., M.D.), 
Tucker and Sampson (25) p. 378. 

Kern County : 1, Argentite occurs with tetrahedrite and pyrargyrite 
at the Amalie mine, Crawford (2) p. 605. and 2, it is found in several 
mines on Soledad (Butte) Mountain, in the Mojave Mining District, 
Bateson (1) p. 176, Hamilton and Root (5) p. 157, Tucker and Samp- 
son (21), p. 298, Troxel and Morton (2) pp. 46-109. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Argentite occurred with native silver and 
arsenates at the Kelsey and O.K. mines, in San Gabriel Canyon 8 
miles from Azusa, Irelan (4) p. 47, Storms (4) p. 244. 

Mariposa County: 1, Argentite occurs with pyrargyrite and proust- 
ite at the Silver Bar (Brvant) mine 6 miles southeast of Mariposa 
(sec. 15, T. 6 S., R. 19 E.,"m.D.), Laizure (6) p. 123, (8) p. 44. 

Mono Coimty: 1, Small amounts of argentite are reported in the 
Bodie Mining District, Whiting (1) p. 389; and 2, in the Blind Spring 
Mining District, Hanks (12) p. 75, with native silver and gold, and 
3, at the Silverado mine in the Patterson Mining District, Sweetwater 
Range, argentite occurs with gold, native silver and cerargyrite in 
quartz, Whiting (1) p. 359. 

Napa County: 1, Argentite is reported at the Palisade mine (sec. 24, 
T. 9 N., R. 7 W., M.D.), nortlieast of Calistoga, W. AV. Bradley (1) 
p. 270, and 2, at the Mount St. Helena mine in the same area with 
cerargyrite, Boalich (4) p. 159. 

Nevada Coimty: 1, Argentite occurs with pyrargyrite and stephanite 
at the Allison Ranch mine, 2^ miles south of Grass Valley, Lindgren 
(12) p. 119, and 2, it was found at the Banner mine, 5 miles east of 
Grass Valley, Chandler (1) p. 4. 

Orange County: 1, Argentite is reported with argentiferous galena 
at Silverado (N.R.). 

Placer County: 1, Argentite occurs in gold quartz with a little galena 
and tellurides, at the Alabama mine 1 mile east of Penryn, Logan (17) 
p. 11, and 2, at the Eclipse mine (NW \ sec. 17, T. 12 N., R. 8 E.. 
M.D.),ibid. p. 22. 

Riverside County: 1, Argentite was found with carbonates in the 
Palen Mountains, P. J. H. Merrill (2) p. 526. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Argentite occurs, usually with cerargyr- 
ite, in the mines in the New York Mountains, Tucker and Sampson 
(16) p. 276. 2, Argentite is reported from the Lava Beds Mining Dis- 
trict (T. 7 N., R. 4 and 5 E., S.B.), DeGroot (2) p. 529; 3, in the 
mines at Calico, Weeks (2) p. 762, and 4, found with sulphides in the 



1966 J DESCRIPTIONS 85 

Goldstone area, 33 miles north of Barstow, Cloudman et al. (1) p. 805. 
5, Tucker (4) p. 366, reports arg:entite with cerargyrite at the War 
Eagle mine 9 miles north of Bagdad. 

Shasta County: 1, Argentite is found with native silver, freibergite 
and other silver minerals at the Big Dike mine, in the South Fork 
area (sees. 17, 18, T. 31 N., R. 6 W., M.D.), Laizure (1) p. 526, and 
2, at the Silver King mine, Middletown (sec. 8, T. 31 N., R. 5 W., 
M.D.),ibid. (1) p. 528. 

Tuolumne County: 1, Argentite occurs with sphalerite in quartz at 
Frazer's mine, J. B. Trask (1) p. 23. 

ARGENTOJAROSITE 
Basic silver iron sulphate, AgFe3(S04)2(OH )4 

Kern County: 1, Argentojarosite is locally abundant in the oxidized 
zone of the Cactus Queen mine, Mojave Mining District, Troxel and 
Morton (2) p. 104. 

ARSENIC 
Native arsenic, As 

Inyo County: 1, Richthofen (3) p. 46, reported native arsenic from 
the Owens River. 

Monterey County: 1, Arsenic was recorded from the old Alisal silver 
mine, about 8 miles southeast from Salinas, by W. P. Blake (7) p. 301. 

Nevada County: 1, CDMG (19841) from the Alcalde mine at Dead- 
man Flat, 4 miles southwest of Grass Valley, carries native arsenic and 
gold in calcite. 2, W. D. Johnston, Jr. (2) p. 340, (4) p. 36, observed 
botryoidal pieces of arsenic, some with free gold, on the 1600 foot level 
of the Empire mine at Grass Valley. 

ARSENIOSIDERITE 

Basic hydrous calcium iron arsenate, Ca3Fe4(As04)4(OH )j-3H20 

San Bernardino County: 1, Arseniosiderite was found by B. N. 
Moore at the Gallinger-Root (Lee Yim) mine 2 miles northwest of 
Ludlow, and analyzed by Charles Milton, R. C. Wells (3) p. 117. 

ARSENOLITE— White Arsenic 
Arsenic trioxide, AS2O- 

Alpine County: 1, Arsenolite crystals up to half an inch in diameter 
w^ere formed on the dumps of the Exchequer mine by the addition of 
water to burning enargite ore, Hanks (12) p. 76. 2, Arsenolite was also 
found in small white octahedrons with realgar at the Monitor mine, 
ibid. p. 344. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Large masses of arsenolite were found at 
the Amargosa mines, in the sink of the Amargosa River (T. 18 N., R. 
7 E., S.B.), W. P. Blake (9) p. 8, (30) p. 292. 

Trinity County: 1, Re-examination of specimens from the pyrrhotite 
deposit at Island Mountain shows claudetite reported by Landon (1) 
p. 279 to be in all probability arsenolite ; some of the octahedral crystals 
are as much as 1 mm in size, Switzer (p.c. '49). 



86 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

ARSENOPYRITE 
Iron arsenic sulphide, FeAsS 

Danaite is cobalt-bearing arsenopyrite. 

Arsenopyrite is very widespread in the gold-quartz veins of the state, 
usually as one of the minor gangue minerals, often associated with 
pyrite and chalcopyrite. It is impracticable to list all occurrences, but 
the mineral is common in the Mother Lode ores, and in the gold deposits 
of Siskiyou, Shasta and Trinity Counties. 

Alpine County: 1, Well-formed crystals are reported from the old 
Morning Star mine, near Markleeville, Nichols (1) p. 172. 

Amador County: 1, At the Gwin mine, near Jackson, arsenopyrite 
was found ". . . in both large and small crystals. The former are 
particularly prized as they enclose aborescent masses of crystallized 
gold," F. L. Ransome (9)" p. 8. 

Calaveras County: 1, A cobaltiferous variety of arsenopyrite occurs 
on the Hauselt Patent, 2 miles southeast of Sheepranch (NW ^ NW \ 
sec. 22, T. 4 N., R. 14 E., M.D.). It is fine-grained, and on exposure to 
the air becomes coated with erythrite, Hess (19) p. 451. 

Del Norte County: 1, Arsenopyrite is found in the gold-quartz veins 
of several mines along Shellev Creek and upper Monkey Creek, Maxson 
(1) pp. 143, 144. 

El Dorado County: 1, Many of the Mother Lode mines carry some 
arsenopyrite, Logan (16) p. 34. 

Fresno County: 1, Arsenopyrite is abundant in the Jenny claim 
(NW \ sec. 16, T. 13 S., R. 27 E., M.D.), W. W. Bradley (2) p. 446. 

Imperial County: 1, Arsenopyrite is found in the Cargo Muchacho 
Mining District, Hanks (12) p.' 240. 

lyiyo County: 1, Arsenopyrite occurs with loUingite, pyrrhotite, and 
other sulphides in the Wilshire gold mine at the headwaters of Bishop 
Creek, Schroter (2) p. 53; 2, with cobalt and silver minerals at Long 
Lake, Tucker and Sampson (2) p. 378, and 3, in the Panamint Mining 
District at the head of Happy Canyon, Murphy (2) p. 317. 4, Arseno- 
pvrite is a minor mineral in the Darwin ores. Hall and MacKevett (4) 
p". 59. 

Kern County: 1, Numerous localities in and near the Green Momi- 
tain Mining District carry arsenopyrite, Tucker and Sampson (21) 
pp. 299, 304, 310, 325. 2, The mineral is common at the Yellow Aster 
and neighboring mines near Randsburg, Hulin (1) p. 83. 3, A vein 6 
to 12 inches in width was mined for arsenic at the Contact mine (sec. 
10, T. 10 N., R. 15 W., S.B.), Tucker (8) p. 368. 

Mariposa County: 1, The cobaltiferous variety, danaite, occurs with 
erythrite and mariposite at the Josephine mine, Bear Valley, H. W. 
Turner (12) p. 679. 

Mono County: 1, Arsenopyrite is common in the gold ores of the 
Sierra Nevada in this county. Mayo (4) pp. 83, 85. 

Monterey County: 1, Arsenopyrite occurs in gold-quartz veins in Los 
Burros Mining District, Hill (4) p. 327, and 2, at the head of Chualar 
Canyon, Laizure (3) p. 28. 

Napa Cou7ity: 1, Arsenopyrite is found at the Palisades mine 2 miles 
north of Calistoga, Hulin (p.c. '36). 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 87 

Nevada County: 1, The variety danaite occurs in well-formed bril- 
liant crystals up to a quarter of an inch in size, at Meadow Lake, W. P. 
Blake (14) p. 298. 2, Arsenopyrite is common but irregularly distrib- 
uted in the gold veins of Grass Valley and Nevada City, Lindgren (12) 
p. 118. 3, Laur (1) p. 1099, observed "pyrite blanche" in radial concre- 
tions at Grass Valley. 

Placer County: 1, Arsenopyrite occurs in the Ophir Mining District, 
Lindgren (7) p. 273; 2, in the Canada Hill and Dutch Flat Mining 
Districts, C. A. Waring (4) pp. 340, 350, and 3, at the Metallic mine 
near Cisco, it is associated with cobaltite, CDMG (1901). 

Riverside County: 1, Arsenopyrite occurs in crystals replacing 151- 
lingite at Crestmore, Kelley (2) p. 141. 2, The mineral is found in the 
ore with barite and fluorite at the Cajalco tin mine. West (3) p. 132. 
3, Excellent crystals of arsenopyrite have been collected from a pros- 
pect hole near the old Good Hope mine west of Perris, Knowlton (p.c. 
'57). 

San Bernardino County: 1, Arsenopyrite occurs at the Grand View 
and other mines in the Ord Mountains, Gardner (1) p. 261. 2, The 
mineral sometimes is found in considerable amount in the California 
Rand mine, Hulin (1) p. 83. 3, At the American mine (sec. 19, T. 4 N., 
R. 11 E., S.B.), Tucker and Sampson (27) p. 54 report arsenopj^rite. 

San Diego County: 1, Arsenopyrite is found with quartz and pyrrho- 
tite in the gold veins of the Julian Mining District, Donnelly (1) p. 359. 
2, Abundant arsenopyrite occurs in quartz veins of the Willhite group 
9 miles east of Descanso, Tucker and Reed (26) p. 12. 3, Lenses of 
massive arsenopvrite occur in veins at the Black Mountain mine (sec. 5, 
T. 14 S., R. 2 W., S.B.), Tucker (10) p. 329. 

Santa Clara County: 1, Minor amounts of arsenopyrite are found in 
the mercury ores of the New Almaden mine, W. P. Blake (1) p. 439. 
This report of the presence of arsenopyrite in the New Almaden ores 
is probably erroneous, E. H. Bailey and Everhart (12) p. 98. 

Sayita Cruz County: 1, Small crystals of arsenopyrite are abundantly 
disseminated in crystalline limestone, at the Pacific Limestone Products 
(Kalkar) quarry at Santa Cruz, Vonsen (p.c. '36). 

Shasta County: 1, Arsenopyrite is found in the gold ores at a number 
of localities near the western edge of the county, Averill (4) pp. 12, 50, 
57 (cf. Trinity County). 

Sierra County: 1, Arsenopyrite is the principal vein sulphide in the 
gold ores of the Alleghany Mining District, Ferguson (2) p. 163. 2, 
Arsenopyrite rich in gold comes from the Eagle mine. Kanaka Creek, 
CDMG (7768) ; 3, it is associated with tellurides at the North Fork 
claim. Forest City, Hanks (12) p. 77. 

Siskiyou County: 1, Arsenopyrite is plentiful with pyrite in the mas- 
sive ore of the Dewey mine near Gazelle, Mining and Scientific Press 
(29) p. 9. 

Trinity County: 1, Along the eastern edge of the county, near the 
Weaverville area, arsenopvrite is a moderately common mineral in the 
gold ores, Averill (10) pp. 28, 42, 64 (cf. Shasta County). 

Tulare County: 1, Arsenopyrite is a minor ore mineral in the mines 
of the Mineral King Mining District, Goodyear (3) p. 646, Franke (1) 
p. 436. 



88 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Tuolumne County: 1, The variety danaite is found with erythrite at 
the Josephine mine, Logan (16) p. 189. 

Ynha County: 1, Arsenopyrite occurs in a gold vein, with chalco- 
pvrite and tellurides at the California M Lode, in the Dobbins Mining 
District, 2 miles northwest of Dobbins (T. 18 N., R. 7 E., M.D.), C. A. 
Waring (4) p. 446. 

Additional references to minor occurrences are as follows : Amador, 
F. L. Ransome (9) p. 8; Calaveras, Tucker (1) p. 74, Franke and 
Logan (4) p. 239; Kern, Goodvear (3) p. 321, Tucker and Sampson 
(21) pp. 299, 304, 310, 325; Mariposa, R. W. Raymond (8) p. 52; 
Nevada, J. B. Trask (5) p. 86; Placer, Hanks (12) p. 77, W. W. 
Bradlev (22) p. 18; Riverside, R. J. Sampson (9) p. 513; Siskiyou, 
Averill (5) p. 280; Trinity, Averill (4) p. 26. 



ARTINITE 
Hydrous basic magnesium carbonate, IVIg2(C03) (OH)2-3H20 

Fresno County: 1, Artinite occurs in fine tufts on serpentine rock 
along White Creek east of Condon Peak, C. A. Noren (p.c. '60). 

San Benito County: 1, Acicular crystals of artinite occur on frac- 
tures in serpentine at a chrome prospect near New Idria, Dickson and 
Murdoch (p.c. '54). 2, Artinite is reported from the Alpine mine, 
CDMG (21729), (21750). 3, Artinite also occurs as fibrous aggregates 
on serpentine from the vicinity of the Florence Mack mine, Oyler 
(p.c. '59). 4, Artinite is also found on Clear Creek, Oyler (p.c. '59), 
CDMG (21730). 

ATACAMITE 
Basic copper chloride, Cu2CI(OH)3 

Inyo County: 1, J. D. Dana (4) p. 786, recorded atacamite from 
this county. As the Cerro Gordo mine was the best known for rare 
minerals, it may perhaps have come from this mine. H. E. Pemberton 
(p.c. '64) points out tliat Cerro Gordo was not visited by Americans 
apparently until 1868. This report of atacamite is in an 1868 publica- 
tion. It is therefore unlikely that the specimen is from this locality. 

Kings County: 1, Atacamite has been reported from Avenal Creek 
(T. 23 S., R. 16 E., M. D.), W. W. Bradley (29) p. 456. This is a 
doubtful occurrence. 

Sa7i Bernardino County: 1, A specimen from 2 miles southeast of 
Goffs carried small crystals of atacamite in a vug. This is represented 
by CDMG (19428), and was identified by Foshag (p.c. '46). 



AUGELITE 
Basic aluminum phosphate, Al2P04(OH)3 

Mono County: 1, Crystals of this rare mineral up to three-quarters 
of an inch or more in size have been found in the andalusite ore body 
of the Champion Sillimanite Company, on the west slope of the White 
Mountains, Lemmon (1) p. 664. Complex crystals have been described 
by Pough (1) p. 536, and the x-ray structure has been worked out by 
Peacock and Moddle (1) pp. 111-113. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 89 

AURICHALCITE 
Basic carbonate of zinc and copper, (Zn,Cu)5(C03)2(OH)j 

Inyo County: 1, Aurichaleite occurs with hemimorphite and hydro- 
zincite at the Cerro Gordo mine, A. F. Rogers (7) p. 374, C. W. Mer- 
riam (1) p. 43. 2, It is found in the Defiance mine, in the Darwin 
Mining District, as fibrous radiating clusters and coatings, with lina- 
rite, and is often coated with heminorphite, Murdoch and Webb (14) 
p. 323, Hall and MacKevett (4) p. 64. 3, Specimen CDMG (21321) 
came from one mile east of Dodd Spring, Ubehebe Mining District. 
4, Aurichaleite occurs in blue spherulitic globules on matrix from the 
War Eagle mine, near Tecopa, Woodhouse (p.c. '54). 

Kern County: 1, Aurichaleite is one of the ore minerals found near 
Loraine in the Blackhawk mine (SW ^ sec. 5 T. 31 S., R. 33 E., M.D.) 
with other lead, copper and zinc minerals, Troxel and Morton (2) 
pp. 41, 345. 

Mono County: 1, Aurichaleite is found as pale-green fissure fillings 
in magnetite containing sphalerite, near Topaz. There is no written 
description of this occurrence except a statement by Eakle (22) p. 
143, but it is probably an authentic occurrence. 

AUTUNITE 
Hydrous calcium uraniunn phosphate, Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2-10-12H2O 

Meta-autunite I (SHoO) and meta-autunite TI (zero H2O to 6-iH20) 
are not known in nature. 

Imperial County: 1, Autunite or torbernite is reported from a pros- 
pect 10 miles NE of Glamis, in metamorphic rocks, G. W. Walker et al. 
(5) pp. 10,26. 

Inyo County: 1, Autunite is reported as occurring disseminated in 
clay beds, on the Green Valley claim (N i sec. 25, T. 19 S., R. 37 E., 
M.D.), Anon. (27) p. 5. New information on this occurrence shows the 
claim to be the "Green Velvet", and to have autunite coating con- 
choidal fracture surfaces in light gray clay, in beds of clay and tuf- 
faceous sandstone, G. W. Walker et al. (5) pp. 10, 35. 2, Autunite 
is reported from near Olancha (CDMG 21634). 3, A little autunite has 
been found in Zinc Hill, Darwin area, Hall and MacKevett (4) p. 64. 

Kern County: 1, A specimen showing crusts of autunite from the 
Summit Diggings is in the University of California collections at Berke- 
ley, and is probably the same as the one referred to by Hanks (15) 
p. 8, as from the Randsburg area; see also Anon. (25) p. 14. Additional 
data confirm the identity of this occurrence as the Chilson property 
in the Summit Range, 6 miles north of Randsburg (sec. 36 (?), T. 
28 S., R. 40 E., M.D.). The autunite occurs as yellow crystals on joint 
surfaces and in small cavities in the Red Mt. volcanics, with torbernite, 
G. W. Walker et al. (5) p. 19. 2, Autunite and meta-autunite occur at 
the Rosamond prospect (N I sec. 25, T. 10 N., R. 13 W., S.B.), 10 
miles south of Mojave, G. W. Walker (1) p. 3. 3, Autunite and tor- 
bernite have been fonnd on the property of the Miracle Mining Com- 
pany, near Miracle Hot Springs, in Kern Canyon, Anon. (26) p. 18, 
Troxel and Morton (2) p. 333. 4, Autunite is reported in iron oxides 
from the Bluett property (NE ^ sec. 9, T. 10 N., R. 13 W., S.B.), G. W. 



90 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [BuU. 189 

Walker et al. (5), p. 17. 5, Aiitiinite with gummite {1), iron and 
manganese oxides, quartz and clay is found in a fault zone 6 miles SSE 
of Tehachapi (Buster Tom claims, sec. 8, T. 11 N., R. 14 W., S.B.), 
G. W. Walker et al. (5) p. 17. 6, The mineral is found 1^ miles west 
of the Miracle mine and 3 miles west of Miracle Hot Springs (sec. 
25 (?), T. 27 S., R. 31 E., M.D.). The antunite is carried in an iron- 
stained breccia zone, and is similar to the autunite from the Miracle 
mine, locality (3). The prospect is known as the Wayne Case property, 
G. W. Walker et al. (5) p. 30, MacKevett (2). 7, From the Kergon 
group of claims (sec. 20, T. 27 S., R. 32 E., M.D.) autunite is reported 
with fiuorite and a molybdenum-bearing mineral in faults and frac- 
tures in granodiorite, G. W. Walker et al. (5) pp. 11, 30, MacKevett 
(2). In this property, autunite is the principal uranium mineral, Troxel 
and Morton (2) p. 330. 8, Prom the Kervin claim, near Penyon Creek, 
CDMG (21611), autunite occurs in minor amounts. The material is 
found in a shear zone on a granite-metasedimentarv contact, 9^ miles 
SE of Weldon (sec. 23, T. 27 S., R. 35 E., M.D.), with torbernite,'G. W. 
Walker et al. (5) p. 31, MacKevitt (2), (CDMG 21612). 9, Autunite 
sparsely coats fracture surfaces in altered rhvolite in the Middle Butte 
mine, 8 miles SW of Mojave (sec. 16, T. IO'n., R. 13 W., S.B.), in a 
former gold mine, G. W. Walker et al. (5) p. 17. 10, Autunite was 
found after an aerial survey of the Mojave Mining District where an 
anomaly- appeared in section 10. A shaft was sunk in which autunite 
coatings were found on fracture surfaces in an andesite porphyry dike 
and in quartz monzonite, G. W. AA^alker et al. (5) p. 15. 11, The mineral 
has been identified from the Stillwell propertv (sec. 35, T. 10 N., R. 
13 W., S.B.), 5 miles NW of Rosamond, G. W.' Walker et al. (5) p. 15. 
12, Specimens from the Surprise claim, near McKittrick (CDMG 
21649, and CDMG 21631). This property is briefly described by G. W. 
Walker et al. (5) p. 33 (sec. 3, T. 30 S., R. 21 E., M.D., called Surprise 
No. 1 claim), as carrying "honey-yellow secondary, uranium minerals" 
but the identity as antunite is not confirmed. 13, Meta-autunite, coating 
fractures in granodiorite, is reported in the Verdi Development Com- 
pany property (sec. 36, T. 10 N., R. 13 E., S.B.), G. W. Walker et al. 
(5) p. 15. 14, Autunite is found with gummite (?) in fractures in 
rhyolite, at the Jumpin claim (sees. 9, 10, T. 9 N., R. 13 W., S.B.), 5^ 
miles AVNW of Rosamond, G. W. Walker et al. (5) p. 15. 15, Autunite 
is reported from the Breckinridge area, (CDMG 21612). 16, Autunite 
occurs at the Monte Cristo prospect with carnotite, MacKevet.t (2) 
p. 213. 17, Autunite is the principal uranium mineral at the Owen 
group of claims (sec. 4, T. 32 S., R. 22 E., M.D.) in the Temblor Range, 
Troxel and Morton (2) p. 335. 18, Autunite occurs in the Miller Ranch 
deposit 6 miles north of Cantil (SE i sec. 1, T. 30 S., R. 36 E., M.D.), 
Troxel and Morton (2) p. 333. 

Lassen County: 1, Autunite comes from Siskon Mining Lease near 
Doyle, (CDMG 21658). 

Los Angeles County: 1, Autunite, with other secondary uranium min- 
erals, occurs as fracture coatings in deeply weathered granite on the 
Rafferty property, 25 miles east of Lancaster (sec. 26, T. 7 N., R. 8 W., 
S.B.), G. W. Walker et al (5) p. 20. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 91 

Riverside County: 1, Autunite is reported from Joanna No. 2 mine, 
near Blythe, (CDMG 21628). 

San Bernardino County: 1, Specimens of yellow autunite with green 
plates of torbernite are reported to have eome from the northeastern 
part of the county. There is not written description of this occurrence 
beyond a statement in Eakle (22) p. 238, but it is probably authentic. 
2, 'Autunite is reported from near Barstow, (CDMG 21647). 3, The 
mineral is reported, probably with carnotite, as coatingjs and fractures 
in lake beds from the Harvard Hills (T. 10 N., R. 3 E., S.B.), 9 miles 
east of Yermo, G. W. Walker et al. (5) p. 20. It is probable that 
localities (2) and (3) are the same. 

San Luis Ohispo County: 1, Autunite specimens come from the Wake- 
field propertv near Pozo, (CDMG 21623); 2, from near Fellows, 
(CDMG 21651) ; 3, from Sunset claim, near Taft, (CDMG 21648) ; 4, 
from the Geeslin and Fiscus property, 3 miles SSW of Taft, with 
secondarv uranium minerals as coating:s on siltstones and shale, (sec. 
34 (?), T. 32 S., R. 23 E., M.D.), G. W. Walker et al. (5) p. 34. 

Trinity County: 1, Autunite is reported from the county, (CDMG 
21622). 

Tulare County: 1, Goodwin (1) p. 369, states: "... uranium- and 
thorium-bearing- minerals which have been identified in Tulare County 
include xenotime, euxenite, torbernite, autunite, and uraninite." 

Tuolumne County: 1, Autunite has been observed from Sonora Pass 
area, CDMG (21644). 

AWARUITE— Terrestrial Nickel-Iron 
Native alloy of nickel and iron, with greater than 60% nickel 

Del Norte County: 1, Awaruite has been found as small (0.15-1.5 
mm) rounded grains in the heavy residues of sands of the South Fork, 
Smith River, Jamieson (1) p. 414. 

AXINITE 

Basic aluminum calcium borosilicate with iron and manganese, 
Ca2(Mn,Fe)Al2BSi40,5(OH) 

Amador County: 1, Crystals to 1 inch long were found in a vein 
cutting limestone in a quarry on the Allen Ranch, 4 miles west of 
Martell, Bowen (p.e. '55). 

Butte County: 1, Abundant loose crystals of axinite and clusters of 
crystals, plum-colored and of the usual platy habit, were found in the 
gold placers of Yankee Hill, Wilke (p.c. '36). 

El Dorado County: 1, Small clear brown crystals of axinite with 
many faces were found on epidote at the old Cosumnes copper mine 3 
miles northeast from Fairplay, Schaller (18) p. 42. 2, Thin-bladed 
masses of violet-colored axinite occur in veins on the northeast side of 
Lily Lake (T. 12 N., R. 17 W., M.D.), Clark (p.c. '36). 

Inyo County: 1, Axinite was reported from the Funeral Range, Kunz 
(24) p. 96. 2, Perfectly formed small white crystals of axinite were 
found with smithsonite at the Ilbehebe mine, Eakle (22) p. 188. 3, A 
specimen of axinite, with well-developed crystals, in epidote (CDMG 
21320) comes from the south end of Hidden (Butte) Valley, Ubehebe 



92 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Mining District. Additional data from McAllister (4) p. 53 on locali- 
ties (2) and (3) suggrest that "... Butte Valley is another name for 
Hidden Valley . . . the locality of the later find (3) is perhaps the 
same . . . but is probably not at Ubehebe mine, which is 6 miles toward 
the northwest and in other mountains." 4, Axinite has been doubtfully 
reported from Sheppard Canyon, 14 miles west of Ballarat, (CDMG 
21192). 5, Coarse-grained axinite occurs in calcite marble very near a 
contact with intrusive quartz monzonite, west of Hidden Valley, as 
purplish aggregates of platy crvstals up to an inch in length, McAllister 
(4)^p. 53. 

Kern County: 1, Bladed subhedral crystals of plum- to brownish- 
blue axinite occur in a contact zone on the south fork of Erskine Creek 
(sec. 6, T. 28 S., R. 33 E., M.D.), Murdoch and Webb (11) p. 552. 2, 
Small plum-colored crystals of axinite with massive wollastonite are 
found in a contact deposit on the Rademacher-Terese siding of the 
Owens Valley Branch of the Southern Pacific Railroad (T. 27 S., R. 39 
E., M.D.), Murdoch and Webb (11) p. 553. 

Madera County: 1, Large violet-colored crystals, some of gem quality, 
with accessory sphene, occur in a small pegmatite about 5 miles north- 
east of Coarse Gold, W. W. Bradley (29) p. 310, Over (p.c. '45). 

Marin County: 1, Crystals of axinite with associated prehnite are 
found in the hills around the Stinson Ranch, Vonsen (p.c. '45). 

Mono County: 1, Plum-colored crj^stals up to 1 inch in size occur in 
vugs and fissures in metamorphic rock 200 yards northwest of the south- 
ern shore of a large unmapped lake at the southeast base of Mount 
Baldwin, Chelikowsky (p.c, '36). 

Monterey County: 1, Pale lavender crystals of axinite occur with 
epidote and quartz in metamorphosed serpentine, at Lime Kiln Creek, 
Chesterman (p.c. '51). 

Placer County: 1, Massive crystalline axinite in epidote rock has 
come from the north summit point of a ridge south of Five Lakes (sec. 
7 (?), T. 15N., R. 16 E., M.D.), Wood (p.c. '36). 

Riverside County: 1, Very large purple crystals have been collected 
from the old City quarry. North Hill, Riverside, A. F. Rogers (7) 
p. 378. 2, Thin purple blades of axinite have been found in some of the 
Crestmore pegmatites, Woodford et al. (10) p. 358. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Axinite has been collected in the Owl 
(Owl Hole) Mountains, Kunz (24) p. 96. 2, Axinite occurs with zoisite 
in the Henshaw quarrv (SE | sec. 33, T. 1 S., R. 5 W., S.B.), Cooney 
(p.c. '53). 

San Diego County: 1, Smoky pink crystals of axinite, brilliant and 
perfectly transparent, occurred in pockets of a pegmatite (?) with 
crystalline quartz, at the Freeman mine, near Bonsall (E ^ sec. 27, T. 
10 S., R. 3 W., S.B.), Schaller (18) p. 37. 

Siskiyou County: 1, Big, pale-pinkish crystals of axinite occur in a 
2- to 6-inch vein, in a road cut near the crossing of the Klamath River, 
between Yreka and Hornbrook, Vonsen (p.c. '45). 2, CDMG (20825) 
is from the Humbug mining area northwest of Yreka, W. W. Bradley 
(23) p. 85. 

Tulare County : 1, Crystals of axinite up to three-quarters of an inch 
across occur with epidote at the Consolidated tungsten mine, Drum 
Valley, Noren (p.c. '54). 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 93 

AZURITE 
Basic copper carbonate, Cu3(C03)2(OH)2 

Azurite, ehrysocolla, malachite, and other blue, blue-green, and green 
minerals, mostly copper-bearing, are widespread in stringers, coatings, 
and alterations associated with other copper minerals referenced in this 
volume. No systematic eti'ort to report all occurrences of these minerals 
is practical. However, many minor occurrences are reported, and others 
omitted, because early literature was often to minor localities, and they 
have been retained for clarity of the historic record. 

Although not as common as malachite, azurite is nevertheless wide- 
spread in its occurrence, often merely as blue stains or coatings in 
deposits of copper, or with ores containing even traces of copper min- 
erals. 

Calaveras County: 1, Fine specimens of azurite and malachite have 
come from the Hughes mi)ie, W. P. Blake (9) p. 8. 2, Azurite has been 
found in the mines at and near Copperopolis, Hanks (32) p. 77, Keid 
(3) p. 398, and in other mines of the county. 

El Dorado County: 1, Good specimens, of azurite have been found at 
the Alabaster Cave, Consumnes, and other mines in the Foothill copper 
belt, Aubury (4) p. 213, Tucker (3) pp. 276-278. 

Imperial County: 1, Azurite occurs with malachite at the Volunteer 
and Cave Man mines (sees. 23, 26, T. 12 S., R. 20 E., S.B.), Tucker 
(11) p. 252. 2, Azurite is found in the Cargo Muchacho Mining Dis- 
trict, Henshaw (1) p. 185. 

Inyo County: 1, Azurite has been found with oxide, silicate and green 
carbonate of copper at Greenwater, Black Mountains, south of Furnace 
Creek, C. A. Waring and Huguenin (2) p. 70. 2, A little azurite was 
found in the Panamint Mining District, Murphy (2) p. 322. 3, Azurite 
occurs with anglesite, bindheimite, and malachite at the Modoc mine, 
Hanks (12) p. 71, and 4, in the Cerro Gordo Mining District, ibid. p. 71. 
5, Azurite is one of the oxidized copper minerals in the Darwin Mining 
District, Hall and MacKevett (4) p. 64. 

Kern County: 1, Azurite is found with sulphides and oxides at the 
Greenback mine, near Woody, Storms (13) p. 635. 

Lake County: 1, Azurite occurs with malachite at the Copper Prince 
mine 4 miles northwest of Middletown (sec. 19, T. 11 N., R. 7 W., S.B.), 
Aubury (1) p. 138. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Azurite was discovered on the east end of 
Santa Catalina Island, Mining and Scientific Press (5) p. 263. 

Madera County: 1, Azurite is found at the old Buchanan and Ne 
Plus Ultra mines near Daulton (T. 8 and 9 S., R. 18 E., M.D.), Aubury 
(11) pp. 218, 220. 

Mariposa County: 1, Many mines in the county carry minor amounts 
of azurite, J. R. Browne (4) p. 27, Aubury (1) pp. 204-213, Liebenam 
(1) p. 543. 2, Fine crystals have been reported from the Hawlington 
area (N.R.). 

Mendocino County: 1, Azurite is reported from the Redwood Copper 
Queen (sees. 17, 20, T. 12 N., R. 13 W., M.D.), Aubury (1) p. 137. 



94 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Modoc Couniy: 1, Azurite is found at the Seitz mine, 7 miles south- 
west of Fort Bid well, Tucker (3) p. 241. 

Mono County: 1, Aggregates of small crystals of azurite came from 
the Diana mine, A. W. Jackson (3) p. 371. 2, The mineral was reported 
from the Detroit mine, Jordan Mining District, with malachite and 
cuprite, Whiting (1) p. 364. 3, Azurite occurs sparingly at the Kerrick 
mine, Blind Spring Hill, A. L. Ransome (2) p. 190, and 4, at Copper 
Mountain, 16 miles southwest of Bodie, ibid. p. 120. 

Monterey County: 1, Azurite is found with arsenopyrite on the Riley 
Ranch at the head of Chualar Canyon, Laizure (3) p. 28. 

Nevada Couniy: 1, Azurite occurs with malachite at the Zinc House 
mine, near Empire Ranch, Anbury (1) p. 27. 

Placer County: 1, Azurite is reported from the Algol mine (sec. 9, 
T. 13 N., R. 7 E., M.D.), near Auburn, Anbury (1) p. 173. 2, The min- 
eral was found by Silliman (7) p. 351, with oxides and sulphates in the 
Valley View mine at Whiskey Hill, near Lincoln. 

Plumas County: 1, Azurite is found at various properties near Tay- 
lorsville (sees. 1^ 11, 12, T. 24 N., R. 11 E., M.D.), Averill (8) p. 93. 

Riverside County: 1, Azurite is found at Crestmore in small amount, 
Eakle (15) p. 353. 2, In the McCoy Mountains and Palen Mountains, 
F. J. H. Merrill (2) p. 525, reports azurite. The mineral occurs 3, at the 
Black Eagle mine, Eagle Mountains, Tucker (8) p. 195, and 4, at the 
Lost mine, Pacific mining area, Oreutt (2) p. 903. 

San Bernardi^io County: 1, Azurite is abundant with chrysocolla in 
the silver ores of the Calico Mining District, Weeks (2) p. 762. 2, The 
mineral occurs in many of the mining areas of the county, in small 
amounts: Clark Mountains, Tucker (4) p. 339; Ord Mountains, Tucker 
and Sampson (28) p. 237; Signal, Old Dad Mountain, and Bumper 
claims, Cloudman et al. (1) p. 785; Whipple Mountains, Calarivada, 
and Halloran Springs, Tucker and Sampson (17) pp. 266, 269, 273; 
Shadow Mountain, Tucker (4) p. 341. 3, Azurite crystals occur in druses 
in the Brilliant claim at the Ord Mountain mine, Weber (3) p. 27. 

San Bkcjo Count i/: 1, Azurite occurs witli ehalcopvrite and malachite 
at the Daley mine (sec. 11, T. 13 S., R. 1 E., S.B.), Tucker (8) p. 370. 

Santa Barbara County: 1, A small amount of azurite was found at the 
Laguna Ranch mine (3 miles west of sec. 5, T. 7 N., R. 29 W., S.B.), 
Cloudman et al. (1) p. 735. 

Santa Clara County: 1, Azurite occurs at the Hooker Creek mine, 
7 miles south of Los Gatos, Huguenin and Castello (4) p. 184; 2, it oc- 
curred with crystallized cinnabar in calcite at the Guadalupe mine, 
Kunz (24) p. 107. 

Shasta County: 1, Native copper, sulphides and azurite are reported 
in the Greenhorn mine, French Gulch Mining District (see. 6, T. 32 
N., R. 7 W., M.D.), Tucker (9) p. 433; 2, at Bullv Hill. Diller (7) p. 
128, and 3, at the Peck mine. Copper Hill. CDMG (800). 

Siskiyou County: 1, Azurite is found in minor amounts in gold veins 
of the Bonanza mine near Honolulu, Logan (8) p. 433; 2, in the cliffs 
above the glacier on the north side of Mount Caesar, at the head of 
Little South Fork, Salmon River, Goudey (p.c. '36). 

Sonoma. County: 1, Small amounts of azurite are present at the Corn- 
ucopia mine (sees. 33, 34, T. 12 N., R. 9 W., M.D.), W. W. Bradley (1) 



1966 J DESCRIPTIONS 95 

p. 320; 2, at Altamont (sec. 17, T. 7 N., R. 10 W., M.D.), Aubury (4) 
p. 167, and 3, small perfect crystals have been reported 8 miles north- 
east of Cazadero (N.R.). 

Trinity County: 1, Azurite occurs in small amounts at Island Moun- 
tain, Vonsen (p.c. '45). 

Tulare County: 1, Azurite was found with "silver sulphides" at the 
Deer Creek silver mine 11 miles south of Porterville, Franke (1) p. 462; 
2, at the Hart prospect (see. 2, T. 15 S., R. 28 E., M.D.), in the Red- 
wood Canyon region, ibid. p. 435. 

Tuolumne County: 1, Azurite is found at the McKay Ranch (sec. 28, 
T. 1 N., R. 14 E., M.D.), Aubury (1) p. 201. 

Ve7itura County: 1, Azurite is reported from the Prospect mine near 
Triunfo, Carter (p.c. '36), and 2, in the Ventura mine (T. 1 N., R. 18 
W., S.B.) at the foot of the south slope of Simi Peak, associated with 
millerite and pentlandite. Tucker and Sampson (20) p. 257. (Localities 
(1) and (2) may be the same.) 

*BAKERITE, 1903 
Hydrous basic calcium borosilicate, CajB^CBO^) (Si04)3(OH)3H20 

General reference: Kramer and Allen (5) . 

Inyo County: 1, Bakerite has been found in a small prospect hole at 
the entrance to Corkscrew Canyon, in Death Valley, Larsen (11) p. 43, 
and in manv of the side gulches in Corkscrew Canyon, Murdoch (p.c. 

'54). 

Los A7\geles County: 1, A finely crystalline crust on cavities in shale 
at the Sterling borax mine. Tick Canyon, has been shown by x-ray 
examination to be bakerite, Murdoch (p.c. '50). The bakerite is covered 
in part by celestite crystals. Further exploration produced bakerite 
crystals that were measured on the goniometer, confirming the identity, 
Murdoch (42) p. 919. Also, well-formed minute crystals of bakerite of 
two distinct crystal habits have been found associated with howlite 
masses at the Sterling borax mine. Tick Canyon, Murdoch (p.c. '57). 

8an Bernardino County: 1, Bakerite, associated with howlite, was 
described and named by Giles (2) p. 353, with analyses, from the Borax 
Consolidated Company mines, at Borate, in the Calico Mountains. 

BARITE — Heavy Spar 
Barium sulphate, BaS04 

Barite is widespread in many parts of the state. Occurrences of the 
mineral are very numerous, but few have mineralogical significance. As 
a mineral resource, barite occurs in considerable quantity in many 
deposits. In the localities referenced below, no attempt has been made 
to systematically report commodity occurrences, nor to report the 
mineral wherever it is mentioned in the literature. Some localities of 
minor importance and of little general mineralogical interest are noted 
because they have been carried in early editions of Minerals of Califor- 
nia. The authors consider it wise to retain these as part of the historical 
record, but newer and more important localities of the mineral as a 
mineral resource have not been added, and literature citations to arti- 



96 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

cles on such localities have not necessarily been included. It is empha- 
sized that validation of correct mineral identification in the literature 
has not been undertaken, so early identifications may be incorrect. 

An attempt has been made in the following citations to include at 
least all localities of unusual mineralogical interest as reported in the 
literature. A general recent reference to barite in California is F. H. 
Weber (2). 

Alameda Conniy: 1, Crystals of barite from the Leona Heights de- 
posit are in the Stanford University Collections. 

Alpine County: 1, Barite is one of the gangue minerals in the Morn- 
ing Star mine, Hanks (12) p. 78. 

Butte County: 1, Auriferous barite was found at the Pinkston mine 
half a mile south of Big Bend (sec. 8, T. 21 N., K. 4 E., M.D.), H. W. 
Turner (12) p. 588. 

Calaveras County: Barite is found in a number of the gold mines of 
the county: 1, Satellite Copper mine, Hanks (15) p. 94. 2, Barite is the 
principal gangue mineral in the Quail Hill (Eagle Copper and Silver) 
mine, \A^. B. Clark and Lydon (4) p. 32; granular masses from this 
localitv were reported in earlv literature, Cronise (1) p. 592, Silliman 
(7) p. 351andHuttl (Dp. 62. 

Contra Costa County: 1, CDMG (10330) is from Mount Diablo. 

El Dorado County: 1, Barite "10 miles above Georgetown" is rep- 
resented by CDMG (5991). 

Fresno County: 1, Drusy barite occurs as fracture or vein fillings in 
quartzite near Rush Creek (sec. 16, T. 11 S., R. 25 E., M.D.), CDMG 
(21896). 

Humboldt County: 1, Barite occurs in white crystalline veins up to 
a foot in width at Liscom Hill 8 miles northeast of Areata, Laizure (3) 
p. 300. 2, The mineral occurs near Hoopa, CDMG (20938). 

Imperial County: 1, In the Paymaster area mines, the mineral occurs 
as the principal gangue, with argentite (T. 12 S., R. 20 E., S.B.) 
Tucker (11) p. 267. 2, Small concretions of barite, sometimes hollow 
and lined with crystals, come from Coolidge Spring, a few miles south 
of Fish Springs and west of the old highway, Murdoch (p.c. '45). 

Inyo County: 1, Veins of barite occur in the Alabama Hills, near 
Independence, Hanks (12) p. 78, (15) p. 94, W. W. Bradley (12) p. 6. 
2, Barite occurs with free sulphur at the Defiance mine, Darwin, CDMG 
(7601). 3, CDMG (7201) came from Bishop Creek. 4, Barite occurs as 
pure white veins 2 to 5 feet wide in schists and slates in Gunter Can- 
yon, 6 miles northeast of Laws, Tucker (11) p. 512, W. W. Bradley 
"(12) p. 6, Tucker and Sampson (25) p. 481, Bateman (3) p. 83. 5, 
The mineral occurs as gangue in the copper ores near Greenwater, 
with one 40-foot ledge at Ramsey, Zalinski (1) pp. 81, 82. 6, Barite 
occurs in a 6- to 8-foot outcrop in Warm Springs Canyon, Tucker and 
Sampson (25) p. 482. 7, The mineral occurs with quartz as gangue at 
the Furnace Creek copper mine, Nicholas (1) p. 1087. 8, The mineral 
is found at the American mine, west of Zabriskie, C. A. Waring and 
Huguenin (2) p. 71. 9, Barite is found as gangue in a vein with 
sulphides and arsenates on Long Lake (sec. 14, T. 9 S., R. 31 E., M.D.), 
Tucker and Sampson (25) p. 378. 10, Coarse-grained barite is reported 
by McAllister (4) p. 53, from a vein up to 1 foot in thickness, 1400 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 97 

feet S. 85° W. of the liigh })oiiit of a ridge behind tlie Lippiiieott mine. 
11, Barite is an associated gangue mineral in the Darwin ores, Hall and 
MacKevett (4) p. 62. 12, Barite is an important mineral in the quartz 
veins of the San Felipe and Santa Maria mines, Cerro Gordo Mining 
District, C. W. Merriam (1) p. 60. 

Kern County: 1, Good crystals have been collected from Pine Can- 
yon, north of Mojave, Murdoch (p.c. '45). 2, Compact, fine grained 
barite occurs in the Ritter Ranch (Iron Blossom) deposit (SW ^ sec. 4, 
T. 31 S., R. 33 E., M.D.), Troxel and Morton (2) p. 60. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Barite is the principal gangue mineral of the 
silver-cobalt ore in the Kelsey mine, San Gabriel Canyon, Storms (4) 
p. 244. 2, A large outcrop of barite occurs (sec. 23, T. 1 N., R. 9 W., 
S.B.) on the west fork of San Dimas Canyon, F. J. H. Merrill (2) 
p. 480. 3, The mineral is found at the Renton and Black Jack mines 
on Santa Catalina Island, Gieser (1) p. 245. 4, Barite is present in 
minor amounts in Felix fluorite mine north of Azusa, CDMG (13031). 
5, Extensive veins of barite, with many small crystals and aggregates 
appear in the sea cliffs of the Palos Verdes Hills, Rocks and Minerals 
(1) p. 120, Schwartz (2) p. 8. 

Mariposa County: 1, Barite with tetrahedrite and triboluminescent 
sphalerite occurs in the Fitch mine (sec. 9, 10, T. 4 W., R. 15 E., M.D.), 
Eakle (5) p. 30. 2, A large deposit of barite has been mined about 2 
miles west of El Portal, Fitch (2) p. 461, 0. E. Bowen and Gray (2) 
p. 205. 3, A large deposit occurs near Jerseydale (sec. 17, T. 4 S., R. 
20 E., M.D.), W. W. Bradley (12) p. 7. 

Mono County: 1, Trenching exposed four feet of barite in the Mam- 
moth Lake area (T. 4 S., R. 27 E., M.D.), R. J. Sampson (14) p. 132. 
2, Large handsome crystals of barite have been found at the andalusite 
deposit in the White Mountains, Woodhouse (p.c. '45). 3, At the ex- 
treme northern tip of the county, near Coleville, a sizable deposit of 
barite occurs, Eakle and McLaughlin (17) p. 141. 

Napa County: 1, Pseudomorphs of quartz after barite have been 
found at the Redington mine, Durand (1) p. 211. 

Nevada County: There are several large deposits of barite in the 
county, as well as some occurrences in gold veins. Hanks (15) p. 94, 
Eakle (7) p. 90, Pabst (4) p. 173. 1, A 15-foot vein has been mined 
commercially at the Democrat barytes mine (sec. 24, T. 16 N., R. 10 E., 
M.D.), E. MacBoyle (1) p. 71. 2, Massive white to creamy barite occurs 
at the Spanish barite deposit (NW \ sec. 19, T. 18 N., R. 11 E., M.D.), 
Logan (20) p. 378. 3, A large deposit occurs north of the old Spanish 
mine, 6 miles from Washington, Logan (7) p. 12. 4, An extensive de- 
posit is found on the Maguire property at Liberty Hill, 5 miles from 
Alta, Stose (1) p. 338. 5, Barite with gold has been found at the 
Malakoff mine. Hanks (12) p. 78. 6, The mineral occurs at Pine Hill, 
as seams in diabase, E. MacBoyle (1) p. 59. 

Orange County: 1, A large deposit of crystalline barite occurs as the 
gangue mineral of the cinnabar deposit at Red Hill, Fairbanks (4) p. 
118, F. J. H. Merrill (2) p. 516, W. W. Bradley (12) p. 8. 

Placer County: 1, Barite occurs as one of the gangue minerals at 
Whiskey Hill, near Lincoln (sec. 26, T. 13 N., R. 8 E., M.D.), Silliman 
(7) p. 351. 



98 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA |Bull. 189 

Plumas County: 1, Several large lenses of barite occur in slate 5 
miles from Almanor (Ohio and Ohio Extension claims) (sec. 5, T. 26 
N., R. 8 E., and sec. 32, T. 27 N., R. 8 E., M.D.), Averill (8) p. 92. 2, 
Barite was reported by Edman in lead and copper ores in the north arm 
of Indian Valley, Hanks (12) p. 78. 3, A vein 2 to 3 feet wide of fine 
granular barite occurs at the Pinkston Ledge, half a mile south of the 
highest point of Big Bend Mountain, in the Bidwell Bar area, H. W. 
Turner (12) p. 558; 4, from the Diadem lode, ibid., p. 587. 

Riverside County: 1, Barite is one of the gangue minerals, with fluo- 
rite and arsenopvrite, in the tin ores at the Cajalco tin mine. West (3) 
p. 132. 

San Benito County: 1, Veins of barite up to 6 feet in width have 
been exploited at the Bardin Ranch, on the southwest flank of Gabilan 
(Fremont) Peak, AV. W. Bradley and Logan (7) p. 625, 0. E. Bowen 
and Gray (2) p. 40. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Barite occurs as gangue in the silver ores 
of the Calico Mining District, Tucker and Sampson (17) p. 358, Lind- 
gren (1) pp. 721, 725. 2, The mineral is abundant in veins in and 
around Lead Mountain (T. 10 N., R. 1 AY., S.B.), near Barstow, Tucker 
(4) p. 334, (8) p. 199, Durrell (7) p. 7. 3, Barite occurs north and 
northwest of Barstow, Tucker and Sampson (\1) p. 371, (9) p. 254. 4, 
Microscopic crystals of barite have been found in the bones of the fossil 
beds. 6 miles northeast of Barstow, Howard (1) p. 120. 5, A series of 
parallel veins of barite occur in basalt 3 miles north of Ludlow in the 
Hansen deposit (T. 8 N., R. 8 E., S.B.), W. W. Bradley (12) p. 54, Dur- 
rell (7) p. 5. 6, A 3-foot vein of barite occurs in limestone 12 miles east 
of VictorviUe (T. 6 N., R. 2 W., S.B.), Tucker and Sampson (17) p. 
279. 7, Nodular barite with celestite in clav shales comes from Owl 
Ploles (sec. 23, T. 18 N., R. 3 E., S.B.). Murdoch and Webb (11) p. 550. 
8, Stringers up to 12 inches occur at Foshay Pass, 26 miles southeast of 
Kelso, Tucker (4) p. 334. 9, Barite occurs with calcite as the gangue of 
lead ores in the Lava Beds Mining District, Tucker and Sampson (17) 
p. 351. 10, Two- to six-inch stringers of barite on a limestone schist 
contact are found 2 miles southeast of Afton, Tucker (4) p. 334. 11, 
Barite, largely massive, forms a large proportion of the minerals of the 
bastnaesite locality at Mountain Pass. Olson et al. (3) p. 34. 12, Barite 
is abundant as a gangue mineral in the Josephine Ledge, the Brilliant 
Ledge and in other mines in the Ord Mountains. F. PI. Weber (3) p. 25. 

San Francisco Countxj: 1, Tabular crystals occur in seams in the 
serpentine of Fort Point, San Francisco, Eakle (Dp. 316. 

Sun Luis Obispo County: 1, A one- to two-foot vein of barite occurs 
on the Fugler Ranch, 6 miles southeast of Arroyo Grande, Franks (2) 
p. 410. 2, Rosettes of "sand barite" crystals have been found in limey 
sandstone in the Cuyama Valley, J. W. Eggleston (p.c. '36). A speci- 
men from the Caliente Range about 10 miles south of Tavlor Springs, 
CDMG (21298), is from this occurrence. 

Santa Barbara County: 1, A 20-foot vein of white barite occurs on 
the north fork of La Brea Creek (sees. 5, 6, T. 10 N., R. 30 W., S.B.), 
about 20 miles northeast of Sisquoc, W. W. Bradley (12) p. 55. 2, 
Another deposit has been reported on the Sisquoc about 15 miles south- 
east of Santa Maria, Crawford (1) p. 406. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 99 

Santa Clara County: 1, Barite crystals of unusual habit occurred in 
seams in the manganese boulder of Alum Rock Park, A. F. Rogers (21) 
p. 447. 2, Barite is reported from New Almaden, E. H. Bailey and 
Everhart (12) p. 102. 

Shasta Comity: 1, Barite occurs as a gangue mineral in the mines of 
the Bully Hill Mining District (T. 34 N., R. 4 W., M.D.), Aubury (1) 
60, Logan (7) p. 7, Tucker (8) p. 429; 2, at the Glidden (Loftus) 
barytes, Tom Neal Creek (sec. 19, T. 38 N., R. 3 W., M.D.), Laizure 
(1) p. 515, F. F. Davis (8) p. 5; 3, at the Exposed Treasure No. 1 and 

2 claims, 12 miles north of Montgomery Creek (sec. 33, T. 36 N., R. 3 
W., M.D.), Logan (9) p. 129, and 4, near Baird (sec. 29, T. 34 N., R. 3 
W., M.D.), ibid., p. 129. In general, barite is an important gangue 
mineral in the sulphide ores of the East Shasta Copper Zinc area, 
Albers and Robertson (3) p. 70. 

Siskiyou County: 1, Barite is one of the vein minerals with galena, 

3 miles from Callahan on Boulder Creek, Logan (7) p. 181. 

Trinity County: 1, Dark-gray barite comes from about 15 miles below 
Hay Fork Post Office on the Hay Fork of Trinity River, CDMG 
(13716). 2, Barite is found also at the Delta mine, Ferguson (1) p. 43. 
3, Coarsely crvstalline barite is mined at the Alwood mine, Denny, F. F. 
David (8) p. 5. 

Tulare County: 1, An extensive deposit of barite occurs at the Paso 
Baryta Mines, Ltd., deposit in the southeastern part of the county (sees. 
23, 24, T. 24 S., R. 36 E., M.D.), Tucker and Sampson (25) p. 481; 2, 
the mineral is found on the Bauman Ranch, 15 miles east of Exeter, 
Franke (1) p. 431, and 3, at the Bald Mountain deposit near Rattle- 
snake Creek on the upper Kern River, Franke (1) p. 431. 4, Barite was 
found near Springville, Stoddard (5) p. 1129. 

BASSANITE 
Hydrous calcium sulphate, 2CaS04H20 

Fresno County: 1, Bassanite is reported in some nodules of fossilized 
wood from the Moreno formation, at the head of Escarpado Canyon 
(NW i sec. 7, T. 15 S., R. 12 E., M.D.), Gulbrandsen et al. (1) p. 101. 

hiyo County: 1, Bassanite occurs as thin layers in unconsolidated 
beds at a depth of 360 feet, in the dry lake near Ballarat, Panamint 
Valley, in long, snow-white fibers, R. D. Allen and Kramer (1), p. 1266. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Bassanite, in snowy-white, long fibers, is 
found in drill holes at depths of 365 and 510 feet, in uilconsolidated 
sediments in Danby dry lake (T. 1, 2 N., R. 17, 18 E., S.B.), R. D. 
Allen and Kramer (1) p. 1266. 2, Bassanite was identified by x-ray 
analyses of fossiliferous nodules from the Calico Mts., A. R. Palmer 
(1) p. 241. 

BASTNAESITE 
Essentially cerium fluocarbonate, (Ce,La) (CO3) F 

Sa7i Bernardino Coimty: 1, Bastnaesite occurs in relative abundance, 
largely in dolomite breccias associated with syenitic intrusives, along 
an extensive zone at Mountain Pass, Pray and Sharp (1) p. 1519, Olson 
and Sharp (1) p. 1467, Anon. (15) p. l,"and (13) p. 2, Glass et al. (5). 
A comprehensive report on the minerals of the Mountain Pass region 
is found in Olson et al. (3). 



100 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

BAVENITE 
Basic calcium beryllium aluminum silicate, Ca4(Be,AI)^Si,(0,OH)28 

San Diego County: 1, Jahns and Wrip'ht (5) p. 31, report bavenite 
from Pala in very minor amounts. This is presumably the same occur- 
rence reported in 1932 by Schaller and Pairehild (48) p. 409, as pseudo- 
morphous after beryl. A cavity in the pseudomorph is lined with 

bavenite crystals. 

BAYLDONITE 

Basic arsenate of lead and copper, (Pb,Cu)7(As04)4(OH)2' HjO 

Riverside County: 1, Some of the yellow-green coatings from the 
Commercial quarry, Crestmore, have been identified as near bayldonite, 
Murdoch (p.c, '56). 

Smi Bernardino County: 1, Some thin crusts of a yellowish-green 

mineral on limestone, associated with barite veins 1 mile southwest of 

Lead Mountain, suspected of being hedyphane, have been shown by 

x-ray studv to be bavldonite, Murdoch and Webb (14) p. 327, Murdoch 

(p.c. '54)." 

tBECHILITE 

Hydrous calcium borate, CaB407-4H20 

Shasta County: 1, An incrustation at Lick Springs was called "boro- 
calcite of Hayes," by J. B. Trask (7) p. 61. It may be bechilite or 
perhaps ulexite. No compound of the composition of bechilite has been 
found, Palache et al. (11) pp. 347, 365. 

BEIDELLITE 

Basic hydrous aluminum sodium silicate, 

Al2,7[(OH)j|Alo.83Si3.,70,o]''^2-Nao.„(H20)4 

Los Angeles County: 1, Beidellite occurs in graphitic schists with 
sillimanite in the upper part of Elizabeth Lake Canyon, near its junc- 
tion with San Andreas rift valley, as patches and fracture fillings in 
feldspar, Beverly (1) p. 352). 

Sierra County: 1, Ferguson and Gannett (6) p. 45, describe as 
beidellite gray, clayey, microscopically crystalline masses in cavities in 
veins in the Alleghany Mining District. 

BEMENTITE 
Basic manganese silicate, MnjSi^OidCOH )4 

Manganese mineials like bementite, braunite, hausmannite, inesite, 
manganite, neotocite, psilomelane, pyrolusite, wad, and others are often 
not separabh' by field methods. Tt is apparent to the authors of this 
volume that many citations in the literature, especially those prior to 
1940, niay be incorrect identifications. Abundance of manganese min- 
erals in the State in hundreds of localities makes systematic recording 
of all localities mentioned in the literature impractical. The following 
listings therefore may be incomplete, and many tliat are included are 
important only to reflect adequately the historic record. 

Bementite ". . . . is found with both rhodochrosite and rhodonite, 
and is in some deposits the main manganese mineral. This mineral 
varies in color from dark honey yellow to reddish brown to straw color. 
When coarsely crystalline it is bladed, but most California bementite is 
finely crystalline and has a waxy luster, which is characteristic, but 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 101 

which inexperienced persons may have difficulty recognizing. The best 
way to find bementite is to look for weathered fragments of a waxy yel- 
low or brown rock that cannot be scratched with a knife and that grades 
outward into black oxide," P. D. Trask et al. (4) p. 70. Bementite has 
been reported as one of the chief minerals in primary manganese ore 
from 19 counties in the state, ibid. p. 68, and the following specific 
localities are noted : 

Alameda County: 1, Bementite is found in the Arroyo Mocho man- 
ganese ore (N.R.), and 2, at the Bailey mine with inesite and gray 
rhodochrosite (N.R. ). 

Calaveras County: 1, Bementite occurs with rhodochrosite at the Big 
Little Bear (sec. 24, T. 3 N., R. 11 E., M.D.) and Kellogg (sec. 4, T. 2 
N., R. 12 E., M.D.) properties, P. D. Trask et al. (4) p. 60. 

Humholdt County: 1, Bementite occurs with brown neotocite and 
rhodochrosite, at the Woods (Charles Mountain) mine, 12 miles north 
of Blocksburg (N.R.). 

Mariposa County: 1, Bementite occurs with oxides and carbonates 
near Coulterville, P. D. Trask et al. (4) p. 80. 

Mendocino County: 1, Granular pale-brown bementite occurs with 
neotocite at the Thomas mine, 6 miles northeast of Redwood (N.R.) ; 
2, it was found with inesite and neotocite at the Mount Sanhedrin de- 
posits, especially in the Rhodochrosite claim at Impassable Rock (N.R.). 

Riverside County: 1, Bementite is found at the Beal-McClellan (SW 
i sec. 23, T. 5 S., R. 4 W., S.B.) and Elsinore (same, sees. 28, 24) 
properties, P. D. Trask et al. (4) p. 83. 

San Benito County: 1, Manganiferous chert at the Hawkins mine 
(sec. 35, T. 11 S., R. 6 E., M.D.) is known to contain bementite, P. D. 
Trask et al. (4) p. 83. 

San Joaquin County: 1, The Old Ladd mine at Corral Hollow (sees. 

2, 11, T. 4 S., R. 4 E., M.D.) carries bementite and hausmannite, W. W. 
Bradley (32) p. 98. 

Santa Clara County: 1, Bementite occurs at the Jones (NW \ see. 27, 
T. 6 S., R. 5 E., M.D.) and other properties, mostly in the northeastern 
portion of the county, with rhodochrosite and oxides, P. D. Trask et al. 
(4) p. 87. 

Stanislanis County: 1, Bementite is a constituent of the ore from the 
Cummings lease on the Winship property, where it occurs as granular 
masses, mixed with gray rhodochrosite and rose-red inesite (N.R.). 

Trinity County: 1, Bementite occurs at the Hale Creek mine (NW ^ 
sec. 23, T. 1 S., R. 1 E., H.) in Mad River Valley with inesite, P. D. 
Trask et al. (4) p. 59; 2, at the Manganese Queen, Spider, and Lucky 
Bill properties (sec. 27, T. 30 N., R. 12 W., M.D.), ibid. p. 60, and 

3, with rhodonite and rhodochrosite (sec. 9, T. 26 N., R. 11 W., M.D.), 
ibid. p. 60. 

Tuolumne County: 1, Bementite occurs with rhodochrosite at the 

Hughes mine (sec. 17, T. 2 S., R. 15 E., M.D.), P. D. Trask et al. (4) 

p. 91. 

* BENITOITE, 1907 

Barium titano-silicate, BaTiSi30, 

Benitoite was discovered as a' new mineral in San Benito County 
in 1907. It has also been reported as occurring in Belgium in sands 



102 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [ BuU. 189 

in the Owathe Valley, Anteii (1) p. B331, and in southwest Texas in 
Eocene sands, Lonsdale et al. (1) p. 79. 

Fresno Couyity: 1, White benitoite oeeurs as a minor constituent in 
a section of drill core taken near Rush Creek (sec. 16, T. 11 S., R. 25 
E., M. D.), CDMG (21897). Identification of benitoite was verified by 
x-ray diffraction and x-ray microprobe analyses of CDMG. Sanbornite, 
quartz, celsian, witherite, pyrrhotite, and diopside are associated min- 
erals. 

Kern County: 1, Benitoite was found as detrital grains in the heavy 
mineral fractions from a drill-hole in the Lazard area. Lost Hills 
(southeast corner T. 27 S., R. 20 E., M.D.), with some piemontite, 
dumortierite and other minerals, R. D. Reed and Bailey (4) p. 363. 

San Benito County: 1, Colorless and sapphire-blue crystals of this 
mineral were discovered in 1907 near the headwaters of the San Benito 
River (sec. 25, T. 18 S., R. 12 E., M.D.). They were orio-inally thought 
to be sapphire, but were found to be a new mineral and named by 
Louderback and Blasdale (2) p. 149, (5) p. 331. The crystals occur in 
a zone of narrow veins of natrolite in serpentine, and are associated 
with neptunite and joaquinite. The mineral represents the first natural 
occurrence of the trigonal class, hexagonal system, and its crystals have 
been studied and measured bv various authors: A. F. Rogers (2) p. 
616; Palache (6) p. 398 ; Hlawatsch (1) p. 178, (3) p. 602, (4) p. 293; 
Baumhauer (2) p. 592; Valeton (1) p. 92. 2, A second locality for 
benitoite, close to the original discoverv, has been reported. Mineral 
Notes and News (1) p. 3, Pabst (11) p. 479. 

BERTHIERITE 
Iron antimony sulphide, FeSb2S4 

Kern County: 1, Berthierite i^s reported as fibrous material associated 
with colemanite from Boron, H. E. Pemberton et al. (1) p. 34. 

Tuolumne County: 1, A dark-colored ore from the southeast slope 
of Mount Gibbs may contain an impure berthierite with galena and 
other sulphides, H. W. Turner (12) p. 714. This is a rather dubious 
occurrence, and it is more than possible that it is not authentic. 

BERTRANDITE 
Basic beryllium silicate, Be4Si207(OH)2 

Bertrandite is a rare mineral found in pegmatites associated with 
beryl. 

San Diego County: 1, Tabular white to light-gray crystals of bert- 
randite are reported as occurring very rarely on Heriart and Chief 
Mountains, in the Pala ]iegmatites, Jahns and Wright (5) p. 31. 

BERYL 

Beryllium aluminum silicate, Be3Al2Si50,3 

Aquamariyie is a pale-blue to pale-green beryl. Emerald is a trans- 
parent green beryl. Morganite is pink. Beryl is found as crystals, some 
of which attain great size, in granite pegmatites. Synthetic emerald 
has been made in California, A. F. Rogers (49) p. 762. 

Fresno County: 1, Beryl has been reported 5 miles northeast of 
Trimmer (sec. 34, T. 11 s!, R. 25 E., M.D.) with topaz, apparently in 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 103 

a pegmatite, W. W. Bradley (2) p. 438; 2, it has been found in peg- 
matite just east of Academy (T. 12 S., R. 22 E., M.D.), Noren 
(p.c. '45). 

Inyo Coimty: 1, Narrow veins with small crystals of opaque blue 
beryl are found cutting granite about 1^ miles southeast of Lone Pine 
station, Webb and Murdoch (p.c. '45). This is probably the same 
locality reported by Sterrett (10) p. 312, as "in the desert between 
Barstow and Lone Pine," in pale- to dark-blue crystals up to half an 
inch in diameter. See also M. B. Strong (4) p. 20. 2, Beryl has also 
been found with fluorite 3 miles west of Lone Pine, W. W. Bradley 

(23) p. 396, CDMG (20687). 

Lassen County: 1, Beryl is found with tourmaline and mica at the 
Mount Thompson gem mine (T. 28 N., R. 13 E., M.D.), north and east 
of Milford, Melhase (p.c. '40). 

Riverside County: 1, Yellow and pale-green beryl have been found 
at the Fano mine (NW \ SW \ sec. 33, T, 6 S., R." 2 E., S.B.), on the 
north side of Coahuila Mountain, Kunz (24) p. 49, Fisher (1) p. 68, 
Tucker and Sampson (35) p. 1965. 2, The rose-colored variety, morgan- 
ite, was found near Hemet, Kunz (25) p. 942. 3, Blue and green crys- 
tals of beryl up to half an inch in length occur in a small pegmatite 
just west of the Jensen quarry 4 miles west of Riverside, Clark (p.c. 
'36). 4, A considerable ({uantity of blue-green beryl, some of gem 
quality, is found 2 miles east of Riverside on the Mears property at 
the base of Box Springs Mountain, Sterrett (3) p. 799. 5, Beryl, some 
of it aquamarine, has been collected from the S. P. Silica quarry near 
Nuevo, Knowlton (p.c. '57). 

San Diego County: Beryl, sometimes in large and beautiful crystals, 
has been found in most of the gem-pegmatite dikes of this county. 1, 
A pale rose crystal (morganite) came from a pegmatite mine on 
Aguanga Mountain near Oak Grove (probably the Mountain Lily), 
and measured 11 by 7| by %\ cm, Kunz (24) p. 49. Pink beryl from 
here showed 1.60 percent cesium oxide on analysis, F. W. Clarke (10) 
p. 309. 2, Morganite was found in the Katerina (Catherina) and other 
mines on Heriart Hill, Pala, Kunz (23) p. 942, (24) p. 81, (26) p. 
1345. This beryl carried 0.57 percent of cesium oxide, W. E. Ford (6) 
p. 128, Jahns and Wright (5) p. 37. 3, At Mesa Grande, the Himalaya 
and Esmeralda mines produced pink, golden, and aquamarine beryl, 
Kunz (24) p. 49. One group of pink beryl from the Esmeralda mine 
showed tabular crystals 1^ inches across, Kunz (26) p. 1340. 4, At the 
Mack mine, Rincon (sec. 25, T. 10 S., R. 1 W., S.B.), there were pink 
and deep opaque blue beryls, Kunz (24) p. 49, and some clear, com- 
plexly etched crystals, Eakle (7) p. 89, A. F. Rogers (4) p. 212, Hanley 
(3) p. 14. 5, At Ramona, in the A. B.C., Surprise, and other mines, 
variously colored beryl has been found, including morganite, Kunz 

(24) p. 49. Eakle (6) p. 89. W. E. Ford (4) p. 217, has observed 
some remarkable etching on yellow crystals from this locality. 6, Pink 
and green beryls associated with essonite garnets are reported from the 
Crystal mine 8| miles northwest from Jacumba, Kunz (24) p. 49. 7, 
Beryl in crystals up to two feet were discovered near Tule Mountain 
in pegmatite dikes which also carry purpurite ( ?), Weber (1) p. 8. 

Trinity County: 1, Pink crystals have been found in placer deposits 
near Hamburg, Smith (p.c. '36), CDMG (20685), and have been iden- 



104 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

tified as beryl by Sperisen and Melhase. 2, Emerald-g:reen crystals 
have come from J. Carr's mine, Coffee Mining District, CDMG (15550). 
Tuolumne County: 1, Several small green beryl crystals, one doubly 
terminated, were found 3 or 4 miles from Jamestown, W. P. Blake 
(3) p. 84. Petar (1) p. 90. 

BETAFITE 

Basic oxide of uranium calcium niobium tantalum titanium and other 

rare earth elements, (Ca,Ce,Y,U,Cb) (N b,Ti,Ta)2(0,OH)7 

San Bernardino County: 1, Betafite occurs as small octahedral crys- 
tals, associated with cyrtolite, in a mass of dark minerals, mostly 
biotite and magnetite, in a pegmatite in the Cady Mountains, north 
of Hector, Hewett and Glass (3) p. 1048. The crystals, some of which 
are 6 mm in diameter, are partially altered, with a crust of an un- 
identified mineral; see also G. W. Walker et al. (5) p. 21 

BETA-URANOPHANE— Beta-uranotil 
Hydrous basic calcium uranium silicate, Ca(U02)2(Si03)2(OH)2-5H20 

Inyo County: 1, Beta-uranophane (reported as beta-uranotil) is 
found in the county, CDMG (21645). 

San Bernardino County: 1, Beta-uranophane (reported as beta- 
uranotil) is recorded with uranophane from the New^ Method mine 
(Hope uranium prospect) Bristol Mts., near Amboy, Chesterman and 
Bowen (6) p. 1679. 

BEYERITE 

Carbonate of bismuth and calcium, Ca(BiO)2(C03)2 

San Diego County: 1, Compact masses of greenish-gray beyerite, as 
an alteration product of an earlier bismuth mineral, were found in 
the Stewart mine at Pala, Frondel (3) p. 533. 

BIEBERITE 

Hydrous cobalt sulphate, CoSO^-THjO 

. San Luis OhisjJo County: 1, Bieberite occurs as an alteration of Lin- 
naeite in the Klau quicksilver mine, Santa Lucia Range (sec. 33, T. 
26 S., R. 10 E., M.D.), Woodhouse and Norris (6) p. 114. 

Trinity County: 1, Small amounts of bieberite as a pale rose-red 
powder, occur with other alteration products on pyrrhotite at the Is- 
land Mountain deposit, Landon (1) p. 279. 

BINDHEIMITE 
Hydrous basic oxide of lead and antimony, Pbj-j/Sbj-jCOiOHiHjO)^-; 

Bindheimite is very widely distributed in oxidized ores and is much 
more abundant than was commonly believed in antimony-bearing ores 
of lead and silver, Shannon (1) p. 88. 

Fresno County: 1, Brown bindheimite has been described from this 
county, Larsen (11) p. 47, and a green opal-like specimen is in the 
University of California Collections at Berkeley. 

hiyo County: 1, Bindheimite is a common oxidation product in lead 
ores at the Cerro Gordo mine. Hanks (12) p. 71, A. Knopf (8) p. 114, 
C. W. Merriam (1) p. 43. 2, Murphy (2) p. 322, has found bindhei- 
mite in the Panamint Mining District. 3, Bindheimite is mentioned in 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 105 

a listing- of minerals from the Darwin Mining District, Hall and Mac- 
Kevett (1) p. 16, ibid., (4) p. 64. 4, Bindheimite is present in the ores 
of the Bio^ Four and Defense mines in the Lookout (Modoc) Mininp: 
District, Hall and Stephens (3) pp. 24, 26. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Indistinctly fibrous material from this 
county, probably pseudomorphous after jamesonite, was analyzed by 
Shannon (1) p. 93. No detail of locality is given. 

Santa Cruz County: 1, Bindheimite has been confirmed in the suite 
of minerals found at the Pacific Limestone Products (Kalkar) quarry 
at Santa Cruz, C. W. Chesterman and Gross (p.c. '64). 

BIOTITE 

Basic potassium magnesium iron aluminum silicate, K(Mg,Fe)3( AljSijOio) (0H)2 

Biotite is the commonest of all the micas. It is a prominent con- 
stituent of many igneous rocks, and also of pegmatites, gneisses and 
schists. It is present as a rock-forming mineral in every county. Only 
a few occurrences are of sufficient interest to record. 

Kern County: 1, Biotite in a pegmatite in granite appears to be 
radioactive, and is under claim as the Dancing Devil No. 16 (sec. 23, 
T. 27 S., R. 31 E., M.D.), 7 miles west of Miracle Hot Springs, G. W. 
Walker et al. (5) p. 30. 

Riverside County: 1, Large, blade-like plates of biotite make a spec- 
tacular showing on the wall of the Southern Pacific silica quarry near 
Nuevo, Murdoch (p.c. '45). 2, "Woodford (11) p. 350, records biotite 
as occurring in the Crestmore quarries in the country rock, in the 
limestone predazzite rock, and as a constituent mineral of the contact 
rocks. 

San Diego County: 1, Occasionally large plates of biotite are found 
in the gem pegmatites at Pala, Schaller (p.c. '36). Some of the biotite 
from Pala shows cesium and rubidium on analysis, Stevens and Schal- 
ler (3) p. 528. 2, Broad plates of biotite are present in the pegmatites 
at Rincon, A. F. Rogers (4) p. 216. 

BISMITE 
Bismuth trioxide, BijOj 

San Diego County: 1, Bismite has been reported at Pala, Kunz (20) 
p. 398, but Schaller (25) p. 230, considers yellow material from the 
Stewart mine to have been a mixture of BiV04 and Bi (OH) 2, while 
the gray material is Bi203-3H20, hydrous bismuth trioxide. 2, A yel- 
low oxidation product of bismuth, at the Victor mine, Rincon, was 
described by A. F. Rogers (4) p. 208 as including some microscopic 
crystals. These crystals were shown by Frondel (3) p. 523 to be Bi203, 
or true bismite, although the presence of vanadium in the ocherous 
material here too, was shown by Schaller (25) p. 165, indicating the 
presence of pucherite, Palache et al. (10) p. 600. 

BISMUTH 
Native bismuth, Bi 

Crystals and veinlets of metallic bismuth sometimes accompany ores 
of bismuth, cobalt, silver, and gold. Bismuth is also occasionally found 
in pegmatitic veins. 



106 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA | Bull. 189 

Inyo County: 1, Bismuth was found at Antelope Springs, Deep 
Spring Valley (N.R.), and 2, doubtfully, at Big Pine Creek (N.R.). 
3, Native bismuth is reported in the silver ore from the Thompson 
mine, Darwin Mining District, Hall and MacKevett (1) p. 17, ibid., 
(4) p. 59. 

Kern County: 1, Knowlton (p.c. '57) reports a specimen of native 
bismuth from a locality between Jawbone Canyon and Havilah. 

Mono County: 1, Bismuth is reported from Oasis (N.R.). 

Nevada County : 1, A notable amount of bismuth was detected in the 
concentrates of the Providence mine, Nevada City Mining District, 
Lindgren (12) p. 117. 

Riverside County: 1, Bismuth has been reported from veins southeast 
of Banning, Sanford and Stone (1) p. 25. This occurrence is doubtful. 

San Diego County: 1, Long irregular crystals of bismuth, sometimes 
capping tourmaline, have been found at the Stewart mine, Pala, Kunz 
(20) p. 398; 2, small bright cleavages occur in lepidolite at the Victor 
mine, Rincon, A. F. Rogers (4) p. 208. 3, F. J. H. Merrill (1) p. 670, 
has reported bismuth from a locality near Jacumba. 

Sayita Cruz County: 1, Bismuth is one of the associated minerals in 
the suite of minerals described from the Pacific Limestone Products 
(Kalkar) quarry at Santa Cruz, Chesterman (p.c. '64). 

Sierra County: 1, A specimen in the Stanford University Collections 
is from Slug Canyon. 

BISMUTH-GOLD— Maldonite 
AujBi 

El Dorado County: 1, A natural alloy, 60 percent gold and 40 per- 
cent bismuth, came from the Coon Hollow hvdraulie mine near Placer- 
ville in 1899, CDMG (15391). 

BISMUTHINITE 
Bismuth sulphide, BijS^ 

Bismuth has frequently been detected in the concentrates from sev- 
eral gold and copper regions, but tlie form in whicli it occurs has not 
in general been determined. Bismuth inite as a distinct mineral has been 
noticed in only a few localities. 

Fresno County: 1, Some small pieces of bismuthinite and bismutite 
were found at the Second Sierra and Lot One mines, in the Kings 
Creek area, CDMG (12856, 12857). 2, Bismuthinite is reported from 
about 20 miles north of Trimmer on the Kings River (N.R.). 

Inyo County: 1, A specimen of bismuthinite has come from the Kear- 
sarge Mountains, near Independence, CDMG (14253). 2, The mineral 
occurs with barite and scheelite in bismutite from the Fernando mine, 
Darwin Mining District, L. K. Wilson (1) p. 553; 3, it occurs also with 
bismutite from the Tungsten Hills, west of Bishop, Woodhouse (p.c. 
'46). 4, Bismuthinite occurs as ocherous masses in a prospect on the 
west side of Panamint Valley in the Argus Range, near the mouth of 
Surprise Canyon. Alteration to oxides and carbonates is almost com- 
plete, Woodhouse (p.c. '54). 5, Hall and MacKevett (1) p. 63 and (4) 
pp. 59, 77, report crystals of bismuthinite up to two inches long in 
caleite from the Fernando mine. 



1966 1 DESCRIPTIONS 107 

Kern County: 1, Bismuthinite has been found in the Big Blue group 
of mines near Kernville (T. 25 S., R. 33 E., M.D.), Prout (1) p. 413, 
Troxel and Morton (2) p. 99. 

Modern County: 1, H. W. Turner (12) p. 714, records bismuthinite 
from Sierra gold and silver mine in the Minarets Mining District. 

Mo7io County: 1, A specimen from Oasis, CDMG (11467), is bis- 
muthinite with bismutite. 2, A little bismuthinite occurs in quartz veins 
with brannerite, 7 miles south of Coleville, in the canyon of the "West 
Walker River, Pabst (13) p. 109. 3, Bismuthinite has been found in 
small amount in the Scheelore mine, Rinehart and Ross (2) p. 97. 

Riverside County: 1, Bismuthinite is found at the Lost Horse mine 
(N.R.). 

San Bernardino County: 1, A few pounds of bismuthinite were found 
in the United Tungsten copper mine, in the Morongo Mining District 
(sec. 27, T. 2 N., R. 3 E., S.B.), Hamilton and Root (5) p. 114, New- 
man (1) p. 241 ; 2, it occurs in quartz at the Gold Eagle mine, Morongo 
Mining District, Tucker and Sampson (17) p. 297. 

San Diego County: 1, A 5-pound mass of bismuthinite was found at 
Pala, G. A. Waring (2) p. 363. 

BISMUTITE 
Bismuth carbonate, (BiO)2C03 

Bismutite is of secondary origin, being derived chiefly from the 
alteration of bismuthinite and native bismuth. It is sometimes called 
bismuth ocher. Bismutosphaerite, originally described as a separate 
species, has been shown to be identical with bismutite, Frondel (3) 
p. 521. 

Fresno County: 1, Some small specimens of bismuthinite and bismu- 
tite came from the Second Sierra and Lot One mines in the Kings 
Creek area, CDMG (12856, 12857). 

Inyo County: 1, A little bismutite was found in the gold placers of 
Big Pine Creek, Hanks (12) p. 79. 2, "Rich ores of bismuth, chiefly 
carbonate" come from Antelope Spring, on the northwest side of Deep 
Spring Valley, Goodyear (3) p. 236, Irelan (4) p. 46. 3, Fibrous to 
crypto-crystalline specimens of bismutite were found near Lone Pine, 
Larsen (11) p. 48. There is a specimen from this locality in the Uni- 
versity of California Collections at Berkeley. 4, Bismutite occurs on 
bismuthinite at the Fernandp mine, Darwin Mining District, L. K. 
Wilson (1) p. 553. Pseudoraorphs of bismutite after bismuthinite are 
reported from the Fernando mine. Hall and MacKevett (1) pp. 63, 64. 
5, Bismutite has been found with tetradymite in a brecciated quartz 
vein in the Cerro Gordo Mining District, "Webb (2) p. 399; 6, it occurs 
with bismuthinite from the Tungsten Hills west of Bishop, Woodhouse 
(p.c. '46). 

Los Angeles County: 1, White earthy bismutite from somewhere in 
this county is represented by CDMG (16343). 

Mono County: 1, Bismutite occurs with bismuthinite near Oasis, 
CDMG (11467). 



108 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

San Bernardino County: 1, Green needles of bismuth carbonate, up 
to K by f of an inch were found at the United Tungsten copper mine, 
in the Moronofo Mining District (sec. 27, T. 2 N., R. 3 E., S.B.), Hess 
and Larsen (17) p. 261, Tucker (4) p. 374. 

San Diego County: 1, Bismutite was found at Pala as an alteration 
product of bismuth, Schaller (5) p. 267; and 2, at the Victor mine, 
Rineon, it was found with bismite and pucherite, Sanford and Stone 
(1) p. 25, Palache et al. (10) p. 600. 

BLODITE 
Hydrous sodium magnesium sulphate, NajMg (S04)2'4H20 

Imperial County: 1, A layer of blodite, 6 to 12 inches thick, occurs 
inter-stratified with thenardite and clav at the Bertram sodium sul- 
phate deposits (N. ^ sec. 19, S. i sec. 13', T. 9 S., R. 12 E., S.B.), R. J. 
Samp.son and Tucker (18) p. 140, Ver Planck (3) p. 5. 

Inyo County: 1, Blodite is found as a constituent of saline crusts in 
Deep Spring Lake, B. P. Jones (1) p. B200. 

San Luis Ohispo County: 1, Verv large crystals of blodite were found 
in the mud of Soda Lake, Carrizo Plain (T. 81 S., R. 20 and 21 E., 
M.D.), H. S. Gale (10) p. 430; the crystals were described bv Schaller 
(32) p. 148. 

B6HMITE 
Hydrous aluminum oxide, Alj03-H20 

Riverside County: 1, Bohmite occurs at the Alberhill clay pits, asso- 
ciated with gibbsite, V. T. Allen (7) p. 1173. 

BOLTWOODITE 
Hydrous potassium uranyl silicate, near K2(U02)2(Si03)2(OH )2-5H20 

San Bernardino County: 1, Boltwoodite is found very sparingly in 
the New Method mine (Hope uranium prospect), 6 miles east of Am- 
boy, and 3 miles north of HighAvay T'.S. 66 on the road to Kelso. 
Uranopliane is also found on this property, but it is not in association 
with boltwoodite, W. C. Oke (p.c. '61). 

*BOOTHITE, 1903 
Hydrous cupric sulphate, CuSO^-ZHjO 

Alameda County: 1, Boothite was discovered as a new mineral with 
other sulphates of iron and copper at the Alma mine, Leona Heights, 
Schaller (1) p. 207. The mineral was analyzed by Schaller (8) p. 123. 

Calaveras County: 1, Massive boothite and crystals came from Campo 
Seco, Schaller (3) p. 192, (8) p. 122. 

Santa Barbara County: 1, Boothite is present in the veins of a small 
gold prospect near the Tunnel Ranch. Figueroa Mt., C. D. Woodhouse 
(p.c. '63). 

BORACITE 

Magnesium borate with chlorine, Mg^Cl2B,4024 

San Bernardino County: 1, Boracite has been reported from Otis, 
W. B. Wainewright (1) p.' 158. 



1966 I DESCRIPTIONS 109 

BORAX 
Hydrous sodium borate, NajB^O;- IOH2O 

The mineral borax, usually accompanied by sulphates of lime and 
soda, is common at many of the depressions or sinks of the California 
deserts. 

Inyu County: 1, Borax occurs in many of the playas of the Death 
Valley area at and near Furnace Creek, 2, at Resting Springs (T 21 N., 
R. 6 and 8 E., S.B.), and 3, Tecopa (approximately T. 20 N., R. 9 E., 
S.B.), G. E. Bailey (2) pp. 48, 49, Hanks (11) pp. 36, 87. 4, Borax 
also is found at Ash Meadows, close to the Nevada line in the southeast 
corner of the county, Yale (2) p. 1022. 5, Borax was found in Saline 
Valley, in 1874, as a borax crust 6 to 24 inches in thickness, Fleming 

(1) p. 248, Waring and Huguenin (2) p. 62; 6, the mineral occurs 
near Fish Slough, in the Bishop Creek area (T. 6 S., R. 33 E., M.D.), 

5 to 6 miles from the bridge across the Owens River, Engineering and 
Mining Journal (5) p. 183. 7, Some of the muds near Big Pine were 
reported to carry borax crystals, Yale (2) p. 1023. 

Kern County: 1, Abundant and valuable deposits of massive borax, 
in layers up to 10 feet in thickness, are found in the Suckow mine at 
Kramer, and in the mines of the Pacific Coast and Western Borax 
Companies, associated with colemanite, ulexite, probertite (kramerite), 
and other borates, with occasional particles of realgar, Schaller (45) 
p. 164. 2, At Indian Springs, which is probably the same as Indian 
Wells (T. 26 S., R. 38 E., M.D.), described as "near Walker's Pass," 
borax has been found in the playa, G. E. Bailey (2) p. 50, Silliman 
(12) p. 130. 3, Borax is reported from Rodriquez Lake (Rogers Lake 
or Muroc Lake) in the southeast corner of the county, Yale and Gale 
(4) p. 840, and 4, also in China Lake (T. 25 S., R. 40 and 41 E., M.D.) 
partly in San Bernardino County, G. E. Bailey (2) p. 50. 

Lake County: 1, Although the first published record of borax in 
California was from Borax Lake in 1865, as crystals in the lake muds, 
Harris (1) p. 450, the compound was detected in the waters of Tuscan 
Springs in Tehama County, near the mouth of the Pit River, and in 
the waters of Borax Lake, as early as 1856, by Dr. John A. Veatch, 
reported by him in a letter to the Borax Company of California dated 
June 28, 1857, and quoted in J. R. Browne and Taylor (1) p. 179. 
Here he states that in March 1857, he had found crystals of borax in 
the underlying muds of the lake bed, ibid., p. 184. 2, Abundant borax 
was also found, in solution in the waters of Lake Hachinhama, 4 miles 
west of Borax Lake, G. E. Bailey (2) p. 52. 

San Bernardmo County: 1, A very important source of borax is the 
basin of Searles Lake, where the mineral is found as an efflorescence on 
the surface, and in large crystals in drill cores, associated with many 
unusual saline minerals, H. S. Gale (13) p. 285, G. I. Smith and Haines 

(2) p. 9. 2, The mineral has also been detected at Soda Lake, in the sink 
of the Mojave River (T. 11, 12, and 33 N., R. 8 and 9 W., S.B.), G. E. 
Bailey (2) p. 62. 3, A little borax occurs in the playa of Palma Lake 

6 miles from Twenty-Nine Palms (sees. 5, 6, 29, 31, 32*^ T. 22 N., R. 9 E., 
S.B.), G. E. Bailey (2) p. 62, and 4, it was found at Borate, in the 
Calico Hills, G. E. Bailey (2) p. 56. 



110 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Siskiyou County: 1, Borax occurs as an efflorescence, and also in 
solution at Antelope Creek in the upper Sacramento Valley (T. 44 N., 
R. 1 W., M.D., approximate), J. B. Trask (7) p. 22. 

Tehama County: 1, Borax was apparently first recorded from Cali- 
fornia in the waters of Tuscan Sprincs, John A. Veatch in J. R. Browne 
and Taylor (]) p. 179. 

BORNITE — Erubescite — Peacock Ore 
A sulphide of copper and iron, Cu5FeS4 

Bornite is not as widespread as chalcopyrite, but it does occur abun- 
dantly in some copper ores, and in minor amounts in many localities. 

Bornite, ehalcoeite, chalcopyrite. cuprite, galena, marcasite, pyrite, 
pyrrhotite, stibnite, tenorite, tetrahedrite, and many other antimony, 
copper, iron, lead and zinc sulfides, and oxides are found in traces or 
in minor amounts in many localities. The entries listed reflect either 
mineraloffical or historic interest, and the listing's are not complete nor 
is all literature whicli mentions these minerals referenced. 

Calaveras County: 1, Bornite is found in small amounts in the ores 
at Copperopolis and Campo Seco, Hanks (12) p. 94. 

Co7itra Costa County: 1, Bornite occurs in small quantities with 
chalcopyrite and gold in Mitchell Canvon, Mount Diablo, H. W. Turner 
(Dp. 391. 

Del Norte County: 1, In the min^s at the head of Copper Creek, 
bornite occurs in minor amounts, Laizure (3) p. 288, Maxson (1) p. 148. 

El Dorado County: 1, In the old Cosumnes mine, near Fairplay (sec. 
25, T. 9 X., R. 12 E., M.D.) massive bornite occurred with molybdenite 
in a coarse pegmatite. Anbury (1) p. 180; 2, small amounts were found 
at the Alabaster Cave mine, near Pilot Hill, Anbury (4) p. 211. 3, A 
specimen, CDMG (7470) from the Boston mine at Latrobe, shows 
bornite pseudomorphous after picrolite. 4, Small flakes of bornite occur 
scattered though serpentine near Shingle Springs, C. Y. Knight (1) 
p. 242. 5, Small amounts of bornite are found at the Pioneer (Lilyama 
extension) mine. Anbury (4) p. 213. and 6, at the Voss (Camel Back) 
mine, (sec. 11, T. 11 N.", R. 8 E., M.D.), ibid., p. 407 and 7, 4^ miles 
west of Placerville (sec. 15, T. 10 X.. R. 10 E.. M.D.). Mining and Sci- 
entific Press (42) p. 840. 

Fresno County: 1, Bornite occurs with magnetite and free gold in 
the Uncle Sam mine, on the Kings River opposite Tehipite Dome, 
Hanks (12) p. 94, W. W. Bradley (2^ p. 438. 

Humboldt Couutij: 1, Bornite with native copper was recorded as 
float at the Red Cap Creek mine (sec. 29, T. 10 X., R. 6 E., H.), Craw- 
ford (1) p. 66; 2, it occurs in schist at the Horse Mountain mine (sees. 
33, 34, T. 6 X., R. 4 E.. H.). Laizure (3) p. 306. 

Imperial County: 1, Deposits in discharge pipes of a deep well near 
Xiland, show a powder patterji which is possibly that of bornite, D. E. 
White etal. (1) p. 919. 

Inyo County: 1, Bornite is found sparingly in the mines of the 
Ubehebe group. Anbury (1) p. 245; 2, minor amounts are associated 
with other sulphides at the Bishop Creek mine, Schroter (2) p. 53. 3, 
Bornite occurs with tetrahedrite at the Ashford (Golden Treasure) 
mine Avest of Shoshone on the east side of Death Valley, Tucker and 



If)ti6| DESCRIPTIONS 111 

Sampson (25) p. 383; 4, some bornite was reported from the New Dis- 
covery mine (T. 20 S., R. 44 E., M.D:), in the Panamint Range, ibid., 
p. 413. 5, Minor amonnts of bornite occur in the Pine Creek tungsten 
mine, Bateman (1) p. 238. 6, A little bornite has been reported in the 
Darwdn ores, Hall and MacKevett (4) p. 59. 

Kern County: A little bornite was found with other sulphides at 
the following properties : 1, Greenback, Woody Mining District, Storms 
(13) p. 635; 2, Exposed Treasure, Mojave Mining District, Simpson 
(1) p. 409; 3, Yellow Treasure mine in the Rademacher Mining Dis- 
trict, 5| miles north of Searles, Tucker and Sampson (21) p. 339. 

Lake County: 1, A little bornite has been found in the T.B.M. pros- 
pect (sec. 16, T. 12 N., R. 9 W., M.D.), L. L. Root (2) p. 85. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Bornite occurs with molybdenite, and other 
sulphides, in the Winter Creek group (T. 1 N., R. 11 W., S.B.) on 
Santa Anita Creek, R. J. Sampson (10) p. 176. 

Madera County: 1, A little bornite ccurs in the Minarets Mining 
District, Erwin (1) p. 70. 

Mariposa County: 1, Bornite is found sparingly in Cowan and Vic- 
toria mines, Hershey (5) p. 592. 

Mendocino County: 1, Considerable bornite was found with lawson- 
ite in a road cut on the new Covelo road, Vonsen (p.c. '36). 

Mono County: 1, Minor amounts of bornite occur in the Tioga, Blind 
Spring (Benton) and Lake Mining Districts 2, and in the Sweetwater 
Range, Whiting (1) pp. 373, 374, 378. 

Nevada County: 1, Bornite occurs with chalcocite and covellite in 
the Mineral Hill' area. Dry Creek (T. 15 N., R. 6 E., M.D.), Forstner 
(4) p. 745. 2, Minor amounts of the mineral are found at the Great 
Eastern (California) mine (T. 18 N., R. 13 E., M.D.) in the Meadow 
Lake Mining District, Logan (7) p. 359. 

Plumas County: 1, Important amounts of bornite, some forming a 
microscopic "graphic intergrowth" wdth chalcocite, are present in the 
ore of the Engels and Superior mines, Diller (9) p. 47, H. W. Turner 
and Rogers (32) p. 377, A. F. Rogers (17) p. 587. 2, A narrow vein of 
massive bornite was found on A. J. Ford's claim, in Lights Canyon, 
Hanks (12) p. 94, and 3, at Surprise Creek (T. 24, 27 N., R. 10 to 12 
E., M.D.), Hanks (12) p. 94, Logan (4) p. 462. 

Riverside County: 1, Bornite is one of the many minor minerals at 
Crestmore, Eakle (15) p. 352. 

San Ber7iardino County: Small occurrences of bornite are widely 
distributed through the countv. Occurrences are represented from: 1, 
Calico, Weeks (4) p. 534; 2, 'Lava Beds, Storms (4) p. 356; 3, Ord 
Mountain, 4, Monumental, and 5, Ivanpah Range, Tucker and Sampson 
(17) pp. 275, 277, 267; 6, Signal, and 7, Oro Grande, Cloudman et al. 
(1) pp. 785, 878; 8, Dale, Tucker and Sampson (27) p. 79; 9, Fremont, 
L. L. Root (2) p. 172, L. A. Wright et al. (5) p. 62. 10, Bornite occurs 
as veinlets in quartz vein fragments of the Central Tunnel, Ord Moun- 
tain, Weber (3) p. 25. 

Santa Clara County: 1, Hanks (12) p. 94, reports bornite from near 
Lexington. 2, One or two occurrences of bornite are reported in the 
New Almaden ores, E. H. Bailey and Everhart (12) p. 98. 

Shasta County: 1, A little bornite has been found in the Bully Hill, 
Afterthought, and other mines of the county, Diller (10) p. 12, Tucker 



112 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

(9) p. 426. 2, Bornite is a minor mineral in the ores of the East Shasta 
eopper-zine area, Albers and Robertson (3) pp. 70, 76. 

Siskiyou County: 1, Some bornite was fonnd at the Richie mine on 
Boulder Creek, 3^ miles southwest of Callahan, Crawford (2) p. 64. 
2, Bornite occurs with minor amounts of eovellite and some chalcopy- 
rite at the Preston Peak mine (sec. 22, T. 17 N., R. 5 E., H.), J. C. 
O'Brien (4) p. 428. 

Trinity Coimty: 1, Some bornite occurs in the pyrrhotite body at 
Island Mountain, Stinson (1) p. 25. 

Tulare County: Several small occurrences of bornite are noted in the 
county: 1, Hart prospect (sec. 2, T. 15 S., R. 28 E., M.D.), Franke 
(1) p. 435; 2, Powell copper (sec. 30, T. 19 S., R. 31 E., M.D.), Tucker 
(3) p. 909; 3, Round Valley, 2^ miles east of Lindsay, ibid., p. 910 and 
4, Oakland mine, Copper Canyon, 12 miles north of Mineral King, ibid., 
p. 910. 

Tuolumne County: 1, Bornite occurs with cinnabar on the slope of 
the ridge east of Horseshoe Bend, H. W. Turner and Ransome (15) 
p. 7. 2, Bornite occurs with other sulphides in the lower levels of the 
Oak Hill mine (sec. 30, T. 2 S., R. 14 E., M.D.), Logan (23) p. 54. 

BOTRYOGEN 
Hydrous basic iron magnesium sulphate, MgFe^*(S04)20H -yHjO 

Napa County: 1, Minute aggregates of small bright-red crystals with 
copiapite, were discovered at the Redington mine, and described by 
Eakle (3) p. 231 as a new mineral, "palacheite." He later established 
its identity as crystallized botryogen, Eakle (4) p. 379. 2, Hulin (p.c. 
'36) found botryogen at the Palisades mine, 2 miles north of Calistoga. 

BOULANGERITE 
Lead antimony sulphide, Pb5Sb4S,, 

Inyo County: 1, What has been tentatively identified as boulangerite 
from the Defiance mine, Darwin Mining District, is represented by a 
specimen in the University of California Collections at Berkeley. 

Mono County: 1, Boulangerite is found as slender prismatic crystals, 
with Avollastonite and idocrase, in a crystalline limestone on the prop- 
erty of Elias Bushati (S \ sec. 13, T. 1 N., R. 25 E., M.D.), on the 
north side of Lee Vining Canyon, Milton (p.c. '44). 

Santa Cruz County: 1, Boulangerite occurs at the Pacific Limestone 
Products (Kalkar) quarry near Santa Cruz, E. H. Oyler (p.c. '60). 

eOURNONITE 
A lead copper antimony sulphide, PbCuSbS3 

Butte County: 1, Bournonite is reported with native antimony at 
the Surcease mine (T. 21 N., R. 4 E., M.D.), J. C. O'Brien (6) p. 431. 

Inyo Co7inty: 1, Massive bournonite was found at Cerro Gordo, in 
the Inyo Range, Reid (2) p. 81. 

Kern County: 1, A mineral doubtfully identified as bournonite has 
been found in the Mojave Mining District, Schroter (1) p. 187. How- 
ever, it is suggested that this might be jamesonite rather than bourno- 
nite. 



1966 J DESCRIPTIONS 113 

BOUSSINGAULTITE— Cerbolite 
Hydrous ammonium magnesium sulphate, ( N H4)2Mg (S04)2-6H20 

Sonoma County: 1, Boussingaultite is abundant among the sulphate 
minerals as crusts and stalactites at The Gevsers. near Cloverdale, Gold- 
smith (7) p. 264, E. T. Allen and Day (2)'p. 45, Vonsen (6) p. 289. 

Ventura Couyity: 1, Boussingaultite was found at South Mountain 
coating crevices of sandstones and shales. It was formed by the escape 
of heated gases, E. S. Larsen and Shannon (9) p. 127. 

BRANNERITE 

A rare earth oxide ( U,Ca,Fe,Y,Th)3Ti50,4( ?) 

Mono County: 1, A few grains of brannerite have been found dis- 
tributed in quartz veins (sees. 4 and 9, T. 7 N., R. 23 E., M.D.), 7 miles 
south of Coleville, in the canyon of the AVest Walker River, Pabst (13) 
p. 109. The mineral occurs as slender prismatic crystals up to one 
centimeter in length, solidly embedded in (juartz. 

Plumas County: 1, Brannerite in broken crvstals is associated with 
gold at the Little Nell property (SE 1/4 sec. 35, R. 8 E., T. 23 N., M.D.), 
Pabst and Stinson (18) p. 2071. 

San Bernardino County: 1, This rare mineral is reported in very 
minor amounts as nodular masses in biotite in granitic gneisses, and 
in shear zones in the gneiss. It is associated with several other un- 
common minerals, including euxenite. The occurrence is in a canyon 
on the north side of the San Bernardino Range, near Old Woman 
Springs (approx. sec. 22, T. 3 N., R. 3 E., S.BJ. Hewett et al. (4) 
p. 30. 

BRAUNITE 
Manganese silicate, Mn^^Mn^^^SiOij 

Manganese minerals like bcmentite, braunite, hausniannite, inesite, 
manganite, neotocite, psilomelane, pyrolusite, wad, and others are often 
not separable by field methods. It is apparent to the authors of this 
volume that many citations in the literature, especially those prior to 
1940, may be incorrect identifications. Abundance of manganese min- 
erals in the State in hundreds of localities makes systematic recording 
of all localities mentioned in the literature impractical. The following 
listings therefore may be incomplete, and many that are included are 
important only to reflect adequately the historic record. 

This mineral is probably rather widespread in the siliceous manga- 
nese ores of the State. It has been recognized from the following lo- 
calities : 

Humboldt County: 1, Braunite forms the primary ore mineral at the 
Fort Seward mine (sec. 15, T. 3 S., R. 4 E., H.), P. D. Trask et al. (4) 
p. 59. 

Plumas County: 1, Braunite has been found in the Braito mine 
(sec. 27, T. 26 N., R. 9 E., M.D.), P. D. Tra.sk et al. (4) p. 71. 

Santa Clara County: 1, Braunite was identified by x-ray study of 
"psilomelane" from Santa Clara, Ramsdell (1) p. 147. 

Stanislaus County: 1, A specimen from the Buckeye mine (sees. 2, 
3, T. 5 S., R. 5 E., M.D.) was studied by Fleischer and Richmond (1) 
p. 283. 



114 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA | Bull. 189 

Trinity County: 1, Vonseii (p.e. '45) reported brauiiite with rhodo- 
chrosite from the Shellview mine (see. 17, T. 4 S., R. 6 E., H.) ; see 
also P. D. Trask et al. (4) p. 90. 2, Braunite occurs with other man- 
ganese minerals including rhodonite, bementite, and rhodochrosite in a 
deposit (sec. 26, T. 30 N., R. 12 W., M.D.) in sediments, Hewett et al. 
(6) p. 45. 

BREWSTERITE 
Hydrous strontium barium aluminum silicate, (Sr,Ba) Al2Si40,|S-5H20 

Mendocino County: 1, Brewsterite was found Avith edingtonite on 
Ash Creek, 1 mile northeast of the highway. The locality is not certain, 
and may be in Sonoma County, Vonsen (p.e. '45). 

BROCHANTITE 
Basic sulphate of copper, Cu4S04(OH)^ 

Calaveras County: 1, Brochantite was found as druses of small dark- 
green crystals at Copperopolis, A. F. Rogers (7) p. 376. 

hiyo County: 1, Brochantite occurs with caledonite and linarite at 
the Cerro Gordo mine, Eakle (9) p. 228. 2, Bottle-green radial crystals 
of brochantite in brown jasper and chrysocolla were found near the 
headwaters of Cottonwood Creek in the Panamint Mountains, Ball (2) 
p. 211. 3, Brochantite is found in oxidized copper ores in the Darwin 
Mining District, Hall and MacKevett (1) p. 18, ibid. (4) p. 64. 

Phimas County: 1, Crystals of brochantite have been reported from 
the Engels mine (N.R.). 

San Bernardino County: 1, Brochantite was observed as coatings on 
breccia at Stagg (N.R.). 2, Brochantite occurs in oxidized ores with 
linarite at a prospect in the Soda Lake Mountains near Baker, Murdoch 
(p.e. '49). 3, Small crystals and crusts of brochantite are found in 
veins with chrysocolla 2 miles southwest of the Sidewinder mine, O. E. 
Bowen (1) p. 123. 

BROMYRITE 
Silver bromide, AgBr 

Kern County: 1, Bronu'^rite was reported as abundant in the Karma 
vein, at Soledad Mountain, near Mojave, but this occurrence is uncon- 
firmed, Bateson (1) p. 173. 2, Bromyrite is reported with cerargyrite 
and other silver minerals from the Amalie (NW 14 sec. 22, T. 30 S., R. 
33 E., M.D.), Gold Peak (SW 14 sec. 28, T. 30 S., R. 33 E., M.D.) and 
Cowboy (NE 14 sec. 28, T. 30 S., R. 33 E., M.D.) mines in the Loraine 
area, Troxel and Morton (2) pp. 93, 281, 41. 

BROOKITE 

Titanium dioxide, TiOj 

El Dorado Comity: 1, Small tabular crystals of brookite associated 
with anatase, occur on quartz, at Placerville. Kunz (5) p. 329, (15) p. 
394, (24) p. 106. 

Kern County: 1, Minute spear-like crystals of brookite have been 
found in cavities of lava east of the highway in Red Rock Canyon, 
Murdoch (p.e. '47). 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 115 

BRUCITE 
Magnesium hydroxide, Mg(0H)2 

Fresno County: 1, Chesterman (1) p. 272, found brucite in irregu- 
lar masses and rounded pellets in contact metamorphic limestone in 
the Twin Lakes region. 

Riverside County: 1, Brucite is a product of alteration of periclase 
in the predazzite rock at Crestmore, Eakle (15) pp. 327, 332, A. F. 
Eogers (31) p. 463; 2, it was found similarly in the new City quarry, 
2 miles south of Riverside, Richmond (1) p. 725. 3, A. F. Rogers (19) 
p. 581, reports brucite as an alteration of periclase, at the old City 
quarry at North Hill, Riverside. 4, Brucite, pseudomorphous after peri- 
clase, is abundant at the Jensen quarry, Murdoch (p.c. '47). 

San Benito County: 1, Near the Florence Mack mine, brucite occurs 
as crusts of minute fiat crystals on long slender calcite, in serpentine, 
E. H. Oyler (p.c. '59). 

San Ber7iardino County: 1, Brucite altering to hydromagnesite is 
found in marbles in Lucerne Valley (SE 1/4 SE 1/4 sec. 15, T. 6 N., R. 
1 W., S.B.), Ian Campbell (1) p. 3. 

San Francisco County: 1, Brucite and xonotlite in serpentine, were 
found in cuts made by the Western Pacific Railroad on Army Street, 
San Francisco, Pabst (p.c. '44). 2, Fibrous brucite in fine stellated 
white crystals is reported from the serpentines of the San Francisco 
Peninsula, Gibbs, quoted in Mining and Scientific Press (19) p. 28. 

BULTFONTEINITE 
Basic calcium silicate with fluorine, Ca2Si02(OH,F)4 

Riverside County: 1, Minute grains of bultfonteinite have been 
found as sugary streaks in veins of massive afwillite and scawtite on 
the 910' level of the Commercial quarry, Crestmore, Murdoch (30) p. 
1347, ibid. (32) p. 900. 

*BUDDINGTONITE, 1964 
Hydrous ammonium aluminum silicate, N H4AISi308!/2H20 

Lake County: 1, The new mineral, buddingtonite, has been de- 
scribed from the well-known Sulphur Bank mercury deposit. It occurs 
as a hydrothermal product presumably formed from feldspar. This is 
the first ammonium aluminum silicate found in nature. The mineral oc- 
curs as pseudomorphs after plagioclase, largely in compact masses, but 
occasionally as crystals of small size lining cavities, Erd et al. (6) p. 831. 
The origin of minerals of the "buddingtonite type" is considered more 
fully by Barker (1) p. 851. 

*BURKEITE, 1935 
Sodium sulpho-carbonate, Na4S04(C03)2 

Burkeite was discovered in California in 1935. Burkeite or a member 
of the burkeite series, has recently (1962) been identified in Carbonate 
Lake, in Grant County, Washington, Bennett (1) p. 12. 

Inyo County: 1, Burkeite occurs in muds, and as efflorescences and 
saline crusts, at Deep Spring Lake, B. F. Jones (1) p. B200, ibid. (2) 
p. 88A. 



116 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA | Bull. 189 

Sati Bernardino County: 1, Cross-shaped crystals of this new min- 
eral, up to 4 mm in diameter, were found at a depth of 115 to 130 feet 
in well G 75, at Searles Lake. The mineral was described and named 
by Foshag (21) p. 50; see also G. I. Smith and Pratt (2) p. 29. The 
Searles Lake burkeite has been further studied by G. I. Smith and 
Haines (3) p. 50. The mineral is next in abundance to hanksite among 
the sulphate minerals of Searles Lake. It is present principally in the 
Lower Salt, massive or in vuggy layers, sometimes up to a foot thick, 
pure, or with intermixed trona. 

BUSTAMITE 
Calcium manganese silicate, CaMn(Si03)2 

Inyo Cotmty: 1, Bustamite was reported from this county, Murdoch 
and Webb (4) p. 69, but the identification was in error, and the min- 
eral was later correctly identified as zoisite, variety thulite, by Schaller 
and Glass (54) p. 519. 

Madera County: 1, Massive pale-pink bustamite is common at the 
Agnew Meadow manganese prospect about 0.1 mile south of Agnew 
Meadows. Identification is confirmed by x-ray diffraction and x-ray 
spectrochemical analysis at the CDMG Laboratory, John T. Alfors 
(p.c. '64). 

*CALAVERITE, 1868 
Gold telluride, AuTe2 

Calaveras County: 1, Calaverite was discovered at the old Stanislaus 
mine on Carson Hill. It was analyzed and named by Genth (5) p. 314. 
2, Calaverite is also found in the Melones mine, ibid., p. 314, and 3, at 
the Morgan mine on Carson Hill, with sylvanite and petzite, ibid., p. 
314. 4, The mineral occurs with altaite and petzite at the Frenchwood 
mine, Robinsons Ferrv (sec. 28. T. 2 X., R, 13 E., M.D.), Hanks (12) 
p. 68. 

El Dorado County: 1, Calaverite was reported from the Darling mine 
near Rock Creek, about 3 miles northeast of American Flat, Palache 
et al. (10) p. 336. 

Siskiyou County: 1, Calaverite was doubtfully reported with gold 
and petzite from the northern part of the county (N.R.) 

Tuolumne County: 1, Calaverite occurred at the Golden Rule mine, 
Hanks (12) p. 104. 

CALCIOVOLBORTHITE 
Basic copper calcium vanadate, CuCa(V04)0H 

San Bernardino County: 1, Caleiovolborthite has been reported to 
occur at Camp Signal, near Goffs, Schrader et al. (1) p. 46. 

CALCITE 
Calcium carbonate CaCOj 

The perfectly colorless transparent form is called iceland spar. 

Calcite is widespread in many parts of the state. Occurrences of the 
mineral are verj' numerous, but few have mineralogical significance. As 
a mineral resource, calcite occurs in considerable quantity in many de- 
posits. In the localities referenced below, no attempt has been made to 
systematically report commodity occurrences, nor to report the mineral 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 117 

wherever it is mentioned in the literature. Some localities of minor im- 
portance and of little general mineralog'ical interest are noted because 
they have been carried in early editions of Minerals of California. The 
authors consider it wise to retain these as part of the historical record, 
but newer and more important localities of the mineral as a mineral 
resource have not been added, and literature citations to articles on such 
localities have not necessarily been included. For commercial occur- 
rences of limestone and marble, the reader is referred to Bulletin 138 
of the CDMG, Forstner et al. (3). 

Alameda County: 1, Pseudomorphs of calcite after aragonite are 
found near Patterson Pass, east of Livermore, A. F. Rogers (3) p. 18. 
2, A fine grade of lithographic limestone occurs on the Crocker-Win- 
ship properties, south of Danville (N.R.). 

Alpiyie County: 1, Fine groups of calcite rhombohedrons have come 
from the Pennsj^lvania mine (N.R.). 

Calaveras County: 1, Fine stalactites occur in Mercers Cave, 1^ miles 
northwest of Murphy (N.R.). 

El Dorado County: 1, Fine calcite stalactites occur at the Alabaster 
Cave (N.R.). 2, Good crystals of calcite were found at the Cosumnes 
mine (N.R.). 

Fresno County: 1, Veins of fluorescent calcite with cinnabar were 
found on Avenal Creek, Melhase (4) p. 38. 

Imprrial County: 1, Calcite occurs as inverted "stalactites" origi- 
nall}^ identified as aragonite, in the area surrounding the mud volcanos 
near Niland, Hanks (9) p. 232. 

Inyo County: 1, Good Iceland spar has been found in the Darwin 
Mining District, Hanks (12) p. 114, CDMG (3709). 2, Blue calcite 
with idocrase has been sent to the CDMG reportedly from the North 
Fork of Shepard Creek, half a m.ile north of the Crvstal Dome mine 
(T. 22 S., R. 42, 43 E., M.D.), W. W. Bradley (26) p. 195. This locality 
is questionable, but the material does not look like that from Crest- 
more. 3, Calcite crystals are present in mud layers of Deep Spring 
Lake, B. F. Jones (1) p. 201. 

Kern County: 1, "Sand calcite" crystals are found north of Ricardo, 
at the junction of Old Highway U.S. 6 and the Dove Springs road, 
Murdoch and Webb (11) p. 551. 2, Fluorescent calcite is reported at 
the Hercules mine, Randsburg, The Mineralogist (2) p. 23. 

Lake County: 1, Calcite occurs, but is rare, at Sulphur Bank, D. E. 
White and Roberson (2) p. 408. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Well-formed crystals of calcite occur in the 
borate deposit in Tick Canyon, Eakle (10) p. 189. 2, Rhombohedral 
crvstals are found in veins in Franklin Canvon, Funk (1) p. 33 and 
3, 'at the Small Hill mine, on Santa Catalina Island, CDMG (4069). 
4, Crystal-lined vugs are found in dikes of limestone and breccia half a 
mile north of Vicente Point, San Pedro Hills, G. A. Macdonald (2) 
p. 331. 

Madera County: 1, Abundant crystals of calcite come from Kaiser 
Mountain 1| miles from the Huntington Lake road, Laizure (2) p. 102. 

Marin County: 1, Flat, thin-edged rhombohedrons of manganocalcite 
occur in a trachyte on the Burdell Ranch. They turn black on weather- 
ing or on being heated (N.R.). 



118 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA fBull. 189 

Merced County: 1, Strontianealcite is reported from Delhi, CDMG 
(16326). 

Modoc County: 1, Optical (luality ieeland spar in masses up to 60 or 
80 pounds occurred in veins in basalt near Cedarville in the Warner 
Range. This deposit produced some commercial material but is now 
worked out, Hughes (1) p. 6. 

Mono County: 1, Pseudomorphs of calcite, called "thinolite," after 
original steep tetragonal pyramids of an unknown mineral, have been 
found about Mono Lake, E.'S. Dana (1) p. 19, I. C. Russell (1) pp. 315, 
316. These pseudomorphs are frequently formed of imbricated groups 
of pyramids, packed one within the other to make prismatic forms up 
to 8 or 10 inches in length. Low- and high-magnesian calcite, and arago- 
nite form pinnacled masses of tufa at Mono Lake. Scholl and Taft (1) 
p. 56. These pinnacles may be the same as those described as "thino- 
lite." 2, Large lenses or druses of Iceland spar, some of optical quality, 
showing cleavage fragments up to 1 foot, occur in the upper Convict 
Basin, near Mammotli Lakes, Mayo (4) p. 84. 

Monterey County: 1, "Sand-calcite"' crystals have been described 
by A. F. Rogers and Reed (28) p. 23. from"the Cholame Hills (sec. 14, 
T. 23 S., R. 13 E., M.D.). In these the proportions are 65 percent sand, 
35 percent calcite. 

Nevada County: 1, Fine scalenohedrons (dog-tooth spar) have come 
from the Pittsburg mine (N.R.). 2, Crystals of calcite are associated 
with kJimmererite at the Red Ledge mine near Washington (N.R.). 

Riverside County: 1, Coarsely crystalline blue calcite is very abun- 
dant at Crestmore, Eakle flo) p. 334. The blue color of calcite at Crest- 
more is discussed by Rosenholtz and Smith (1) p. 1049. 2, Iceland spar 
occurs with fluorite and clear quartz at the Fluorspar group, 1 mile 
southwest of Packards Well, Palen Mountains, Aubury (1) p. 258. 3, 
A magnesian calcite-aragonite-huntite assemblage, as an incrustation on 
calcite-monticellite rock at Crestmore, has been described by A. B. 
Carpenter (1) p. 146. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Calcite is found sparingly as minute, 
ivory-colored crystals at the base of the Upper Salt, Foshag (21) p. 51, 
G. I. Smith and Haines (2) p. 25, and at several other horizons in the 
Parting and Bottom Mud, ibid., pp. 25-26. The calcite is associated 
with adularia. aragonite, searlesite, thenardite and gay-lussite. 2, 
Nodular concretions with radiating structure are found in a clay shale 
half a mile north of Mojave Water Camp, east of Daggett. Rocks and 
Minerals (1) p. 140, Murdoch and Webb (11) p. 551. 

San Diego County: 1, At the mine of Calcite Operators, Inc., (sec. 
14, T. 10 S., R. 8 E., S.B.), broad flat plates of calcite, up to one foot 
across, and of optical quality, have been mined for gun-sights, Bram- 
lette (p.c. '43), Durrell (p.c.''44). 

San Francisco County: 1, Calcite showing uncommon faces, in crys- 
tals up to several cm in size, came from Fort Point, San Francisco, 
Schaller (17) p. 103. They were associated with pectolite, datolite, and 
gyrolite. 

Santa Barbara County: 1, Large rhombohedra of calcite occur on 
Big Pine Mountain, C. D. Woodhouse (p.c. "63). 

Santa Cruz Comity: 1, Well-developed calcite crystals have been 
found in the Vicente Creek tunnel near Davenport (N.R. ). 



1966 J DESCRIPTIONS 119 

Shasta County: 1, Stalactitic and tubular forms of calcite have been 
found in Potters Cave, near Baird, Eakle (7) p. 89. 2, Fossil pearls, al- 
tered from the original aragonite, occur along the north side of the road 
in Oak Eun Vallev, near tlie contact of the Chico and Tone formations, 
R. D. Russell (1) p. 419. 

Tulare County: 1, Massive blue crystalline calcite, associated with 
scheelite, has been reported from the Consolidated tungsten mine, 
Drum Valley, C. Know^lton (p.c. '46). 

Tuolumne Coimtij: 1, Calcite showing scarlet triboluminescence 
occurs near Columbia, Melhase (4) p. 38. 

Ventura Comity: 1, Calcite is reported from San Nicolas Island, in 
seams varying from almost microscopic fineness up to two or three 
inches in thickness, sometimes showing good crystals, Bowers (3) p. 57. 

CALEDONITE 

Basic copper lead carbonate sulphate, Cu2Pb5(S04)3C03(OH)4 

Inyo County: 1, Caledonite was found with linarite and leadhillite 
at the Cerro Gordo mines, A. F. Rogers (Dp. 46, Eakle (9) p. 227, 
C. W. Merriam (1) p. 43. Guild (1) p. 330, described bright-green 
crystals from this locality. 2, Caledonite was found with linarite at the 
Wonder prospect, Darwin Mining District, A. Knopf (4) p. 17; 3, it 
occurs with linarite and crystallized cerussite in the Monster mine, 
northwest of Saline Valley, on the east flank of the Inyo Range, A. 
Knopf (5) p. 111. 4, Caledonite and linarite came from the Reward 
mine, 2 miles east of Manzanar. A Knopf (5) p. 118. 5, Caledonite 
is sparingly found in the Big Four and Modoc Mines, on the east 
flank of the Argus Range, west side of Panamint Valley, Hall and 
Stephens (3) pp. 26, 34. 

Mono County: 1, Caledonite was reported in the Blind Spring 
Mining District, Hulin (p.c. '36). 

San Bernardino County: 1, Caledonite occurs with linarite and 
dioptase at a mine in the Soda Lake Mountains near Baker, Murdoch 
(p.c. '49), (CDMG 31250). 

CALOMEL 
Mercurous chloride, HgCI 

Napa County: 1, "White coatings of calomel on metacinnabar were 
found in the Redington (Boston) quicksilver mine on Oat Hill, CDMG 
(16284). 

Orange County: 1, A persistent amount of chlorine in analyses of 
metacinnabar from Red Hill, indicates the presence of calomel, al- 
though this mineral was not otherwise recorded from this locality, 
Genth and Penfield (10) p. 383. 

San Be7iito County: 1, Calomel is reported with cinnabar, native 
mercury, and montroydite, in silicate-carbonate rock, 3 miles south of 
the New Idria mine, E. H. Oyler (p.c. '62). 

San Mateo County: 1, Small amounts of calomel, native mercury, 
cinnabar and eglestonite occur on the Corte de Madera Rancho (?), 
5 miles west of Palo Alto, A. F. Rogers (5) p. 48. 2, Calomel, with 
eglestonite, montroydite, native mercury, and cinnabar is found in 
joints and fissures in a siliceous rock replacing serpentine, about 2 
miles west of Redwood City, C. D. Woodhouse (3) p. 603. 



120 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

t*CARLOSITE, 1907 
See neptunite 

Carlosite was described as a new mineral with benitoite from San 
Benito County in 1907 by Louderback and Blasdale. Subsequently the 
identity as neptunite was established, Louderback and Blasdale (2) 
p. 354." 

CARNOTITE 

Hydrous potassium uranyl vanadate, K2(U02)2( VO^)2.1-3H20 

El Dorado County: 1, Carnotite is reported from near Placerville, 
CDMG (21635). 

Imperial Couniii: 1, G. \V. Walker et al. (5) pp. 10, 26 reports 
carnotite in a metamorphic terrain intruded by felsic dikes and plugs. 
The carnotite is in the altered felsic rocks associated with torbernite 
or autunite, in talc-bearing metamorphic rocks. The locality is 10 miles 
northeast of Glamis (sec. 36(?), T. 12 S., R. 19 E.. S.B.)." 

Kern County : 1, Carnotite is found in thin-bedded sandy limestones 
at the Fiend claim (sec. 15, T. 9 N., R. 6 W., S.B.), on the south end 
of the Kramer Hills, G. W. Walker et al. (5) p. 20. 2, The mineral is 
reported witli opal as fracture coatings in sandy clay of the Ricardo 
formation in the Vanuray claim 2^ mi. NW of Boron (sec. 26, T. 11 
N., R. 8 W., S.B.), G. W. Walker et al. (5) p. 19. 3, Carnotite comes 
from the Loperna property near McKittrick, CDMG (21614). This 
property is described by G. 'w. Walker et al. (5) p. 33 (sec. 2, T. 30 S., 
R. 21 E., M.D.), but the yellow coatings on fractures in altered and 
brecciated shale are called "secondary uranium minerals," and the 
identity as carnotite is not confirmed. 4, Carnotite is reported from 
Knoll prospect, Verdi Development Company, Rosamond, CDMG 
(21632). 5, Carnotite may occur with autunite in the ores of the 
Miracle mine, MacKevett (2) p. 211. 6, Carnotite with autunite occurs 
coating calcite crystals, in vugs and veins from the Monte Cristo 
prospect, Kern River uranium area. MacKevett (2) p. 213. 7, Carnotite 
( ?) occurs in the Miracle mine (SE \ sec. 7, T. 27 S., R. 32 E., M.D.), 
Troxel and Morton (2) p. 333. 

Lassen County: 1, Carnotite is reported from Madonna Mia group 
near Chilcoot, CDMG (21650). 

Mono County: 1, Carnotite is reported from near Masonic, CDMG 
(21624). 

Monterey County: 1, From Pennington claim, near Parkfield, CDMG 
(21615 and 21616) confirms the occurrence of carnotite. 

Nevada Connty: 1, The Easter mine, near Flori.ston, CDMG (21657), 
carries carnotite. 

Riverside County: 1, Carnotite is reported from near Desert Center, 
CDMG (21627). 

San Bernardiyio Coiintii: 1, Carnotite comes from near Amboy, 
CDMG (21641). 2, The mineral is found with copper minerals in the 
Jeep No. 2 claim 6 miles NW of Clark Mt. Peak (sec. 10, T. 17 N., 
R. 12 E., S.B.), G. W. Walker et al. (5) p. 22. 3, Prospects in the 
Kramer Hills (sees. 12, 14, T. 9 N., R. 6 W., S.B.) carry yellow stains 
of carnotite, G. W. Walker et al. (5) p. 19. It is likely that localities 
represented by CDMG (21609) and (21652) are identical with this 
locality. 



1D66] DESCRIPTIONS 121 

CASSITERITE— Tin Stone 
Tin dioxide, Sn02 

Amador County: 1, A 5-foot "vein of tin" reported on the Mokel- 
umne River below Big Bar by W. P. Blake (28) p. 615, is most prob- 
ably garnet. 

Butte County: 1, Cassiterite was reported from Goat Flat, Engineer- 
ing and Mining Journal (19) p. 855. 

Inyo County: 1, There is an nnverified report in the Mining and 
Scientific Press for 1!)()1, of cassiterite nuggets from Bishop Creek, 
Segerstrom (1) p. 550. 

Kcr7i County: 1, Nodules and stringers of cassiterite, some up to 3 
tons weight, in limonite gossan, occur at the Meeke (Hogan) tin mine 
4 miles north of Quail Lake, near Gorman, Mallerv (2) no. 2, p. 8, 
Wiese and Page (1) p. 39, Page (3) p. 202, Wie.se "(2), p. 46, Troxel 
and Morton (2) p. 290. 

Napa County: 1, Cassiterite was doubtfully reported from the lower 
end of Chiles Valley, L. L. Palmer (1) p. 28. " 

Orange County: 1, Cassiterite was found at the Trabuco tin mine, 
Trabuco Canvon, Mining and Scientific Press (30) p. 117, Segerstrom 
(1) p. 550. 

Placer County: 1, One nugget of cassiterite was found in the Middle 
Pork, Feather River, 3 miles above Big Bar, ^Y. P. Blake (23) p. 376, 
(24) p. 208. 

Riverside County: 1, The most important deposit of cassiterite in 
the state was discovered in the Temescal area (the Cajalco mine) 
(sees. 2, 3, 10, 11, T. 4 S., R. 6 W., S.B.), C. T. Jackson (1) p. 152. 
According to Benedict (1) p. 450, the Indians knew of the presence 
of tin here as early as 1840. There are many references to this deposit, 
of which the more important are: Hanks (12) p. 120, Kunz (24) p. 
105, Fairbanks (18) pp. 39-42. Besides the principal occurrences, there 
were other smaller deposits in the general vicinity. One of the more 
important of these is the Chief of the Hills (sec. 4 T. 6 S., R. 4 W., 
S.B.), 2 miles northeast of Elsinore, R. J. Sampson (9) p. 516, Seger- 
strom (1) p. 551. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Crystals of cassiterite occur with scheelite 
in a vein in dolomitic limestone at the Evening Star mine (sec. 30, 
T. 15 N., R. 14 E., S.B.), Tucker and Sampson (34) p. 498. 

San Diego County: 1, Cassiterite occurs with other pegmatite 
minerals in the Himalaya mine at Mesa Grande, Schaller (36) p. 352, 
and 2, with topaz in Little Three mine near Ramona, ibid., p. 352. 3, A 
little cassiterite was found with columbite, tourmaline, etc., in a 
pegmatite in the Chihuahua Valley (SAV \ sec. 12, T. 9 S., R. 3 E., 
S.B.), ibid., p. 35L 4, The mineral is found in a pegmatite with 
lepidolite and amblvgonite, on Granite Mountain, about 3 miles south- 
east of Banner (NW i sec. 18, T. L3 S., R. 5 E., S.B.), Schaller (p.c. 
'46). 5, Sanford and Stone (1) p. 26, report cassiterite from Pala 
[doubtful]. 6, Placer tin was supposedly found on the east slope of 
Laguna Mountain, F. J. H. Merrill (1) p. 669. 8, F. J. H. Merrill (1) 
p. 669 also reports other possible occurrences in Pine Valley, 9, at the 
south end of Viejas Mountain east of Alpine, and 10, in the Defiance 
copper area, west of the Santa Margarita grant. These are all doubtful. 



122 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA |Bull. 189 

Santa Barhara Covniy: 1, Some cassiterite was found as float by 
Captain Stodclon in the San Rafael JMonntains, Anp'el (2) p. 596. 

Santa Clara County: 1, Fine larpe crystals of cassiterite were re- 
ported from the eclop^ites, quartzite, and diorite of Oak Hill, near San 
Jose, Schrader et al. (1) p. 46. 

Santa Cruz County: 1, Cassiterite lias been found in the suite of 
minerals at the Pacific Limestone Products (Kalkar) quarry at Santa 
Cruz, Chesterman and Gross (p.c. '64). 

Siskiyou County: 1, Cassiterite was found as float in Hungry Creek, 
Hess and Graton (1) p. 165. 2, Stream tin is found in the gravels at 
Sawyers Bar (N.R.). 

Sonoma County: 1, A sample of stream tin, CDMG (18306). came 
from this county. 

Trinity County: 1, One large specimen of cassiterite was found in the 
soil near Weaverville, J. D. Whitney (6) p. 181, and several other 
small nuggets have been found near-by, Segerstrom (Dp. 552. 

CELADONITE 

Hydrous iron magnesium potassium and aluminum silicate, 
K(Mg,Fe2*)(AI,Fe3^)Si40,o(OH)2[Wise and Eugster (2) p. 1031] 

Ker7i County: 1, Green crystalline linings of cavities in basalt at 
Red Rock Canyon, have been identified by x-ray photographs as cela- 
donite. It had previously been tentatively called "corundophilite", 
Murdoch (p.c. '53). 

San Mateo County: 1, CDMG (8961) is celadonite and comes from 
the San Gregorio Ranch, near San Mateo, Irelan (4) p. 46. 

CELESTITE 
Strontium sulphate, SrS04 

"Baryto-celestite" is barium celestite. 

Imperial County: 1, B. N. Moore (1) p. 365, described celestite from 
"Fish Mts." The locality is in San Diego County (1). 

Inyo County: 1, Slender bluish cry.stals of celestite occur with cole- 
manite in Death Valley, Eakle (9) p. 230. 2, Celestite occurs with 
analeime in vugs of a basalt at Ryan. A specimen was collected by C. N. 
Rasor about 1927. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Minute celestite crystals occur on a crust of 
bakerite at the Sterling borax mine. Tick Canyon, Murdoch (p.c. '49). 

San Benito County: 1, A 3-inch vein of celestite was found in old 
workings of the Butts quicksilver mine near Pine Rock, Tucker (11) 
p. 247.^ 

San Bernardino County: 1, Geodes in the colemaiiite ores at Borate, 
in the Calico Hills, are lined with strontiauite and light-blue to color- 
le.ss celestite crystals up to 4 cm in length, Eakle (9) p. 230, Foshag 
(9) p. 208. D. J. Henry (1) p. 231, reports pseudomorphs of celestite 
after satin spar. 2, Slender pointed crystals of celestite occur in open 
fissures in the old Owens borax mine, at the north base of Lead Moun- 
tain, near Barstow, H. S. Gale (17) p. 10, Durrell (8) p. 9. 3, In the 
Mud Hills and Strontium Hills, north of Barstow (T. 11 N., R. 1, 2 W. ; 
sec. 20, T. 11 N., R. 1 W., S.B.), celestite occurs with strontiauite in 
glassy aggregates or slender prismatic crystals, A. Knopf (9) p. 263, 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 123 

Durrell (8) p. 23. 4, An extensive zone of impure celestite associated 
with gypsum is found (T. 17, 18 N., R. 4, 5, 6 E., S.B.), 10 miles north- 
west of Silver Lake in the Avawatz Mountains, Phalen (3) p. 526, B. 
N. Moore (Dp. 359. 5, Extensive beds of massive celestite 10 to 20 
feet thick, occur 4 miles northwest of Ludlow (sees. 29, 30, T. 8 N., R. 
7 E., S.B.), Mallery (1) p. 952, Tucker (4) p. 367, B. N. Moore (1) 
p. 357, Durrell (8) p. 37. 6, An extensive deposit of celestite as con- 
cretions of massive material is found on the southwest margin of 
Bristol Drv Lake, south of Amboy (S ^ sec. 6, T. 4 N., R. 12 E., S.B.), 
H. S. Gale (17) p. 10, confirming Durrell (p.e. '45). 7, Celestite is 
one of the minerals occasionally found at Searles Lake, Hanks (17) p. 
63, DeGroot (3) p. 537. 8, Celestite occurs in shales with nodular 
barite at Owl Holes (sec. 23, T. 18 X., R. 3 E., S.B.), Murdoch and 
Webb (11) p. 550, Durrell (8) p. 15. 9, Barian celestite (baryto- 
celestite) has been tentatively identified in the bastnaesite occurrence 
at Mountain Pass, Pray and Sharp (1) p. 1519. 

San Diego County: 1, Finely crystalline celestite underlain by gyp- 
sum occurs in the Fish Creek area, described as "Fish Mts. " by B. N. 
Moore (1) p. 365, and located in Imperial County. Durrell (8) p. 5, 
corrects the location and describes the deposit. 

CENTRALLASITE 
Hydrous basic calcium silicate, Ca2Si307(OH)2- H2O 

Riverside Connfy: 1, Centrallasite was described by Foshag (12) p. 
88, as occurring in platy to compact masses between feldspars, and 
associated with prehnite and datolite, in a pegmatite in the Wet 
Weather quarry at Crestmore. The identity of centrallasite has been 
questioned and it has been referred by some workers as identical with 
gyrolite. Flint et al. (1) p. 619, consider the species valid. 

CERARGYRITE 1— Horn Silver 
Silver chloride, AgCI 

Calaveras County: 1, Thin crusts of cerargyrite on quartz were re- 
ported bv W. P. Blake (14) p. 124, from the Morgan mine at Carson 
Hill. 

Inyo County: Cerargyrite was fairly abundant in some of the mines 
of the Argus and Coso Ranges and in the Inyo Range, with lesser 
occurrences in the Panamint Mts. and other ranges to the southward. 
1, Argus Range: Tucker and Sampson (25) p. 445, in fine microscopic 
crvstals at the Modoc mine (sec. 34, T. 19 S. R., 42 E. M.D.). 2, Coso 
Range: De Groot (2) p. 213, Crawford (1) p. 374, Tucker (11) p. 488, 
Murphy (2) p. 322. 3, The mineral was abundant in the upper work- 
ings at the Darwin mines, Tucker and Sampson (25) p. 546. Cerargy- 
rite was found as euhedral crystals in the Lee mine, Darwin Mining 
District, Hall and MacKevett (1) p. 18, ibid. (4) p. 64. 4, Inyo Range: 
massive cerargyrite was fairly abundant in the upper levels of the 
Cerro Gordo mine, Woodhouse (p.c. '45). 5, Cerarg^-rite was found 
associated with argentite and wulfenite in the Kearsarge Mining Dis- 
trict, 8 miles from Independence, G. M. Wheeler (1) p. 45. 6, The min- 

1 International committee on mineral names recommends chlorargyrite as accepted 
usage, Anon. (55) p. 223. 



124 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA |Bull. 189 

eral was found as crusts in the Tecopa res:ion, Woodhouse (p.c. '45). 
7, Cerar^rite was reported from the Chrysopolis area, Engineering 
and Mining Journal (15) p. 1176. 8, The mineral was also reported 
from the Slate Range, Hanks (12) p. 124, and 9, at the Minietta mines, 
Argus Range, Woodhouse (p.c. '54). 

Kern County: 1, Cerargvrite occurred at the Amalie mine with 
proustite and argentite (T.*31 S., R. 36 E., M.D.), Dyke (1) p. 764. 
The mineral was reported in the ores of the Gold Peak and Cowboy 
mines, near the Amalie mine in the Loraine area, Troxel and Morton 
(2) p. 281. Bromyrite. argentite, tetrahedrite and proustite are asso- 
ciated minerals, ibid. p. 41. 2, Several of the mines in the Mojave 
Mining District carried a little cerargvrite with argentite in the gold 
veins, Bateson (1) p. 171, Tucker and Sampson (21) p. 298; Lodestar 
or Morningstar mine, Tucker (37) p. 221; Cactus Queen mine, Troxel 
and Morton (2) pp. 44, 109. 

Mono County: 1, Cerargyrite was found sparingly in the Blind 
Spring Mining District near Benton, Whiting (1) p. 378, 2, with native 
silver near Bodie, ibid. p. 389, and 3, at the Silverado mine (sec. 19, 
T. 7 N., R. 25 E., M.D.), in the Patterson Mining District, Sweetwater 
Range, ibid., p. 359, Eakle and McLaughlin (17) p. 166. 4, A little 
cerargyrite was found with cuprite and chrvsocolla at Lundy, Hanks 
(12) p. 139, CDMG (5158). 

Napa County: 1, "Silver chlorides" were reported from the Mount 
St. Helena (Silverado) mine, with sulphides and free gold, Boalich (4) 
p. 159. 

Placer County: 1, A mass of ore with wire silver and cerargyrite was 
discovered in 1871 in the Elizabeth lode in the Ophir Mining District, 
Mining and Scientific Press (14) p. 241. 2, Cerargyrite Avas found 
abundantly in other veins in the Mother Lode gold region, Lindgren 
(7) p. 272. 3, Beautiful specimens of cerargyrite have come from the 
Whitlach mine in Marshall Can von. Engineering and Mining Journal 
(1) p. 66. 

San Bernardino County: Many localities in this county have pro- 
duced small amounts of cerargyrite, and it has been found abundantly 
in several places. 1, Cerargyrite was the principal silver ore in the old 
Calico Mining District, associated with embolite, wulfenite, etc., Cloud- 
man et al. (1) p. 829, Lindgren (1) pp. 721-728, Storms (2) p. 382. 
2, Cerargyrite was the most important mineral in the oxidized zone of 
the California Rand mine, and others in the area, Hulin (1) p. 98. 3, 
Small deposits of rich ore were found in the Ord Mining District (T. 7 
N., R. 2 E., S.B.), Cloudman et al. (1) p. 809. 4, Crystals of cerargyrite 
came from the Blackhawk (Silver Reef) Mining District 40 miles east 
of Victorville, Storms (4) p. 366. Other minor occurrences are 5, 
Trojan (Providence) Mining District, De Groot (2) p. 532; 6, Lava 
Beds Mining District (T. 7 N., R. 4, 5 E., S.B.), ibid., p. 528; 7, Dale 
area. Tucker and Sampson (27) p. 61; 8, Kingston Range (T. 18 N., 
R. 13 E., S.B.), Tucker (8) p. 94; 9, Grapevine Mining District (T. 10 
N., R. 1 W., S.B.), Tucker and Sampson (28) p. 245; 10, 9 miles north 
of Bagdad, Tucker (8) p. 97; 11, Halloran Springs (T. 14 N.. R. 10 E., 
S.B.), Tucker and Sampson (17) p. 273; 12, Ivanpah Mining District, 
LoeAv (2) p. 186, Tucker (8) p. 94 ; 13, Old Woman Mountains (T. 1 N., 
R. 21 E., S.B.), Irelan (4) p. 217; 14, 3 miles east of Cima, New York 



1 966 1 DESCRIPTIONS 125 

Mountains, Tucker and yani])soii (16) p. 276; 15, at the Black Metal 
mine, 3 miles west of the Colorado Kiver and 50 miles southeast of 
Needles, Tucker and Sampson (17) p. 266; 16, Calarivada mine (T. 18 
N., R. 13 E., S.B.), ibid. p. 266; 17, a little was found at Searles Lake, 
De Groot (2) p. 587, and 18, Waterman mine (sec. 13, T. 10 N., R. 2 
W., S.B.), L. A. Wricrht et al. (5) p. 139. 

Sail Diego Counti/: 1, Cerarnryrite was found 3 miles south of Julian, 
in ore with coppei- minerals, CDMG (9979). 

Shasta County: 1, Small perfect crystals of cerarg:yrite were found 
at the Silver King mine, 4 miles west of Redding, Hanks (15) p. 98. 

CERITE 
Hydrous silicate of the rare earth elements, near (Ce, Y,Pr, 03)48130, 2' HjO 

San Bernardino County: 1, Cerite is reported with bastnaesite from 
the Mountain Pass deposit 30 miles east of Baker, Glass et al. (4) p. 
665, ibid. (5), p. 460. The crystallography of this occurrence has been 
presented by P. Gay (1) p. 429. 

CERUSSITE 
Lead carbonate, PbCOj 

The mineral is readily confused with anglesite from which it often 
cannot be separated in field inspection. Localities entered below have 
not had the reported identification validated, and all occurrences known 
in the State are not included. 

Imperinl County: 1, Cerussite was found with argentiferous galena, 
in small veins and pockets at the Mavflower mine (sec. 11, T. 14 S., 
R. 22 E., S.B.), F. J. H. Merrill (l)"p. 732; 2, it was also found in 
(T. 11 S., R. 19, 20 E., S.B.), Tucker (11) p. 262. 

Inyo County: More than 30 occurrences are recorded from this 
county, most of them relatively unimportant. 1, Large crystals came 
from the Union mine in tlie Russ Mining District (sec. 14, T. 6 S., R. 
30 E., M.D.), Hanks (12) p. 124. 2, Cerus.site was an important mineral 
at the Cerro Gordo mine, ibid., p. 124, C. W. Merriam (1) p. 43. 3, 
Cerussite was relatively common in the Darwin Mining District, A. 
Knopf (4) p. 7, Hall and MacKevett (4) p. 13. 4, The principal ore 
mineral at the Carbonate mine near the base of the east slope of the 
Panamint Mountains was cerussite, C. A. Waring and Huguenin (2) 
p. 89. 5, Fine crystals came from the Modoc mine (sec. 34, T. 19 S., 
R. 42 E., M.D.), Hanks (12) p. 124, Hall and Stephens (3) pp. 24-36. 

6, Well-crystallized cerussite with linarite and caledonite were found 
in the Monster mine, northwest of Saline Valley, A. Knopf (5) p. 111. 

7, Cerussite with wulfenite was found at the Empire mine (T. 21 S., 
R. 45 E., M.D.), W. P. Blake (14) p. 125. 8, Cerussite is found at the 
Santa Rosa mine, Hall and MacKevett (4) p. 76. Minor occurrences 
are reported from the Panamint Range, Argus and Slate Ranges, 
northern end of the Invo Range, Tecopa and Resting Springs area. 
Chloride Cliff, etc.: Stetefeldt (1) p. 259; Ball (1) p. 73; Tucker (4) 
pp. 286, 291, etc.; Tucker (11) pp. 453-530; Macallister (2) and others. 

Madera County: 1, Cerussite is reported in some of the lead ores on 
Shadow and Johnson Creeks, Minaret Mining District, Goudey 
(l)p.7. 



126 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA | Bull. IHf) 

Mono County: 1, Cerussite is common in veins rich in galena, in the 
Blind Spring Mining District, Whiting (1) p. 378, A. L. Ransome (2) 
p. 190 ; 2, it was fonnd on the west slope of the White Monntains, be- 
tween Coldwater and Piute Canvons (T. 5 S., Tl. 33 or 34 E., M.D.), 
R.J. Sampson (14) p. 139. 

Mo7iterey Count ip 1, A little cerussite came from the Alisal Raneho, 
in cavities of galena, associated with a small quantitv of native arsenic, 
W. P. Blake (4) p. 301. 

Orange Comity: 1, Cerussite occurs sparingly at "Carbonate Hill" 
in Santiago Canyon, Bowers (4) p. 403. 

Riverside County: 1, Cerussite occurs with galena in the Free Coin- 
age mine, Hodges Mountain (T. 7, 8 S., R. 21 E., S.B.), F. J. H. 
]\Ierrill (2) p. 541, and 2, also in the Steele mine near Pinacate (SE I 
.sec. 32, T. 4 S., R. 4 W.. S.B.), ibid. p. 532. 3, The mineral was found 
with vanadinite and sulphides at the Black Eagle mine (sec. 30, T. 3 S., 
R. 14 E., S.B.). Tucker (8) p. 195. 4, Cerussite is found as an altera- 
tion of galena in tlie Crestmore quari'ies, Woodford (11) p. 352. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Massive cerussite occurs with chrysocolla 
in the Total Wreck mine and Langtry lode half a mile west of Calico. 
The mineral occurs sparingly elsewhere in tlie region, Lindgren (1) 
p. 727, Storms (3) p. 383. 2, Cerussite is prominent in the mines 5 
miles west of Oro Grande, Storms (4) p. 364, and 3, it occurs with 
linarite, smithsonite, etc., in the Ibex mine, 6 mih's nortli of Saratoga 
Springs, Cloudman et al. (1) p. 821. 4, Cerussite is found with smith- 
sonite and hydrozincite at tlie Carbonate mine (sec. 32, T. 16 N., R. 
14 E., S.B.), Ivanpah Mining District, Tucker (4) p. 363, Tucker and 
Sampson (33) p. 128. 5, The mineral occurs in the Lava Beds Mining 
District with wulfenite, anglesite, etc., Tucker and Sampson (17) p. 
351, and 6, it was found with vanadinite and cuprodescloizite at Signal, 
near GofTs, Schaller (24) p. 149. Cerussite was also reported in small 
amounts from 7, Grapevine (T. 10 N., R. 1 W., S.B.), Tucker and 
Sampson (28) p. 245; 8, Lead Mountain (T. 4 N., R. 10 E., S.B.), 
Tucker (8) p. 95; 9, Resting Springs. Tucker (4) p. 366; 10, Oro 
Grande, Grossman (1) p. 233; 11, Old Woman Mountains, ibid., p. 
217; 12, Clark Mountain (T. 17 X., R. 13 E., S.B.), Tucker (4) p. 
340; 13, Dale, Tucker and Sampson (27) p. 61, and 14, Holcomb 
Valley, Tucker (4) p. 362. 

ShaMa Cou7ity: 1, Cerussite occurs with pyromorphite, tetrahedrite, 
etc., at the Chicago claim, 3 miles west of Igo, W. P. Blake (14) p. 125. 

Sonoma County: 1, Cerussite is found as a heavy yellow concentrate 
in sands near Healdsburg, W. W. Bradley (26) p. 608. 

TuJarc County: 1, Cerussite occurs in the Silver Crown group (sec. 
7, T. 23 S., R. :i3 E., M.D.), Tucker and Sampson (29) p. 331. 

CERVANTITE 
Antimony dioxide, Sb204(?) 

Inyo County: 1, White or light->'ellow cervantite is associated with 
valentinite in Wild Rose Canyon, D. E. White (1) p. 317, Mining and 
Scientific Press (38) p. 368. 2, A specimen, CDMG (8585), shows 
probable cervantite from Cerro Gordo. 3, Cervantite was found as an 
alteration product of stibnite in the Darwin Mining District, Kelley 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 127 

(4) p. 544. 4, Tlie mineral was reported with metastibnite and valen- 
tinite 4| miles sonth of Bishop, Woodhonse (p.c. '45). 

Kern County: 1, Cervantite was reported from "San Amedio" 
Mountain by Hanks (12) p. 124. A specimen from this county in the 
American i\Iuseum of Natural History is a pseudomorph of cervantite 
after antimony, Prondel (1) p. 407. 

Moyio County: 1, Cervantite was recorded from the Blind Spring 
Mining District, Loew (1) p. 654. 

San Benito County: 1, Coatings of cervantite on stibnite and matrix 
are found in a specimen from the Ambrose mine near Hollister, col- 
lected about lf)00, now in the collection of Rocks and Minerals maga- 
zine in Peekskill, New York, Anon. (31) p. 575. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Clear yellow, colorless, or white coatings 
of cervantite in vugs in ore, with pyrostilpnite. was found in the Cali- 
fornia Rand mine, Red Mountain, Murdoch (12) p. 131. 

San Luis Ohispo County: 1, Cervantite Avas found with stibiconite 
on antimony ores at the Marquart mine ( T. 26 S., R. 9 E., M.D.), 
Eckel et al.'(l) pp. 537, 543. 

CHABAZITE 
Hydrous calcium aluminum silicate, CaEAIjSi^Oij] "BHjO 

Chabazite is a zeolite occurring as a secondary mineral in cavities 
of basic volcanic rock. 

Mono County: 1, Minute colorless or whitish crystals of chabazite 
line narrow fissures in biotite schist near the head of McGee Creek 
(approx. lat. 37°10' N, long. 118°50' W), Mayo (p.c. '32). 

Nevada County: 1, Colorless crystals of chabazite several mm across 
form coatings of fissures in diabase at the Star mine, Grass Valley, 
Lindgren (12) p. 120. 

Plumas County: 1, Pseudocubic crystals of chabazite occur in basalt 
at the Dodson mine, Mooreville Ridge. H. W. Turner (4) p. 490. 

Riverside County: 1, Chabazite has been found on the 330' level at 
Crestmore, Leavens (p.c. '62). 

Santa Clara County: 1, Chabazite is reported from the Cochran (e) 
Ranch, Coyote Creek, Kartchner (1) p. 18. 

Shasta County: 1, Chabazite is found with natrolite, tridymite, and 
analcime, in amvgdaloidal basalt on Round Mountain, Melhase (3) no. 
6, p. 1. ' 

CHALCANTHITE— Blue Vitriol 
Hydrous cupric sulphate, CuS04-5H20 

Chalcanthite is common in mine workings where it results from the 
oxidation of copper sulphides. 

Alameda County: 1, Chalcanthite is abundant as massive coatings 
and crystals with melanterite, etc., at the Alma pyrite mine, Leona 
Heights, Schaller (1) p. 212. 

Alpine County: 1, Chalcanthite occurs in considerable amounts in 
mine openings at the Leviathan sulphur mine, 7 miles east of Marklee- 
ville, Gary (1) p. 488. 

Calaveras County: 1, "Cyanosite" (chalcanthite) was reported by 
Silliman (7) p. 351, from Quail Hills, 2, Chalcanthite occurs in the 



128 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Jackson McCarthy (Old Calaveras) mine, W. B. Clark and Lydon (4) 
p. 26. 

Fresno Connty: 1, Chalcanthite was found at the Nieper copper mine 
(sec. 34, T. 11 S'., R. 23 E., M.D.), Goldstone (1) p. 194. 

Inyo Comity: 1, Chalcanthite is found in minor amounts in the oxi- 
dized ores in the Darwin Mining District, Hall and MacKevett (4) 
p. 64. 

Mono County: 1, Chalcanthite was found in the Masonic Mining Dis- 
trict, W. W. Bradley (26) p. 606. 

Nevada County: 1, Chalcanthite was reported from Sweetland, Min- 
ing and Scientific Press (3) no. 13, p. 5, Hanks (12) p. 124. 

Placer County: 1, Chalcanthite occurs with native silver, coquimbite, 
etc., at the Vallev View mine, Whiskev Hill, 6 miles north of Lincoln, 
Silliman (7) p. 351, Logan (17) p. 40." 

Shasta County: 1, Chalcanthite is common at the Peck mine. Copper 
City, Hanks (12) p. 124. 

Trinity County: 1, Chalcanthite is found with other sulphates at the 
Island Mountain copper mine, Vonsen (p.c. '45). 2, Considerable 
amounts of the mineral were found with chalcopyrite in the New 
River area. Anbury (4) p. 144. 

CHALCOCITE — Copper Glance — Red ruth ite 
Cuprous sulphide, CU2S 

Chalcocite is common in many of the copper mines of the State, but 
large bodies of this valuable copper mineral are rare. Bornite and 
chalcopyrite are often intermixed with chalcocite, and malachite com- 
monly coats the surfaces of specimens. 

Bornite, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, cuprite, galena, marcasite, pyrite, 
pyrrhotite, stibnite, tenorite, tetrahedrite, and many other antimony, 
copper, iron, lead and zinc sulfides, and oxides are found in traces or 
in minor amounts in many localities. The entries listed reflect either 
mineralogical or historic interest, and the listings are not complete nor 
is all literature which mentions these minerals referenced. 

Alpine County: 1, Some chalcocite occurs in the ore from the old 
Billy Rogers claim in Hope Valley, reputed to be the earliest copper 
claim in California (1855), Woodhouse (p.c. '45). 2, Chalcocite from 
the Globe mine (SW \ sec. 31, T. 10 N., R. 21 E., M.D.) carried some 
gold and silver, Logan (4) p. 404. 

Calaveras County: 1, Chalcocite was reported from Quail Hill, Silli- 
man (7) p. 351. 

Colusa. County: 1, Chalcocite was found massive at the American 
mine (N.R.). 

Del Norte County: 1, Chalcocite was found abundantly with mag- 
netite in serpentine at the Cleopatra mine 18 miles east of Smith River, 
in the Diamond Creek Mining District, Hershey (4) p. 429; 2, at the 
Alta mine, Copper Creek, Maxson (1) p. 148; 3, near Low Divide, near 
Rockland, J. D. Whitney (7) p. 362; 4, with carbonates and oxides in 
the Higgins Mountain group on the Siskiyou Fork, Smith River, 5 
miles from North Monkey Creek, Anbury (1) p. 116. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 129 

El Dorado County: 1, Chalcocite occurred with bornite and ehal- 
copyrite in the old Cosumnes copper mine near Fairplay (N.R.), and 
2, at the Boston mine, Latrobe (N.R.) 

Fresno County: 1, A little chalcocite was found at the Fresno cop- 
per mine (T. 12 S., R. 21 E., M.D.), Anbury (1) p. 226. 

Humboldt County: 1, A vein of chalcocite up to 1 foot wide in 
schist occurred in the Horse Mountain mine (sec. 33, 34, T. 6 N., R. 
4 E., H.), Averill (10) p. 508, and 2, it was found in the Iron Mountain 
mine, Mad River area, CDMG (15686). 3, Chalcocite, with cuprite and 
native copper, occurred as float at the Red Cap mine, 50 miles north 
of Eureka, on the divide between Red Cap and Boise Creeks, Hershey 
(4) p. 429. 

Imperial County: 1, Some secondary chalcocite is found in the Cargo 
Muchacho Mining District, Henshaw (1) p. 185. 

Inyo County: 1, Chalcocite occurs in all mines of the Ubehebe Min- 
ing District, and some excellent specimens have been collected. Anbury 
(4) p. 302. 2, A small amount of chalcocite occurs in the Panamint 
Mining District. Murphy (2) p. 323. 3, Some chalcocite was found with 
tetrahedrite and other sulphides at the Ashford (Golden Treasure) 
mine on the east side of Death Valley, Tucker and Sampson (25) p. 
383. 4, Chalcocite was found with oxides and carbonates at Green- 
water, Black Mountains, Zalinski (1) p. 81. 5, Chalcocite in small 
({uantities is reported with covellite as a constituent of the silver-lead 
ores from the Darwin Mining District, Hall and MacKevett (1) p. 18. 

Kern County: 1, A little chalcocite is found with chalcopyrite in 
veins in granodiorite at the Greenback copper mine (sec. 1, etc., T. 
26 S., R. 29 E., M.D.), Tucker (4) p. 308. 

Lake County: 1, Some chalcocite occurs with malachite at the Lang- 
trv Ranch (T. 10 N., R. 7 \\ ., M.D.), 7 miles south of Middletown, 
CDMG (15727). 

Lassen County: 1, Fine chalcocite has come from the Lummis mine, 
Woodhouse (p.c. '45). 

Los Angeles County: 1, Irregular masses of chalcocite occurred in 
syenitic granite at the Maris mine, Soledad Canyon, W. P. Blake (9) 
p. 12. This may be the same locality described by W. P. Blake (7) p. 
291, as "7 miles below the summit of Williamson's Pass, almost 90 
feet above the bed of the stream." 

Madera County: 1, Chalcocite occurred with chalcopyrite in a small 
vein north of the Jessie Bell mine near Daulton, Forstner (4) p. 747. 

Mariposa Couyity: 1, Small amounts of a "dark blue or blue-black 
sulphide," presumably chalcocite, were found in the Pocahontas mine 
(T. 7 S., R. 17 E., M.D.), Anbury (1) p. 210; 2, it occurs at La Vic- 
toria mine (T. 4 S., R. 16 E., M.D.), ibid., p. 213, and 3, with native 
copper at the Copper Queen mine (T. 5 S., R. 19 E., M.D.), ibid., 
p. 216. 

Mono Cou7ity: 1, Chalcocite is found sparingly as secondary vein- 
lets in the mines at Blind Spring Hill, A. L. Ransome (2) p. 172. 

Napa County: 1, Chalcocite occurs with covellite at the Jumper 
Mines (N.R.). 



130 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA fBllll. 189 

Nevada County: 1, Chalcoeite is found with bornite and eovellite in 
the enriched zone on Mineral Hill near Speiiceville (T. 15 N., R. 6 E., 
M.D.), Forstner (4) p. 745. 

Placer County: 1, Small amounts of chalcoeite occur at the Valley 
View mine, Whiskey Hill, with sulphates, Silliman (7) p. 350. 

Plumas County: 1, Rich chalcoeite-bornite ore has been mined in the 
Genesee Valley Mining District, J. D. Whitney (7) p. 309, Hanks (15) 
p. 100. 2, Chalcoeite Avas abundant in the En^'els mine, intergrown 
with bornite, II. W. Turner and Rop^ers (32) p. 379. 3, Chalcoeite is 
found with bornite and chalcopyrite from the Gruss copper mine, 
Portola, Enpineerinp' and jMining Journal (25) p. 543. 4, Chalcoeite 
shows microscopic "t!Ta]ihic" interjjrowtli with bornite from Surprise 
Creek, A. F. Rogers {11) p. 593. 

Riverside County: 1, A little chalcoeite is present in the limestone at 
Crestmore, Eakle (15) p. 353, and 2, it occurs with cuprite in the Palen 
Mountains (sees. 29, 30, T. 4 S., R. 20 E., S.B.), F. J. H. Merrill (2) 
p. 526. 

San Benito County: 1. Small crystals of chalcoeite occur scattered 
through the natrolite of the benitoitc vein, near the headwaters of the 
San Benito River, l.ouderback and Blasdale (5) p. 359. 

San Bernardino County: 1, A considerable amount of pyrite-chal- 
cocite ore came from the Pacific IMines Corp., 7 miles south of Ludlow, 
Cloudman et al. (1) p. 790. 2, A little chalcoeite is associated with 
bornite. chalcopyrite. and tetrahedrite in the Calico Mining District, 
Weeks (4) p. 534, and 3, the mineral is found at Ivanpah and Ord, 
Loew (2) p. 186, Tucker and Sam]ison (17) p. 267. 4, Chalcoeite occurs 
as a secondary mineral in the new American Eagle mine (sec. 31, T. 
3 N., R. 24 E.,'S.B.). L. A. AVright et al. (5) p. 65. 

Sa7i Diego Count ij: 1, Massive chalcoeite comes from Potrero, CDMG 
(10037). 

Shasta County: 1, Chalcoeite is widesjiread but not abundant in the 
copper mines of the county: Bully Hill, Afterthought, Coi^per City, 
Iron Mountain, Balaklala, Silver King, Greenhorn, etc., as reported in 
Anbury (1) p. 65. Laizure fl) p. 528, Tucker (9) pp. 427, 445, Averill 
(9) p. 127, and the East Shasta copper-zinc area, Albers and Robert- 
son (3) p. 70. 

Sierra County: 1, Chalcoeite occurs in very minor amounts in the 
Alleghany Mining District, E. MacBoyle (3) p. 4. 

Siskiyou County: 1, Chalcoeite has been rejiorted from the Yellow 
Butte mine, 12 miles northeast of Weed, the Copper King mine, and 
Ihe Bonanza mine near Honolulu (X.R.). 

Trinity County: 1, Chalcoeite occurs as local (Mirichment in th(> Cop- 
per Queen lode, in the Carrville Alining District, D. F. MacDonald 
(2) p. 17. 2, A small amount of "sooty clialcocite" is found in the 
Island Mountain mine, Vonsen (p.c. '45), and 3, it occurs with native 
copper and carbonates on the North Fork, Trinity River, near the main 
stream, J. B. Trask (1) p. 24. 

Tuolumne County: 1, xV considerabh^ amount of chalcoeite was found 
in the upper levels of the Oak Hill mine. Anbury (4) p. 250. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 131 

CHALCOPYRITE— Copper Pyrites 
A sulphide of copper and iron, CuFeSj 

Chaleopyrite is the universal copper mineral, abundant in practically 
all copper ores, and present in nearly every mineral vein, and therefore 
in almost every county in the state. Good general references to copper 
ores are A. Knopf (2) and Anbury (1) and (4). 

Bornite, chalcocite, chaleopyrite, cuprite, galena, marcasite, pyrite, 
pyrrhotite, stibnite, tenorite, tetrahedrite, and many other antimony, 
copper, iron, lead and zinc sulfides, and oxides are found in traces or 
in minor amounts in many localities. The entries listed reflect either 
mineralogical or historic interest, and the listings are not complete nor 
is all literatvire which mentions these minerals referenced. 

Alameda County: 1, Small amounts of chaleopyrite are present in the 
massive pyrite at the Alma mine, Leona Heights, Schaller (1) p. 194. 

Alpijie County: 1, Chaleopyrite is found with enargite and other 
sulphides in the Mogul area, Eakle (16) p. 13. 

Amador County: 1, Chaleopyrite is the chief ore mineral at the 

Jackson (Newton) mine, 3 miles northeast of lone, Storms (9) p. 87, 

and 2, it occurs in minor amounts in some of the other mines of the 

county: Copper Hill (sees. 34, 35, T. 8 N., R. 9 E., M.D.), lone City, 

'Bull Run, etc., Aubury (1) pp. 185, 186. 

Calaveras County: 1, Many tons of chaleopyrite ore were mined in 
this county. The principal producers were the Copperopolis, Campo 
Seco, Lancha Plana, Union, and Keystone mines, Reid (3) p. 398, 
Aubury (1) p. 190. Minor amounts of chaleopyrite occur in the gold 
ores, Moss (1) p. 1011, Pranke and Logan (4) p. 239. 

Colusa Couuty: 1, Chaleopyrite is associated in small amounts with 
cinnabar, gold, and stibnite, at the Manzanita mine, Becker (4) p. 367. 

Contra Costa County: 1, Chaleopyrite occurs with gold and bornite 
at a prospect in a ravine, tributary to Mitchell Canyon on Mount 
Diablo, H. W. Turner (1) p. 391. 

Del Norte County: 1, Many mines in the Low Divide and Shelly 
Creek areas carry some chaleopyrite, Aubury (1) p. 27. 

El Dorado County: 1, Good specimens of chaleopyrite, with bornite, 
molybdenite, garnet, epidote, and axinite, have come from the old 
Cosumnes mine near Fairplay, Tucker and Waring (2) p. 276. 2, Con- 
siderable chaleopyrite has been produced from other mines in the Foot- 
hill copper belt in this county : Alabaster Cave (sees. 10, 15, T. 11 N., 
R. 8 E., M.D.), Lilyama (sec. 3, T. 11 N., R. 9 E., M.D.), Cambrian 
(sec. 23, T. 11 N., R. 9 E., M.D.), Boston (sec. 22, T. 4 N., R. 9 E., 
M.D.), etc., Aubury (1) pp. 176-181. 

Fresno County: 1, Chaleopyrite is abundant in the Copper King mine 
(sec. 3, T. 12 S., R. 23 E., M.D.), Crawford (1) p. 66; 2, at the Fresno 
copper mine, Aubury (4) p. 281, and 3, massive at the Nieper copper 
mine (sec. 34, T. 11 S., R. 23 E., M.D.), Goldstone (1) p. 194. 

Humboldt County: 1, Boulders of massive pyrite and chalcop.vrite 
occur on the seashore at Patrick's Point, 6 miles north of Trinidad, 
Aubury (4) p. 155. 2, Chaleopyrite occurs on Horse Mountain (T. 6 
N., R. 4 E., H), Lowell (1) p. 397, and 3, a vein up to 7 feet in width 
was reported on the Hoopa Indian Reservation (see. 2, T. 8 N., R. 4 
E., H), Averill (10) p. 508. 



132 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Imperial County: 1, Small amounts of chalcopyrite are present in the 
o:olcl veins of the Picacho, Cargo Muchaeho. and other areas in the 
county. Tucker (11) p. 252, Tucker and Sampson (27) pp. 16, 17, R. 
J. Sampson and Tucker (18) pp. 115, 125. 

Inyo County: 1, Chalcopyrite is found in many of the gold and lead- 
silver deposits in the Darwin, Argus, Coso, Inyo, Panamint, and other 
areas in the county, nowhere in considerable amount. Specific locali- 
ties may be found listed in Anbury (1) p. 245, Tucker (11) pp. 469- 
473, Tucker and Sampson (25) pp. 383-413, Kellev (4) p. 543, Hall and 
MacKevett (4) p. 59. 

Kern County: 1, Some chalcopyrite is fou]id in most of the gold 
mines of the county : Valley View, Rademacher, Goler, Woody, Mojave, 
and others: Tucker (4) p. 308, Tucker and Sampson (21) pp. 314, 360, 
E. C. Simpson (1) p. 409, and Tucker and Sampson (29) pp. 323, 329. 
2, Chalcopyrite is present as a minor mineral in the tin ores of the 
Gorman area, Troxel and Morton (2) p. 294. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Chalcopyrite is found with pyrrhotite, galena 
and sphalerite in veins in schist, at the property of the Denver Mining 
and Milling Company, 12 miles from the mouth of Pacoima Canyon, 
Tucker (4) p. 318. 2, The mineral is found as veins and stringers in 
quartz, 7 miles below the summit of Soledad Pass (New Pass), 90 feet 
above the creek bed, W. P. Blake (3) p. 81. 3, The mineral is found 
with marcasite and sphalerite on Mill Creek, near the Monte Cristo 
mine, R. J. Sampson (10) p. 187. 

Madera County: 1, Chaleopvrite occurs in small masses at the 
Buchanan mine (sec. 33, T. 8 S.', R. 18 E., M.D.), Anbury (1) p. 218; 
2, at the Ne Plus Ultra and other mines near Daulton, ibid. 3, The 
mineral is found in the Minarets Mining District, W. W. Bradlev (9) 
p. 548, Erwin (1) pp. 66-71. 

Marin County: 1, Chalcopyrite occurs with pyrite in a number of 
veins in serpentine, near Bolinas Bay (sec. 1, T. 1 N., R. 8 W., M.D.), 
Anbury (1) p. 143. 

Mariposa County: 1, Massive chalcopyrite with pyrite is abundant 
at the Green Mountain copper group (sees. 31, 32, T. 7 S., R. 18 E., 
M.D.), 2, Pocahontas (sec. 14, T. 7 S., R. 17 E., M.D.), 3, Baretta (T. 
3 S., R. 16 E., M.D.), 4, near Hornitos (sec. 13, T. 3 S., R. 15 E., 
M.D.), and at other mines in small amounts, Auburv (1) pp. 206-215, 
(4) p. 268. 

M( ndocino Count ij: 1, Chaleopvrite is found with tetrahedrite at 
the Redwood Copper Queen (sees." 17, 20, T. 12 N., R. 13 AV., M.D.), 
Aubury (1) p. 137. 

Merced Count]/: 1, Small amounts of chalcopyrite occur in the Jose 
copper mine (sec. 4, T. 14 S., R. 9 E., M.D.) and Victor Bonanza mine 
(T. 13 S., R. 9 E., M.D. ), Aubury (1) p. 146. 

Modoc County: 1, A little chalcopyrite is found in gold-cjnartz veins 
in the extreme northeast corner of the state, Iloag Alining District (T. 
47, 48 N., R. 15, 16 E., M.D.), Stines (2) p. 386, Averill (6) p. 453. 

Mono County: 1, Chalcopyrite occurs sparingly on Blind Spring Hill, 
A. L. Ransome (2) p. 172, and 2, with scheelite, molybdenite, etc., on 
the slope of Bloody Mountain above Laurel Lake, Mayo (4) pp. 83, 84. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 133 

Napa County: 1, High-grade chalcopyrite ore was found 13 miles 
south of Middletown (sec. 17, T. 10 N.,"r. 5 W., M.D.), Aubury (1) 
p. 140. 

Nevada County: 1, Chalcopyrite has been mined in the Spenceville 
area, Aubury (1) p. 164. 2, Good masses of pure chalcopyrite, as- 
sociated with arsenopyrite, galena, etc., are found in the Meadow Lake 
Mining District, Wiskar (1) p. 194. 3, The mineral was reported with 
pyrrhotite carrying platinum ( ? ) values, at Liberty Hill, in greenish 
siliceous rock. Hill (3) p. 8. 4, The mineral is widespread but not 
abundant in the Grass Valley mines, Lindgren (12) p. 118. 

Placer County: Small amounts of chalcopyrite in pyrite are found 
at manv localities in the county. Nowhere is it of much importance : 
Centennial (sec. 17, T. 12 N., R. 8 E., M.D.), Logan (4) p. 443; Valley 
View, Aubury (1) p. 174; Dairy Farm, Auburv (4) p. 208, and Baker 
(Whiskey Hill) near Lincoln, W. P. Blake (12) p. 290; Eclipse (sec. 
17, T. 12 N., R. 8 E., M.D.), and Elder (sec. 4, T. 13 N., R. 8 E., 
M.D.), Aubury (4) pp. 207, 210, and Colfax (sec. 33, T. 15 N., R. 9 
E., M.D.), C. A. Waring (4) p. 349. 

Plumas County: 1, Commercially valuable bornite-chalcopyrite ores 
have been mined at the Walker mine. Hanks (12) p. 94 and 2, at the 
Engels and Superior mines, H. W. Turner and Rogers (32) p. 377. 
These have been the leading copper producers in the state since 1915. 
3, Chalcopyrite occurs with bornite and chalcocite at the Gruss copper 
mine, near Portola, Engineering and Mining Journal (25) p. 543. 4, 
The mineral is present also in lesser amounts at a number of other 
properties, Logan (4) p. 470, Averill (8) pp. 93-95. 

Riverside County: 1, Chalcoyprite is one of the minor minerals at 
the Crestmore quarry, Eakle (15) p. 352. 

San Benito County: 1, A little chalcopvrite is found on Lewis Creek 
(sees. 2, 3, 4, T. 19 S., R. 10 E., M.D.)', W. W. Bradley and Logan 
(7) p. 633, and 2, at Copper Mountain (T. 16 S., R. 7 E., M.D.), L. 
L. Root (4) p. 233. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Chalcopyrite occurs in small amounts in 
practically all of the mining regions of the county: Aubury (1) pp. 
249-255, '(4) pp. 325-329, Cloudman et al (1) pp. 774-899, Tucker 
and Sampson (27) pp. 67, 69, (28) pp. 234-239. 2, Chalcopyrite is 
the common ore mineral in the Ord Mountain deposits, Weber (3) p. 26. 

San Diego County: 1, Masses of chalcopyrite occur 8 miles east of 
Encinitas (T. 13 S., R. 3 W., S.B.), Aubury (1) p. 259, and 2, also at 
the Barona copper claims (T. 14 S., R. 1 E., S.B.), 12 miles northeast 
of Lakeside, ibid., p. 260. 3, The massive pyrrhotite of the Friday 
mine, 4 miles south of Julian, carries small amounts of chalcopyrite, 
with pentlandite and violarite. Calkins (2) p. 79, Hudson (1) p. 217. 

San Luis Ohispo Couyity: Minor occurrences of chalcopyrite ores are 
scattered through the county. 1, near Cayucas, and 2, on Chorro Creek, 
Aubury (1) p. 148, and 3, a few miles south and west from Santa 
Margarita at the summit of the Santa Lucia Mountains, Logan (3) 
p. 686. 

Santa Barbara County: 1, Small deposits carrying chalcopyrite occur 
northeast of Los Olivos (sec. 5, T. 7 N., R. 29 W., S.B.), Huguenin 
(2) p. 735. 



134 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA |Bull. 189 

Santa Clara County: 1, A little chaleopyrite occurred in the New 
Almaden quicksilver mine, Randol (2) p. 180, E. H. Bailey and Ever- 
hart (12) p. 98; 2, it is recorded from the Hooker Creek mine, 1 mile 
from Eva (T. 9 S., R. 1 W., M.D.), Hanks (14) p. 97, Huguenin and 
Castello (4) p. 184. 

Shasta County: 1, Chalcoyprite is the predominant mineral in the 
Shasta County copper belt, which includes the Iron Mountain, Bully 
Hill, Afterthought, Balaklala and other mines, Diller (7) pp. 126-132, 
(10) p. 12, Tucker (9) pp. 425-433, Kinkel et al. (2), Albers and 
Robertson (3) p. 70. 2, Chaleopyrite was prominent in some of the 
veins in the Delta mine (T. 35 N., R. 5 W, M.D.), Ferguson (1) p. 72. 

Sierra County: 1, Chaleopyrite occurs in small amounts in the gold 
veins of the county, E. MacBoyle (3) p. 88, Averill (11) p. 17. 

Siskiyou County: Some chaleopyrite, occasionally in considerable 
amount, is found, usually associated with pyrite and pyrrhotite, in 
nearly every ore deposit in the county. The occurrences are mostly in 
the western part, near Callahan, Dutch Creek, Happy Camp, Honolulu, 
and other areas. The principal source of detailed information as to 
localities is Anbury (1) pp. 105-111, (4) pp. 122-133. 

Sonoma. County: 1, Cornucopia mine (sees. 33, 34, T. 12 N., R. 9 W., 
M.D.), produced chaleopyrite, W. W. Bradley (1) p. 320. 

Tehama County: 1, Pyrite and chaleopyrite form the ore of the Cali- 
fornia and Massachusetts copper mines (sec. 25, T. 27 N., R. 9 W., 
M.D.), Tucker (3) p. 261. 

Trinity County: Chaleopyrite ores have been mined at a number of 
localities: 1, Lambert o-roup at the mouth of Rattlesnake Creek and 2. 
on the Cold Fork of Indian Valley Creek, Anbury (1) pp. 118, 119; 
3, in the Copper Queen mine, Carrville Mining District, D. F. Mae- 
Donald (2) p. 17; 4, with considerable chalcanthite in the New River 
area, Anbury (4) p. 144; 5, in the pvrrhotite mass at Island Moun- 
tain, CDMG (15710) and 6, at the Ralston mine (sec. 32, T. 35 N., R. 
10 W., M.D.), Averill (10) p. 55. See also as a general reference 
Stinson (1). 

Tulare County: 1, Chaleopyrite occurs 7 miles northeast of Visalia, 
Tucker f2) p. 908; 2, in Round Valley 2^ miles east of Lindsay; 3, 
with pvrrhotite on the north fork of the middle fork, Tule River (sees. 
30, 32, T. 19 S., R. 31 E., M.D.), ibid., p. 909, and 4, at the Hart (sec. 
2, T. 15 S., R. 28 B., M.D.) and Powell ( T. 19 S., R. 31 E., M.D.) 
properties, Franke (1) p. 435. 

Tuolumne Count]}: 1, Considerable chalcopvrite ore was found at the 
Washington mine (sees. 20, 21, T. 2 N.. R. 17 E., M.D.), and 2, at the 
Oak Hill mine, Anbury (4) pp. 250, 251. 

Ventura County: 1, Chaleopyrite occurs in the White INIule y'roup 
(sec. 13, T. 8 N., R. 20 W., S.B.), in uold quartz with marcasite and 
pyrite, Tucker (10) pp. 231, 232. 

Yuha County: 1, Chaleopyrite is a minor constituent in the gold 
quartz veins at the Golden Mary (W ^ sec. 34, T. 19 N.. R. 6 E., M.D.). 
C. A. Waring (4) p. 445; 2, the mineral occurs at the Ayer mine (sec. 
35, T. 16 N., R. 5 E., M.D.), ibid., p. 424, and 3, in the Dobbins Mining 
District (sec. 23, T. 18 N., R. 7 E., M.D.), ibid., p. 447. 



1966 J DESCRIPTIONS 135 

CHLORITES 

The chlorites are a g-roup of soft micaceous aluminosilicates of iron 
and magnesium. The species below grade into one another by con- 
tinuous variations in composition. The chlorites are common constitu- 
ents of metamorphic rocks and as such are often referred to by group 
name. It is frequently impossible to distinguish variety, or even species, 
without extensive chemical and optical examination. 

Validity of varietal names in this group is sometimes subject to 
debate. 

CHLORITE 
Basic magnesium aluminum iron silicate, (Mg,AI,Fe)|2[(Si,AI)802o] (OH),j 

(general formula) 

Humboldt County: 1, Lateritic ores from this county carry chlorite 
and several varieties of serpentine, some nickeliferous, Montoya and 
Baur (1) p. 1228. 

Riverside County: 1. Chlorite occurs as a contact mineral in the 
Crestmore quarries, Woodford (11) p. 350. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Large plates of chlorite up to 6 inches 
across occur in abundance in chlorite schists in a newly exposed out- 
crop in Precambrian rocks in the Ivanpah Mountains. The locality 
is at the dead-end of a road entering a can^^on from the east between 
the Clark Mountain fault and a parallel subordinate fault to the 
southwest, shown on the Kingman sheet of the Geologic map of Cali- 
fornia, (near center, T. 15 N., R. 14 E.. S.B.), Norris and Webb 
(p.c. '63). 

Sierra County: 1, Crystals of chlorite associated with magnetite as 
replacement of dolomite occur at the Sierra iron mine at Upper 
Spencer Lake, Durrell (p.c. '45). 

CLINOCHLORE 
Basic magnesium iron aluminum silicate, (Mg,Fe2*,AI)4(Si,AI)40,o(OH)3 

Clinochlore occurs as an alteration product of mag'nesium-iron min- 
erals and is common in schists. Kotschnheite is a rose-red variety con- 
taining chromium, and is associated with chromite in serpentine rocks. 

Amador County: 1, Specimens from near Jackson are reported as 
probably kotschubeite, Lindgren (2) p. 5, although the material may 
be kammererite. 

El Dorado County: 1, Coarsely crystalline chlorite, probably clino- 
chlore, is found on the Stifle claim on Traverse Creek near George- 
town, Durrell (p.c. '44). 

Fres7w County: 1, Large pseudo-hexagonal plates of clinochlore with 
some penninite occur in 1- to 6-inch veins (E | sec. 11, T. 12 S., R. 23 
E., M.D.), and 2, also in road cuts along the highway on the north 
side of the north fork. Kings River, near Piedra, Durrell and Mac- 
Donald (1) p. 452. 3, Clinochlore occurs as micaceous crusts in nodular 
masses near Humphreys (sec. 22, T. 11 S., R. 23 E., M.D.), Pabst (8) 
p. 582. 4, Tabular crj^stals of clinochlore as much as 'Ke of an inch in 
size are reported to be associated with andradite garnet in White Creek 
near the Archer mine, Watters (p.c. '51), Murdoch (p.c. '54). 

Los Angeles County: 1, Chlorite, probably clinochlore, occurs with 
clinozoisite and tourmaline on the north side of Sierra Pelona Valley 
(center sec. 2, T. 5 N., R. 14 W., S.B.), Neuerburg (p.c. '44). 



136 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA (Bull. 189 

Placer County: 1, Rose-red kotschubeite occurs on chromite in the 
serpentine of Green Valley on the American River below Towle, Lind- 
gren (2) p. 904; analysis bv Melville, in Melville and Lindgren (1) 
p. 27. 

Riverside County: 1, Clinochlore occurs in pale-fjreen flakes with 
idocrase in the limestone of the Wet Weather quarry at Crestmore, 
Eakle (15) p. 348, Woodford et al. (10) p. 370. 

PENNINITE 

Basic magnesium/iron/aluminum silicate, (Mg,Fe2*,AI)|5(Si,AI)40,Q(OH)g 

/ 

Penninite is similar to clinochlore but has more iron in its composi- 
tion. Kammererite is a peach-blossom red variety associated with 
chromite. Rhodochromc is similar to kammererite. 

Alameda Coiirity: 1. Reddish-violet kammererite occurs with chromite 
on Cedar Mountain at the Mendenhall mine, A. F. Roo-ers (7) p. 380. 

Amador County: 1, Kammererite (?) or kotschubeite occur near 
Jackson, Lindgren (2) p. 5. 

Calaveras County: 1, Abundant kammererite is found in the chromite 
ores of the Mayflower property (NW i sec. 9, T. 1 N.. R. 13 E., M.D.), 
and in minor amounts in neiarhborins: deposits. Cater (2) p. 50. 

Del Norte County: 1, Kammererite with uvarovite has been observed 
coating chromite at the Camp 8 group (sec. 19, T. 16 N., R. 3 E., H.), 
J. E. Allen (2) p. 123. 2, Kammererite has come from the Brown mine 
at High Plateau (sec. 28, T. 18 N., R. 2 E., H.), Vonsen (p.c. '45). 

El Dorado County: 1, Kammererite occurred with uvarovite at the 
Pilliken mine (sec. 21, T. 11 N., R. 8 E., M.D.), Averill (12) p. 90. 
2, Kammererite has been found at Latrobe, CDMG (20511). 

Monterey County: 1, KJimmererite with uvarovite and chromite oc- 
curs west of King City, W. W. Bradley (26) p. 354. 2, Kammererite 
with uvarovite and chromite occurs at the South Slope mine, CDMG 
(21738). This may be the same as locality (1). 

Nevada County: 1, Rhodochrome is abundant at the Red Ledge 
chrome mine near Washington (sec. 13, T. 17 N., R. 10 E., M.D.), 
E. M. Boyle (1) p. 77. 

Placer Cou7ity: 1, Kammererite occurs in chromite in Green Valley, 
above Dutch Flat, CDMG (9900). 2, Shannon (3) p. 377, has analyzed 
a pale grayish-lavender chromiferous chlorite from the mine of the 
Placer Chrome Company, 6 miles south of Newcastle. 

Sa,n Benito Courity: 1, Red kiimmererite occurs on chromite associ- 
ated with uvarovite at New Idria, Brush (Dp. 268. 2, Coarse flakes of 
kammererite occur in massive chromite near the headwaters of the San 
Benito River (SW ^ see. 21, T. 18 S., R. 12 E., M.D.), Murdoch 
(p.c. '45). 

Shasta County: 1, Kammererite coats chromite in the Little Castle 
Creek mine, near Dunsmuir (N.R.). 

Siskiyou County: 1, Kammererite occurs with chromite and uvaro- 
vite at the Martin McKean mine near Callahan, Melhase (6) p. 23. 2, 
Kammererite occurs with uvarovite at the Youngs Valley group (T. 17 
N., R. 5 E., H.), Rynearson and Smith (1) pp. 304, 306, J. E. Allen 
(2) p. 123. 3, Kammererite with uvarovite occurs north of Seiad (T. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 137 

46, 47 N., R. 11, 13 W., M.D.), Rynearson and Smith (1) pp. 304, 306, 
J. E. Allen (2) pp. 123, 124. 4, Penninite is found with uvarovite at 
the Peg Leg mine, 14 miles southeast of Yreka, Symons (4) p. 101. 

Tehama County: 1, Kammererite is found with chromite and uvaro- 
vite on North Elder Creek (T. 25 N., R. 7 W., M.D.), Rynearson (3) 
p. 200. 

Yuha County: 1, Kammererite is found with uvarovite and chromite 
at the Red Ledge mine, Melhase (6) p. 23. 

PROCHLORITE 
Basic iron magnesium aluminum silicate, (Mg,Fe2*,AI)j(Si,AI)40i(,(OH)3 

Prochlorite forms large flaky masses in schists. 

Butte County: 1, Prochlorite is a constituent of the schists at Forbes- 
town, specimens coming from the Gold Bank mine, Irelan (4) p. 47. 

Contra Costa County: 1, Prochlorite was described and analyzed 
from the schists near San Pablo by Blasdale (1) p. 341. 

CHLORITOID 

Basic iron magnesium manganese aluminum silicate, 
(Fe2MV1g,Mn)2AI,Si20,(,(OH)4 

Ottrelite is used as a synonym for chloritoid and as a name for varie- 
ties rich in manganese. 

Inyo County: 1, The variety ottrelite occurs in dark-green oblong 
plates in schists on the west side of the Panamint Range, 5 to 10 miles 
east of Ballarat. The mineral comprises a considerable proportion of 
the schists in localized areas. Murphy (4) p. 347. 

Kern County: 1, Dark-green chloritoid occurs abundantly in schists, 
2-2-i miles northwest of Garlock, El Paso Mountains, Chesterman 
(p.c. '51). 

Siskiyou County: 1, A specimen of ottrelite schist has come from 
near Yreka, CDMG (12121). 

CHLOROMAGNESITE 
Magnesium chloride, MgCl2 

Magnesium chloride exists in solution in the waters of some springs 
and lakes, but its solubility prevents it from forming as a mineral 
except in the driest places. It is a doubtful species. 

San Bernardino County: 1, White efflorescences of chloromagnesite 
occur at Saratoga Springs, near the south end of Death Valley, G. E. 
Bailey (2) p. 106. 

CHONDRODITE 
Magnesium fluosilicate, Mg5(Si04)2(OH,F)2 

Riverside County: 1, From Crestmore this mineral occurs in two 
environments: (a) in contact rock with brucite and periclase as 
rounded, but somewhat tabular, colorless crystals, A. F. Rogers (19) 
p. 583, (31) p. 463, Woodford et al. (10) p. 367; (b) more rarely in 
dark-green crystals up to one mm, in contact rock in Lone Star quarry, 
Woodford et al. (10) p. 367. 2, Chondrodite was also found in the old 
City quarry. Riverside, A. F. Rogers (19) p. 582. 3, Deep amber grains 



138 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

of chondrodite are abundant in some of the contact zone limestones of 
the Jensen quarry, Murdoch (p.c. '47). 

San Bernardino County: 1, Chondrodite is reported from the lime- 
stone quarries at Colton, Eakle (15) p. 333. 

CHROMITE 
Oxide of chromium and iron, FeCrjO^ 

Magnesium-chromite is a common variant, in which magnesium in 
part replaces chromium. Trautwinite was ori^nally described in 1873 
as a new mineral species from California, Goldsmith (1) p. 348, (5) p. 
152. E. S. Dana (5) p. 447, suggested that it was a mixture of uvaro- 
vite garnet and chromite. 

Chromite is an exceedingly widespread mineral in the state, notably 
in the Coast Ranges from Santa Barbara County northward, especially 
in the serpentine areas, Diller (18). Distribution of some of the locali- 
ties is described in Bulletin 76 of the CDMG, W. W. Bradley et al. (4), 
Southern Coast Ranges, G. W. Walker and Griggs (4). Chromite 
occurs commonly as disseminated grains in basic and ultrabasic rocks, 
as irregular boulder-like masses, and seldom as individual crystals. 

Alameda County: 1, Massive chromite occurs in many mines in the 
Cedar Mountain area, 16 miles southeast of Livermore, Hanks (12) p. 
136, (15) p. 100, Aubury (3) p. 267, W. W. Bradley et al. (4) p. 115; 
analysis by Kramm (1) p. 341. 

Amador County: 1, Chromite is found near Jackson, one mile south 
of Mountain Spring House, Hanks (12) p. 136, (15) p. 100. 2, Some 
ore was shipped from properties near lone (sec. 34, T. 6 N., R. 10 E., 
and sec. 2, T. 5 N., R. 10 E., M.D.), W. W. Bradley et al. (4) p. 116. 
3, Shipments have also been made from various properties occurring in 
serpentine on Cosumnes River 8 miles northeast of Carbondale (sees. 
6, 29, T. 7 N., R. 10 E., M.D.). Hanks (12) p. 117. 4, Many small 
deposits of chromite occur throughout the county (T. 5, 6, 7, 8, N., 
R. 10 E., M.D.), Cater (2) pp. 33-38, ibid. (3). 

Butte County: 1, Placer chromite is common and has been reported 
by Engineering and Mining Journal (12) p. 1259, (23) pp. 511, 597, 
807, Diller (14) p. 11, Averill (13) p. 71. 2, Deposits in situ are very 
numerous in small pockets in serpentine. Localities are mentioned or 
described by Hanks (12) p. 136, Auburv (.3) p. 267, W. W. Bradlev 
et al. (4) pp. 105, 118-121. 

Calaveras County: Chromite is widespread in this county, mostly in 
lode but occasionally in placer deposits. Occurrences are reported from 
1, Tower Ranch, 9 miles east of Milton, and 2, Wright Ranch in Salt 
Springs Valley, 10 miles northeast of Milton, Aubury (3) p. 267; 3, 
from the Big Pine chrome mine (see. 20, T. 4 N., R. 11 E., M.D.), 
Aubury (3) p. 267; 4, near Murphys and at Campo Seco, Hanks (12) 
p. 136, and 5, 5 miles southeast of Valley Springs and 4 miles north 
of Copperopolis on the road to Milton, Tucker (14) pp. 55, 56. 6, W. W. 
Bradley et al. (4) p. 121, reported chromite 8 miles southwest of Angels 
Camp (sees. 3, 7, 10, T. 2 N., R. 12 E., M.D.) ; 7, from 4 miles west of 
Fostoria (sees. 23, 30, T. 5 N., R. 10, 11 E., M.D.), ibid., p. 122; 8, 
from 14 miles east of Milton Station (sec. 15, T. 2 N., R. 12 E., M.D.), 



1966J DESCRIPTIONS 139 

ibid., p. 123, and 9, from 10 miles northeast of Angels Camp at True 
Blue mine, ibid., p. 123. 10, Large masses of chromite were reported 
from the south side of San Diego Gulch near Noble copper mine, J. R. 
Browne (4) p. 225. Other occurrences too numerous to list are in the 
serpentines of this county. Details of location of the many chromite 
deposits, mostly small, in the county (T. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 N.,"h. 10, 11, 
12, 13 E., M.D.) are given by Cater (2) pp. 33-58, L. D. Clark and 
Lydon (4) pp. 21-33, Cater (3). 

Colusa County: 1, Minor amounts of chromite were shipped from 
Chrome Wonder mine, near Stonyford, W. W. Bradley et al. (4) p. 
123; 2, near Wilbur Springs, ibid., p. 123, and 3, from 1^ miles north- 
west of Cook Springs (T. 16 N., R. 6 W., M.D.), ibid., p. 124. 

Contra Costa County: 1, Chromite prospects w^ere located in T. 1 N., 
R. 1 W., M.D., L. L. Root (5) p. 12. 2, Occurrences have been reported 
from one mile northeast of North Peak, in the Mount Diablo range, and 
3, from east of San Antonio in the Contra Co.sta Hills, J. D. Whitney 
(7) p. 19. 

Del Norte County: 1, Black sands along Smith River carry chromite. 
Hanks (12) p. 136, and 2, beach sands near Crescent City carry 
abundant chromite, Horner (1) p. 35. 3, Lode occurrences are very 
numerous. Some important deposits occur in T. 15, 16, 17, 18 N., R. 
2, 3 E.. M.D. ; these and other localities are described by Maxson (1) 
pp. 123-160 and J. C. O'Brien (1) pp. 77-84. Other references to 
chromite in this countv are Hanks (12) p. 136, McGregor (1) p. 167, 
Aubury (1) p. 114, (3) pp. 267, 268, W. W. Bradley et al. (4) p. 
125, Diller (18) p. 32 and F. G. AVells et al. (5). 

El Dorado County: Serpentine rocks in this county carry chromite 
in disseminated irregular masses. Concentrations from which some 
sample shipments of ore were made are found in some parts of the 
county. Many localities are grouped about the following places : Vol- 
canoville, Curamings, Newcastle, Clarksville, Georgetown and Folsom, 
W. W. Bradley et al. (4) pp. 132-143; near Coloma and Latrobe, ibid., 
p. 131, Hanks (12) p. 136, (15) p. 100; a 15-inch vein in slate is re- 
ported by Fairbanks (9) p. 479, from near the Fort Yuma mine. Oc- 
currences in the Pilliken area (sec. 28, T. 11 N., R. 8 E., M.D.) are 
described by L. R. Page et al. (1) p. 433, and mentioned by W. W. Brad- 
ley et al. (4) p. 137, and Tucker (3) p. 274. Analysis of chromite from 
the Donnelly deposit, 10 miles northeast of Folsom (sec. 21, T. 11 N., 
R. 8 E., M.D.) is given by W. W. Bradley et al. (4) p. 133. Other 
references are Cater et al. (4) and W. B. Clark and Carlson (3). 

Fresno County: Deposits of chromite occur in the Mount Diablo 
Range in the western part of the county. Many occurrences are men- 
tioned in W. W. Bradley et al. (4) pp. 144-145, Goldstone (1) p. 189. 
J. D. Whitney (7) p. 59, reported chromite as a ". . . block 4' x 7'4'' x 
5'6" thought to be silver ore at first ..." from near the New Idria 
mine. 

Glenn County: Chromite occurrences are found 1, near Millsaps 

(sec. 25, T. 22 N., R. 7 W.. M.D.), Auburv (3) p. 268, W. W. Bradley 
et al. (4) p. 198, and 2, on Big Stony Creek (T. 19 N., R. 6 W., M.D.), 
J. H. Rogers (1) p. 324. 3, Claims are located 30 miles west of Orland 

(see. 3, T. 22 N., R. 7 W., M.D.), AV. W. Bradley et al. (4) p. 147. 4, 



140 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Chromite also occurs near Newville, Boalich (1) p. 25, and 5, 19 miles 
from Fruto (T. 19, 20 N., R. 5, 6 AV.. M.D.), Minino^ and Scientific 
Press (39) p. 454. 

Humholdt County: 1, Occurrences of chromite (sec. 24, T. 10 N., 
R. 5 E., H.) and (sees. 11, 13, T. 11 N., R. 4 E., H.) have been 
recorded by J. C. O'Brien (1) p. 78. 2, Float was reported from Hoopa 
Indian Reservation and Little Wilder Creek, Averill dO) pp. 505, 506. 
3, Ore was shipped from deposits on Horse Mountain, 25 miles north- 
east of Eureka (sees. 33, 34, T. 6 N.. R. 4 E., H.), AV. W. Bradley 
et al. (4) p. 148. 

Kings County: 1, Float chromite has been found in the serpentine 
area at Table Mountain, W. W. Bradley (2) p. 527. 

La/re County: Two fjeneral areas in this county have the largest num- 
ber of reported prospects: 1, east of Middletown (T. 10, 11, 12 N., R. 
6, 7 W., M.D.) in decomposed serpentine, W. W. Bradlev (Dp. 204, 
AV. A^^ Bradley et al. (4) pp. 148, 149, and 2, (sec. 36, t' 19 N., R. 10 
AV., M.D.) near Hullville, AV. AA^ Bradley (1) p. 204, Laizure (9) p. 
54. The serpentine rocks of the county carry disseminated chromite 
in many other areas. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Chromite is reported to occur 13 mil.es north 
of Saup:us in Bouquet Canyon, in serpentine. Tucker (13) p. 288. 2, 
Reports of occurrences from near Acton and Harold in Soledad Canvon, 
F. J. H. Merrill (2) p. 471, AA^ AA^ Bradley et al. (4) p. 151, are" un- 
doubtedly due to misidentification of ilmenite which is so abundant 
as float from the San Gabriel Mountains. 

Madera County: 1, Chromite is found near Madera in masses coated 
with zaratite, CDMG (13414). 

Marin County: 1, Chromite is reported from the Maillard Ranch in 
San Geronimo township, 8 miles northwest of San Rafael, AVatts (2) 
p. 253. 

Mariposa County: 1, Chromite ore was shipped from Purcell-Griffin 
mine, southeast of Coulterville near Pleasant A^alley Station, AV. AV. 
Bradlev et al. (4) p. 151. 2, ]\Ianv small chromite deposits are in the 
region 'covered by T. 2 S., R. 16 E., M.D., Cater (1) pp. 1-32, 0. E. 
Bowen and Gray (2). 

Mendocino County: 1, Chromite coated with uvarovite orarnet is 
found 12 miles north of AA'illits, Melhase (6) p. 23, CDMG (12248). 

2, Many claims have been filed in vicinitv of Big and Little Red Moun- 
tains (T. 24 N., R. 16 AA^, M.D.), AV. AV^ Bradlev et al. (4) p. 152 and 

3, U miles west of Ukiah (sec. 24, T. 15 N., R. 13 AV., M.D.), McGregor 

(1) p. 312. 4, Several occurrences of chromite in the hills west of the 
Russian River are reported, Anbury (3) p. 268, Crawford (2) p. 49. 
The serpentine belts in the county carry chromite in many other places. 

Monterey County: 1, Goldsmith (1) p. 348, (2) p. 365, (5) p. 152, 
described trautwinite as a new mineral, but it appears to be a mixture 
of uvarovite garnet and chromite. 2, Chromite is common in the ser- 
pentine belts of this county, reported occurrences being principally in 
the vicinity of Parkfield, Hanks (12) p. 136, AV. AV. Bradley (1) p. 
527, AV. AV. Bradley and AVaring (6) p. 599; analysis by Goldsmith 

(2) p. 365. 



1966 J DESCRU'TIONS 141 

Napa County: 1, Several chromite prospects are reported on the 
Knoxville road 12 miles from Middletowii (sees. 82, 36, T. 10 N., R. 
5 W., M.D.), Hanks (12) p. 136, Crawford (2) p. 50, \V. W. Bradley 
et al. (4) p. 156, 157, Boalieh (4) p. 158. 2, !)00 tons of chromite were 
shipped from Graves Ranch mine, 8 miles northwest of Monticello, 
Boalieh (4) p. 158. 

Nevada Count}/: Chromite is fonnd in the concentrates of many gold 
mines in this connty. 1, Pine octahedrons are reported to occur in 
serpentine near Indian Springs (N.R.). 2, High grade chromium ore 
has been shipped froin the Red Ledge and other mines, near Washing- 
ton (T. 16, 17 N., R. 8, 9, 10 E., M.D.). The ore of the Red Ledge is 
commonly coated with uvarovite and kammererite, J. B. Trask (1) p. 
25, Hanks (12) p. 137, E. MacBoyle (1) p. 63, Averill (11) p. 141. 

Placer County: Chromite is widespread in serpentine in this county. 
Many occurrences have been reported. Some references are : Hanks (12) 
p. 137, (15) p. 441, Anbury (3) p. 268, W. W. Bradlev et al. (4) pp. 
160-163, C. A. Waring (4) p. 326, Logan (4) p. 441, E. Sampson (3) 
p. 107, Averill (13) p. 75. 1, 7 miles southeast of Newcastle, nodular 
masses of chromite coated with penninite, kiimmerite, and good crys- 
tals of uvarovite are found, Melhase (6) p. 23. 2, In Green Valley, 9 
miles southeast of Towle, chromite occurs with uvarovite and clinoch- 
lore (kotschubeite), Lindgren (2) p. 5, Melville and Lindgren (1) 
p. 27. 

Plumas County: 1, Chromite occurrences in this county are similar 
to those of the other Mother Lode counties, in serpentines and as con- 
centrates in placers. References are found in Hanks (15) p. 101, 
H. W. Turner (12) p. 590, (17) p. 6, W. W. Bradley et al. (4) p. 165, 
E. MacBoyle (2) p. 54, J. C. O'Brien (1) p. 79, Logan (21) p. 85. 

Riverside Comity: 1, Approximately one ton of chromite is reported 
to have been mined from the New City (juarry, Victoria Ave., River- 
side, Knowlton (p.c. '57). 

Sacramento County: Chromite is reported 1, in black sands of Sacra- 
mento River bars (N.R.), and 2, from 7 miles east of Folsom on the 
South Fork of the American River, Hanks (12) p. 137. 

San Benito County: 1, Stream placers near Hollister have yielded 
chromite boulders with zaratite ( ?) coatings, W. W. Bradley et al. (4) 
p. 166. 2, Chromite also occurs in the serpentine belts near Hernandez, 
L. L. Root (4) p. 228, and 3, southeast of New Idria, Aubury (3) p. 
269, W. W. Bradley and Logan (7) p. 630. 

Sa7i Bernardino County: 1, Chromite is reported from 28 miles west 
of Hesperia, Diller (14) p. 9, Dolbear (6) p. 359. (Murdoch and Webb 
suspect that this is another erroneous reference, based on the wide- 
spread ilmenite occurrences of the San Gabriel Mountains.) 

San Francisco County: 1, Chromite is found in the sands of Ocean 
Beach below the outlet of Lake Merced, CDMG (686), Hanks (12) 
p. 137. 

San Luis Ohispo County: Chromite occurs widespread in the serpen- 
tine of the county. 1, Many marginal occurrences that have produced 
ore shipments from time to time are located around San Luis Obispo. 
Descriptions of some properties and localities are found in Hanks (12) 
p. 137, Irelan (3) p. 531, Crawford (1) p. 37, Aubury (3) p. 270, 
Harder (2) p. 167; analysis by H. Pemberton (1) p. 241. 



142 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA |Bull. 189 

San Mateo County : 1, Scattered masses of chromite occur near Crystal 
Springs Lake west of San Mateo on the Pacific slope of the redwoods, 
in serpentine, Hanks (12) p. 137, Huguenin and Castello (4) p. 172. 

Santa Barbara County: 1, A small deposit of chromite occurs in the 
hills southwest of Point Sal, Huguenin (2) p. 735. 2, Chromite also 
occurs (T. 8 N., R. 30 W., M.D.) near Santa Ynez, Tucker (4) p. 387. 
This is presumed to be the locality on the south slope of Pigueroa 
Mountain. 

Santa Clara County: As in other counties of the Coast Ranges, 
chromite occurs in the widespread serpentine rocks. Localities are men- 
tioned by Hanks (12) p. 137, Irelan (3) p. 549, Crawford (1) p. 38, 
Carey and Miller (1) p. 162, Diller (20) p. 666, Huguenin and Castello 
(4) p. 183, and F. F. Davis and Jennings (6) p. 339. 

Santa Cruz (bounty: 1, 70 tons of chromite were produced from this 
county in 1925, Furness (1) p. 139. 

Shasta County: 1, On Little Castle Creek (sec. 2, T. 38 N., R. 4 W., 
M.D.) occurs what is described as the largest chrome ore body on the 
Pacific Coast, at the Brown mine, 3 miles south of Dunsmuir, G. C. 
Brown (2) p. 755, W. W. Bradley et al. (4) pp. 183-188, Diller (16) p. 
28. 2, There are also deposits of chromite on Shotgun Creek (T. 37 N., 
R. 4 W., M.D.) in serpentine. Crawford (2) p. 50; 3, on Boulder Creek, 
4 miles west of Gibson (sec. 33. T. 37 N., R. 5 W., M.D.), Mining and 
Scientific Press (40) p. 66, and 4, high-quality ore is reported 3 miles 
east of Sims Station (sees. 13, 24, T. 37 N., r'. 5 W., M.D.), McGregor 
(1) p. 638, and Anbury (3) p. 270. 5, Occurrences of chromite are 
mentioned near Round Bottom (sec. 5, T. 26 N., R. 10 W., M.D.), J. C. 
O'Brien (1) p. 81. 

Sierra County: Dozens of placer and lode prospects have been ex- 
plored in this countv. Specific references are Hanks (1) p. 137, Craw- 
ford (1) p. 38, (2) p. 50, H. W. Turner (14) p. 8. Auburv (3) p. 271, 
E. MacBoyle (3) p. 29, Averill (11) pp. 14-16, (13) p. 76. 

Siskiyou County: Chromite is widespread in serpentine rocks of the 
county. Prospects are too numerous to be recorded. Details, incUiding 
an analysis of a chromite ore of unusual structure from Seiad Creek 
near the junction with the Klamath River (sec. 33. T. 47 N., R. 11 W., 
M.D.), appear in W. D. Johnston, Jr. (1) pp. 417-427. Other occur- 
rences are described by: Hanks d2) p. 137, Auburv (3) p. 272, W. 
W. Bradley et al. (4)* p. 190, Laizure (1) p. 530, Logan (8) p. 424, 
J. C. O'Brien (1) p. 82. F. G. Wells and Cater (6). For additional 
reference for numerous small occurrences throughout the county, see 
J. C. O'Brien (4) p. 419. 

Solano County: Chromite is reported : 1, from near Fairfield, CDMG 
(2772), Hanks (12) p. 137, and 2, from near Culver-Baer quicksilver 
mine, Boalich (4) p. 248. 

Sonoma County: This county is underlain in a large measure by the 
Franciscan serpentine rocks, in which chromite is widespread. Occur- 
rences are reported from dozens of localities: Tvson (1) p. 19, Hanks 
(12) p. 137, Crawford (1) p. 38, W. W. Bradley (1) p. 319, W. W. 
Bradley et al. (4) pp. 201-203, Huguenin and Castello (1) p. 248, 
L. L. Root (4) p. 333, Laizure (9) p. 56. 

Stanislaus County: 1, Small deposits of chromite from which some 
ore has been shipped occur in Arroyo del Puerto, W. W. Bradley et al. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 143 

(4) p. 204, Hawkes and Wheeler (1) p. 1950, and 2, one mile east of 
Camp Jones, Enj^ineering and JMininjir Journal (23) p. 807. 

Tehama County: Large deposits of chromite occur on the North Fork 
of Elder Creek (sec. 16, T. 25. N., R. 7 W., M.D.) and are described 
by several M^iters : Crawford (1) p. 38, Auburv (3) p. 121, W. W. 
Bradley et al. (4) pp. 206-209, Tucker (3) p. 260, L. L. Root (4) p. 
12, J. C. O'Brien (1) p. 84. For additional reference to occurrences 
throughout the county, see J. C. O'Brien (3) pp. 186, 187. 

Trinity County: 1, Relatively unimportant but numerous occurrences 
of chromite are described bv G. C. Brown (2) p. 877, Engineering and 
Mining Journal (23) p. 511, L. L. Root (4) p. 12, J. C. O'Brien (1) 
p. 84. 

Tidare County: Several chromite prospects are reported near Porter- 
ville and Lindsay in and about T. 19 S., R. 27 E., M.D., Hanks (12) 
p. 138, W. W. Bradley et al. (4) p. 213, Tucker (3) p. 907. 

Tuolumne County: The serpentine of the county carries much dis- 
seminated chromite. Localities are mentioned by Hanks (12) p. 138, 
H. W. Turner and Ransome (15) p. 7, W. W. Bradley et al. (4) p. 
213, Averill (13) p. 76, and other localities are in the area of T. 1, 2, 
S., 1 N., R. 13, 14, 15 E., M.D., Cater (1) pp. 1-32, Logan (23) p. 52. 

Yuba County: 1, Placer chromite occurs in black sands along the 
Yuba River (N.R.). 2, Chromite is found at the Woodleaf (Woodville) 
Canyon mine, Mining and Scientific Press (39) p. 569. 

t *CHROMRUTILE, 1928 

Nevada County: 1, Chromrutile was described as a new mineral from 
California in 1928 as small brilliant black crystals with kammererite 
on chromite from the Red Ledge mine in the Washington Mining Dis- 
trict, Gordon and Shannon (1) p. 69, W. W. Bradley (29) p. 69, 
Palache et al. (10) p. 560. Strunz (1) in 1961 showed that the mineral 
from the Red Ledge mine identified as chromrutile is determined by 
x-ray study to be a magnesium chromium titano-silieate, not a chrome- 
bearing rutile, and the mineral has been renamed "redledgeite". 

CHRYSOBERYL 
Beryllium aluminum oxide, BeAi204 

Butte County: 1, Crysoberyl is reported to have been found near 
Stanwood and at Big Bar (N.R.) 

CHRYSOCOLLA 
Hydrous copper silicate, CuSiOj^HjO 

Small amounts of chrysocolla occur in most, if not all, of the copper 
areas of the state, in the oxidized zone of ore bodies, as incrustations, 
coatings, and disseminated grains. It is also common in other types of 
ores, and is often an associate of other minerals when minute amounts 
of copper were in the mineralizing solutions. Only occurrences of 
mineralogical interest are specifically noted here. 

Azurite, chrysocolla, malachite, and other blue, blue-green, and green 
minerals, mostly copper-bearing, are widespread in stringers, coatings, 
and alterations associated with other copper minerals referenced in this 
volume. No systematic effort to report all occurrences of these minerals 



144 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

is practical. However, many minor occurrences are reported, and others 
omitted, because early literature references were often to minor locali- 
ties, and these have been retained for clarity of the historic record. 

Inyo County: 1, Pseudomorphs of chrysocolla after calcite have been 
described from the Reward mine, 2 miles east of Manzanar, A. F. 
Rogers (3) p. 20, A. Knopf (5) p. 118. 2, Pseudomorphs of chrysocolla 
after cerussite are reported from the Aries mine in the Cerro Gordo 
Mining District, Kunz (24) p. 100; see also C. W. Merriam (1) p. 43. 
3, Chrysocolla occurs in the Surprise mine, in the Modoc area. Hall 
and Stephens (3) p. 35. 4, Chrysocolla is common and widely distrib- 
uted in the ores of the Darwin Mining District, Hall and MacKevett 

(4) p. 64. 

Kern County: 1, Beautiful crystals (presumably pseudomorphs) 
mistaken for turquoise are supposed to occur near Randsburg, Kunz 
(24) p. 101. 2, Chrysocolla in small amounts is associated with the tin 
ores near Gorman. Troxel and Morton (2) p. 294. 

Mono County: 1, Chrysocolla was formerly the chief ore mineral of 
deposits now worked for gold and silver at the Goleta Consolidated 
mine on Copper Mountain, Aubury (1) p. 243. 

Plumas County: 1, Banded chrysocolla and malachite are important 
ore associates at the Engels mine in Copper Canyon, Kunz (24) p. 102, 
Graton and McLaughlin (4) p. 20. 

Riverside County: 1, Chrysocolla is reported as a secondary mineral 
from Crestmore, Woodford et al. (10) p. 367. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Chrysocolla is the principal mineral in 
the Horn mine (sec. 32, T. 2 N., R. 21 E., S.B.), L. A. Wright et al. 

(5) p. 64; 2, it also occurs abundantly in the Bagdad Chase gold mine, 
ibid, p. 60, and 3, it is abundant, with malachite, at the Blue Bell mine, 
7 miles west of Baker (sec. 27 (?), T. 14 N., R. 7 E., S.B.), ibid., p. 
101. 4, Chrysocolla is the most abundant copper mineral in the Ord 
Mountain mining area, Weber (3) p. 27. 

Santa Clara County: 1, A. F. Rogers (3) p. 20, has described pseudo- 
morphs of chrysocolla after cuprite from the Santa Margarita mine 
near New Almaden. 

Chrysocolla is mentioned from other counties. Some references are: 
Humholdt, Laizure (3) p. 306; Imperial, Henshaw (1) p. 185; Inyo, 
Hanks (12) p. 139, Ball (2) p. 211, Zalinski (Dp. 81, A. Knopf (5) 
pp. 119, 120, C. A. Waring (4) p. 69, Tucker and Sampson (25) p. 
399; Los Angeles, Storms (4) p. 244; Madera, Goudey (1) p. 8; Mari- 
posa, J. R. Browne (4) p. 213, Aubury (1) p. 213; Mendocino, CDMG 
(15689) ; Mono, Hanks (12) p. 139, A. L. Ransome (2) p. 190; Nevada, 
Lindgren (4) p. 201; Riverside, Orcutt (2) p. 901: San Benito, Lou- 
derback and Blasdale (5) p. 359; San Bernardino, Hanks (12) p. 139,~ 
Lindgren (1) p. 724, Crawford (1) p. 69, (2) p. 60, Storms (8) p. 579, 
Aubury (1) p. 255, Kunz (24) p. 102, Tucker and Sampson (17) p. 
344; Tulare, CDMG (14169). 

CINNABAR 
Mercuric sulphide, HgS 

Cinnabar was known in the State long before the discovery of gold, 
and the old mine at New Almaden had been in operation when Lyman 
(2) p. 270 visited it in 1848. The most important quicksilver deposits 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 145 

lie in the Coast Ranges, extending from Del Norte County to Santa 
Barbara County. Those in the Sierra Nevada are of minor value. Lake, 
Napa, Santa Clara, and San Benito counties have been most important 
in the mininfi- of cinnabar. 

The quicksilver deposits of California have been described in Mono- 
graph XIII of the United States Geological Survey, Becker (4), and 
Bulletin 78 of the State Division of Mines, W. w" Bradley (5). The 
important producing areas are briefly described. 

Lake-Napa-Sonoma area: The Mayacmas-Sulphur Bank deposits in- 
clude hundreds of occurrences of cinnabar as well as other less impor- 
tant mercury minerals. The significant geological facts regarding occur- 
rence and mineralogv, are described by C. P. Ross (3) and summarized 
as follows (pp. 327-328) : 

"The Mayacmas and Sulphur Bank quicksilver districts, in northern California 
have been active intermittently .«ince the fifties and together hnve yielded about half 
a million flasks of quicksilver — more than a fifth of the total production of the State. 
Both districts are currently productive, * * *. 

"In both districts the oldest formation is the Franciscan, whose beds are greatly 
deformed and are locally metamorphosed. Much ultrabasic rock, which has mainly 
been converted to serpentine, has been intruded into the Franciscan formation, most 
of it in irregular but more or Ics.s sill-like masses. The serpentine has locally been 
further changed to a silica-carlionate rock. Other intrusive rocks occur in small 
amount. The Franciscan formation and the intrusive rocks are overlain by Pliocene 
and later volcanic rocks. 

"Most of the quicksilver deposits lie near the footwalls of the serpentine liodies, 
where they may be enclosed in serpentine, in silica-carbonate rock, or in the Fran- 
ciscan formation ; but the largest deposit, the Oat Hill, is in the Franciscan far from 
any exposed serpentine. Some deposits are in younger intrusive rocks, and a few are 
in Recent lava. The ore is localized where relatively abundant openings have been 
accessible to the solutions. Concentrations under imi)ermeable bodies have locally 
aided in the formation of ore shoots, but in several mines no evidence of such a proc- 
ess has l)een recognized. Desposition may have lieen confined to the zone in which as- 
cending solutions of magmatic origin mingled with ground water. This zone, though 
geologically shallow, probably extends beyond the depths to which it would be profit- 
able to mine ore shoots that are so small and erratically distributed as those hitherto 
found in the area." 

Santa Clara-San Benito area: Santa Clara and San Benito counties 
carry the two most famous cinnabar properties of the state — the NeAv 
Almaden and the New Idria mines. The New Almaden, oldest of the 
many prospects now known in the Coast Ranges, is the oldest from 
which production has cpme. The New Idria, located farther south, 
though some 80 miles distant, has a similar geologic setting. 

New Almaden, W. W. Bradley (5) p. 154 

"The first known occurrence of quicksilver within the area of the United States, 
was that found at the New Almaden mine in Santa Clara County in 1824 by Antonio 
Sunol and Ijouis Chaboya. Though some occurrences had apparently been earlier 
noted in Mexico, the New Almaden was the first producing (juicksilver mine in North 
America. Sunol and Chaboya built a mill nearby and endeavored to extract silver 
from the cinnaliar. Late in 1S45, the ore was shown to Andreas Castillero [Anony- 
mous (3)], a Mexican oflicer, who identified it as cinnabar, and under whose direc- 
tion development work was immediately begun. Gun barrels were utilized as their 
first retorts. The output was small, however, until after California became part of 
the United States, since which time more than a million flasks have been produced 
in this county, * * * the greatest portion of which came from the New Almaden 
mine * * * 

"The quicksilver deposits of Santa Clara County are confined, with one exception, 
to what is known as the New Almaden district. This district lies east of south from 
San Jose, extending from the northeasterly foothills of the Gabilan Range on the 



146 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

west to the low foothills that lie between Coyote and Dry Creeks on the east. It also 
embraces the Santa Teressa Hills, a low spur ridge which lies between and in general 
parallel to the other two. The principal deposits are 8 to 13 miles from San Jose, on 
the ridge which forms the southwestern boundary- of the Santa Clara Valley at this 
place, having a general NW-SE direction, and locally called the New Almaden Ridge. 
"The geology of this district and particularly of the New Almaden Ridge and its 
orebodies has been described in considerable detail by various writers, especially by 
Becker (4) and by Forstner (1) p. 169, the latter of whom says : 

'The three ridges in which the deposits occur are to a great extent formed by 
serpentine, especially the two first named. The serpentine is associated with meta- 
morphic sandstone and jaspilites. Large bodies of croppings can be found in each 
of these ridges, having also a general northwestern trend, but not coinciding with 
the backbone of the ridges. 

'In the New Almaden ridge the most extensive orebodies have been found in and 
close to Mine Hill, the highest peak of the ridge, lying in its southeastern part. 
From this point going northwestward the croppings, while not continuous, can be 
traced along the ridge into the territory of the Guadalupe mine, a distance of about 
3J miles. At the surface the serpentine shows in large detached bodies surrounded 
by the sandstones and shales of the Franciscan series and having a general north- 
western trend. This general direction of the serpentine exposures is important in 
connection with its occurrence underground, proven in the New Almaden mine. The 
line of ore croppings runs from Mine Hill to the American shaft, passing about 600 
feet southwest of the Randol shaft. The underground workings in this territory 
have shown that the fissures wherein the orebodies have formed have invariably a 
serpentine footwall ; hence the serpentine must be considered to occur underground 
in a continuous body through this entire territory and to be in places covered by 
overlying sandstones and shales. Southwest of Capitancillos Creek lies another par- 
allel exposure of serpentine, contiguous to which the outcrops of the Costello mines 
■are found. The Santa Teresa and Bernal mines are located in the serpentine of the 
Santa Teresa hills, and the North Almaden or Silvet" Creek mine close to those of 
the most northern ridge. In the latter a great part &f the serpentine is very highly 
altered by silicification, as also the sandstones, a great portion of the rocks being 
jaspilites. The western slope of the adjoining Mount Diablo range is nearly exclu- 
sively formed of shales.' " 

New Idria. R. G. Yates and Hilpert (2) p. 12 describe the mercury deposits 
and the mines of central San Benito County as follows : 

"Most of the quicksilver deposits described in this report lie in a fairly compact 
group about Panoche Valley in central San Benito County, California. One mine, the 
Mercy, is 5 miles north of this valley in northwestern Fresno County, and another, 
the Cerro Gordo, is about 9 miles to the west. Quicksilver was discovered in the 
region about 1859. Since then mining has been sporadic and the total output of 
quicksilver small. Discoveries since 1938 reawakened interest in the district and 
1,741 flasks of quicksilver were produced between 1938 and 1944. This brought the 
total known production of the district to about 3,840 flasks. 

"The quicksilver deposits are in a part of the Diablo Range characterized by 
northwestward-trending folds and by faults of diverse trends. Sedimentary rocks 
involved in these structures range in age from Jurassic to Recent, and the move- 
ments that produced the structures were probably recurrent during that time. In- 
trusive and extrusive igneous rocks formed at several periods. All but two of the 
quicksilver deposits are in the Jurassic Franciscan formation, which is the oldest, 
most widespread, and most diverse group of rocks in the area. Although the quick- 
silver deposits are of late Tertiary age, none have been found in the Tertiary rocks, 
and onl.v two have been found in the Cretaceous rocks. 

"The quicksilver deposits consist of irregular veins and disseminations of cinna- 
bar or metacinnabar in nilicified or kaolinized sandstone and fault breccia, and silica- 
carbonate rock formed by the hydrothermal alteration of serpentine. Prominent fault 
zones enclose, or are near, all the deposits except one. Most of the orebodies are 
irregular and of little horizontal or vertical extent and their positions and forms 
were controlled by minor faults and fractures or by the character of the wall rock. 
The deposits are characteristically spotty, consequently the grade of the ore varies 
between wide limits. Ore reserves in the district are not amenable to measurement. 
It is probable, however, that a small but wavering production will he maintained as 
long as the price of quicksilver exceeds ,$175 a flask. 

"Further prospecting may disclose new deposits. Their universal association with 
faults and zones of hydrothermally altered rocks should be a valuable guide in 
prospecting." 

For a specific discussion of the New Idria mine, the reader is referred 
to E. B. Eckel and Myers (2) pp. 81-124, from whom the following- 
quotation is abstracted (p. 83) : 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 147 

"The New Idria District, third iti all-time production amonjc North American 
(liiicksilver miiiiiif; districts, lies in the ruRffed Diablo RanKC 140 miles southeast of 
San Francisco. The \e\v Idria mine was discovered in 1858 and e.xcept for 1921-22, 
has been in continuous |»roduction ever since. Nearly 20 other deiiosits have been 
found, but of the.se onl.v the San Carlos has yielded a large amount of quicksilver. 
Hetween 18^8 and 1944 the district produced 437,195 flasks of quicksilver, valued 
at about 81 million dollars. 

"The . . . area of about 185 scjuare miles consists of a large oval body of strongly 
sheared .serpentine, rimmed by sandstone of the Franciscan group and by the Upper 
Cretaceous Panoche formation and later sediments. The structure is that of an 
asymmetric anticlinal dome, marked on its northeast flank by overturned beds and 
by an irregular thrust fault, here termed the New Idria thrust fault, along the 
Franciscan-Panoche contact. On other sides of the dome, the contacts lietween 
Panoche and older rocks are steeply dipping faults, which encircle the core, and 
commonly dip away from it. The origin of the dome and of the faults is thought to 
be closely related to the emplacement of the serpentine mass, which has moved 
upward intermittently since jire-Panoche time. 

"The quicksilver deposits consist predominantly of cinnabar as veins and stock- 
works that occupy fractures in altered rocks. The ones of greatest commercial im- 
portance, including the New Idria and San Carlos, lie in hydrothermally indurated 
beds of the Panoche formation beneath the New Idria thrust fault and associated 
tear faults which offset the thrust. Roth rock alteration and ore deposition were 
localized primarily at abrupt changes in strike of the fault plane, though changes 
in dip were also locally important in controlling some of the ore shoots and deposits. 
Several minor deposits lie in altered Panoche rocks above the normal faults on the 
south side and below the reverse fault on the west side of the dome and still others 
occur in silica-carbonate rock derived from serpentine." 

As is frequently the ease with early mining operations, there is a his- 
tory for the New Idria mine of poor records, legal and other battles, 
which have been described in an interesting and basically accurate 
fashion by Bret Harte (1) in his "Story of a mine". 

San Luis Ohispo area: Many prospects of cinnabar occur concen- 
trated %orth of San Luis Obispo in the Coast Ranges east of and be- 
tween Cambria and San Simeon. The deposits are described by E. B. 
Eckel et al. (1) p. 515 as follows: 

"Most of the deposits * * * He within an elongated area of about 75 square miles 
in northwestern San Luis Obispo County. Other deposits, most of them small, are 
scattered southeastward from southwestern Monterey County to the southern border 
of San Luis Obispo County. Quicksilver was first discovered in the region in 1862. 
Though mining since then has been intermittent, the output has been relatively 
large during or immediately after the periods of high quicksilver prices. Monterey 
County has produced very little quicksilver, but San Luis Obispo County, which 
ranks sixth among the (luicksilver-producing counties of the State, produced 69,2(i4 
flasks between 187G and the end of 1989, 70 percent of which came from the Oceanic 
and Klau mines. 

"All but one of the known quicksilver deposits are in or closely associated with 
the Franciscan formation, of Jurassic ( ?) age. This formation, embodying the oldest 
and most widely distributed group of rocks in the mapped areas, consists mainly of 
highly contorted and metamorphosed shale, sandstone, and conglomerate and is over- 
lain by Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments. Extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks, 
most of them basic in composition, were formed at several periods after the Fran- 
ciscan formation was deposited. Many of the intrusive bodies are now represented 
by serpentine. 

"This part of the Coast Range province is characterized by numerous strong, 
complex, northwestward-trending fault zones, many of which have been intermit- 
tently active since late Jurassic time. Bodies of silica-carbonate rock (quicksilver 
rock ) , composed of dense quartz and mixed carbonates, were formed in many places 
by solutions that rose along the major faults and replaced the countrj- rocks. Most 
of the igneous rocks also are closely associated with these faults. 

"The quicksilver deposits comprise not only irregular and discontinuous cinnabar- 
bearing veins but also rock masses that contain disseminated cinnabar. All are 



148 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

within 01" very near northwest-trending fault zones, and nearly all are intimately 
associated with silica-carbonate rock. Most of the ore shoots are small and irregular, 
though a few are several hundred feet in length and height and as much as 40 feet 
wide. The shoots are structurally controlled by local gouge zones or by changes in 
dip or strike of the enclosing vein matter. The quicksilver content of the ore has a 
wide range, but most of the ore mined in the past has probably contained 5 to 10 
pounds of quicksilver to the ton." 

Only occurrences of special mineralogical interest, and some com- 
mercial occurrences outside of the three regions discussed above, will 
be itemized by count}'. 

CoJnsa County: 1, Cinnabar is found with free gold at the Oriental 
mine, a quarter of a mile west of Simmins Spring near Sulphur Creek, 
Mining and Scientific Press (8) p. 287. 2, At the Manzanita mine (sec. 
29, T. 14 N., R. 5 W., M. D.), sufficiently important percentages of leaf 
and wire gold intergrown with cinnabar, caleite, marcasite, chalcopy- 
rite, and stibnite to warrant mining for gold have been described, 
Becker (4) p. 367, Goodyear (4) p. 160, Fairbanks (6) p. 120, Anbury 
(2) p. 44, W. W. Bradley (1) p. 189. 3, Near Wilbur Springs, accord- 
ing to Hanks (19) p. 284, cinnabar was observed in actual process of 
deposition as crystals forming by sublimation on walls of orifices. 

Contra Costa County: 1, Indians for years knew of deposits of cinna- 
bar on the east side of Mount Diablo that they used for paint, Mining 
and Scientific Press (6) p. 280. AVhat is probablv the same occur- 
rence is described (sec. 29, T. 1 N.. R. 1 E., M. D.)," bv J. D. Whitney 
(7) p. 24, Trelan (3) p. 162, Anbury (2) p. 195, Becker (4) p. 378, 
C. P. Ross (2) p. 41. The mercury mineral in the Mount Diablo de- 
posits is domiiiantly metacinnabar. The Ryne and ^Mt. Diablo mines are 
considered by Pampeyan (1) p. 24. 

Inyo County: 1, Cinnabar is found with metacinnabar at the Chloride 
Cliff mine in the Funeral Range southwest of Rhyolite, Nevada, 
Huguenin and Waring (1) p. 121. 2, Fumaroles of the Coso Springs 
area near Little Lake sho"w interesting mineral deposition including 
that of cinnabar and metacinnabar. T. Warner (2) pp. 59-63, A. L. 
Ransome and Kellogg (Dp. 378, C. P. Ross and Yates (6) p. 395. 3, 
Cinnabar from T^ast Chance Mountain was used for paint bv the Piutes, 
J. H. Steward (1) p. 276. 

Kern County: 1, Cinnabar crystals disseminated in a rhyolite dike 
occur in the Cuddeback (Cuddibaek, Walabu, Walibu) mine (sec. 27, 
T. 31 S., R. 32 E., S.B.) 3 miles from Woodford, Gillan (1) p. 79, W. 
W. Bradley (5) p. 47, Tucker (4) p. 314, Troxel and Morton (2) p. 
240. 2, A similar deposit occurs 2i miles west of Cinco, a quarter of a 
mile west of the Los Angeles aqueduct, W. W. Bradley (5) p. 49. 3, 
Veinlets of cinnabar occur in rhyolite on the south side of Jawbone 
Canyon. Troxel and Morton (2) p. 38. This may be the same locality as 
(2). 4, Cinnabar is found in the metamorphic rocks on the south side 
of Chuckwalla Mountains, Troxel and Morton (2) p. 38. 

Kings County: 1, Cinnabar with native mercury is reported by W. 
W. Bradley (2) p. 529, in serpentine. 

Lake County: 1, The mineral was reported adhering to nuggets of 
gold from Sulphur Springs in Bear Vallev 10 miles northeast of Borax 
Lake. J. A. Phillips (1) p. 326, D. E. White and Roberson (2) p. 405. 

Lassen County: 1, Cinnabar occurs with metacinnabar from Amedee 
Hot Springs, Dickson and Tunell (1) p. 484. 



1966J DESCRIPTIONS 149 

Marin County: 1, Citiuabar was discovered in pods of fine-<?rained 
material in sandstone on the M. Gambonini Ranch on Salmon Creek, 
abont 6 miles east of Marshall. Placer and float in abundance in Salmon 
Creek and its tributaries resulted in the lode discovery and some ex- 
ploration was undertaken, Ver Planck (3) p. 263. 

Mariposa County: 1, Crystals of cinnabar in plates and bunches are 
reported by Becker (4) p. 383. 11. W. Turner (12) p. 678, Lowell (Dp. 
602, from the north shore of the Merced River at Horseshoe Bar, 
CDMG (12120). 

Mendocino County: 1, Cinnabar is reported with platinum, gold, 
iridium, and zircon from the Anderson Valley placer along Navarro 
River, Hanks (12) p. 310. 

Mono County: 1, Beautiful crystals of cinnabar have come from 4 or 
5 miles northeast of Bodie, 3 miles west of a volcanic cone in this re- 
gion, W. W. Bradley (5) p. 72, Whiting (1) ]). 356, CDMG (10340). 

Monterey Count if: 1, Cinnabar is reported as occurring in calcite 
southeast of Jamesburg (SE ^ sec. 31, T. 18 S., R. 5 E., M.D.), W. W. 
Bradley (p.c. '46). 

Napa County: 1, Cinnabar pseudomorphous after barite has been 
described from the Redington mine, Durand (1) p. 211. 2, Fix and 
Swinney (1) pp. 31-46, report on an occurrence of cinnabar in the 
Oakville area. 

Nevada County: 1, Cinnabar with amalgam is found in small quanti- 
ties at the Odin drift mine, near Nevada City, Lingren (20) p. 75. 2, 
Other occurrences are described b^' W. P. Blake (10) p. 11, Lindgren 
(14) p. 6. 

San Benito County: 1, New Idria and New Almaden constitute the 
most important cinnabar deposits in the state, in Panoche Valley, R. 
G. Yates and Hilpert (2) p. 12. Eckel and W. B. Myers (2) pp. 81-124. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Cinnabar occurs in quartz veins 4 to 6 
feet wide 9 miles northeast of Dauby, W. W. Bradley (5) p. 123, 
Tucker (4) p. 356. 2, Cinnabar occurring as inclusions in bluish-gray 
chalcedony near the southern end of Death Valley, 15 miles northeast 
of Lead Pipe Springs and 30 miles northeast of Johannesburg, colors 
the chalcedony with reddish blotches and streaks, forming the gem stone 
known as "myrickite, " W. W. Bradley (5) p. 123. 3, Cinnabar occurs 
in the .Jack mine in the Clark Mountains in thin veins of wolframite, 
Hess (14) p. 47, and W. W. Bradley (5) p. 123. 4, Cinnabar, with 
stibnite and possibly stibiconite, is reported from the Red Devil claim, 
Danby area (NW i T. 6 N., R. 18 E., S.B.). about 12 miles southeast 
of Essex, G. W. Walker et al. (5) p. 24. This may be the same as 
locality (2). 

San Luis Ohispo County: 1, Cinnabar replaces fossil shells in the 
Oceanic mine (sees. 15, 21, T. 27 S., R. 9 E., M.D.), Aubury (2) p. 
149, A. L. Ransome and Kellogg (1) p. 441. 2, Small crystals of cinna- 
bar occur sparingly, perched on marcasite needles, in the Klau quick- 
silver mine, Santa Lucia Range (sec. 33, T. 26 S., R. 10 E., M.D.), 
Woodhouse and Norris (6) p. 114, and 3, from the Madrone mine, 
CDMG (21670). 

San Mateo County : 1, Cinnabar is reported with chlorides of mercury 
from the Corte de Madera Rancho near Searsville, west of Palo Alto, 
W. W. Bradley (5) p. 149, F. F. Davis (7) p. 415. 2, Cinnabar occurs 



150 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

with mercury and metacinnabar, and possibly terlinguaite, from the 
Emerald Lake mine near Redwood City. CDMG (21669). 

Santa Barhara County: 1, The first discovery in California of cinna- 
bar was apparently in this county as early as 1796, Hittel (3) vol. 2, 
p. 519. 2, Cinnabar is described from the Cachuma area 23 miles north- 
east of Solvang-, Everhart (5) pp. 509-532. 

Santa Clara County: A general reference for New Almaden is W. W. 
Bradley (5) p. 154. 1, Cinnabar pebbles have been recovered by pan- 
ning from the gravels of Deep Gulch, close to the New Almaden mine, 
E. H. Bailey and Everhart (8) p. 27. 

Siskiyou County: 1, Perfect small crystals of cinnabar were found 
in placer gravels, Bixby (1) p. 154. 2, Semitransparent crystals were 
found in the Minnehaha mine on the Klamath River 4 miles west of 
Oak Bar (sec. 22, T. 46 N., R. 10 W., M.D.), G. C. Brown (2) p. 870, 
Averill (3) p. 64. 3, Cinnabar occurs at tlie Cowgill mine (sec. 34, T. 
48 N., R. 9 W., M.D.), 12 miles from Gottville, as coarsely crystalline 
agrgregates with metacinnabar, Hobson (1) p. 658, Anbury (2) p. 196, 
W. W. Bradley (5) p. 169. 4, Small amounts of cinnabar occur in seams 
of hornblende schist at the Horse Creek mercurv mine (sees. 15, 16, 
T. 46 N., R. 10 W., M.D.), J. C. O'Brien (4) p. 460. 

Solano County: 1, Cinnabar has been mined at the St. John's mine, 
near Vallejo, Carlton and Wichels (1) p. 35. 2, Cinnabar occurs with 
metacinnabar at the Hastings mine near Benicia, AV. W. Bradley (5) 
p. 172. 

Sonoma County: 1, Cinnabar is reported from the Culver-Baer mine 
in fine crystals with native mercury and metacinnabar, Anbury (2) 
p. 102. 2, Crystals of cinnabar from the Great Eastern mine were de- 
scribed by Sachs (1) p. ]7, and mentioned by Anbury (2) p. 108. 3, 
Cinnabar from Skaggs Springs occurs with curtisite, metacinnabar, and 
realgar, F. E. Wright and Allen (3) p. 169. A report on geology of the 
Skaggs Springs occurrences of cinnabar, was made by Everhart (4) p. 
385 ; 4, an additional and recent report on the Mavacmas area was 
made by E. H. Bailey (6) p]x 199-230. 

Stamislaus County: 1, Cinnabar occurs in Del Puerto area, at the 
Adobe Valley, Summit and AA^'inegar properties (T. 6 S., R. 5 E.. 
M.D.), Hawkes et al. (2) p. 79. 

Trinity County: 1, A^ery large crystals of cinnabar are said to occur 
at the Altoona mine, Bixby (2) p. 168. The occurrence is sec. 22, T. 
38 N., R. 6 W., M.D., Swinney (3) p. 395. 

Yolo County: 1, Crystals of cinnabar in "opalite" occur at Harri- 
son mines (sec. 35, T. 12 N., R. 5 AV., M.D.) in the Knoxville area. 
Anbury (2) p. 117. 2, Cinnabar occurs with petroleum and sulphur at 
the New England mine, ibid. 

CLAUDETITE 

Arsenic oxide, AS2O3 

Imperial County: 1, Kelley (1) p. 137, has described the occurrence 
of claudetite crystals in a vein of kaolin, gypsum, halloysite, and 
sulphur, at a sulphur prospect 6 miles north of the 4-S Ranch and 
1^ miles west of the Colorado River. Crystals from this locality are 
described by Palache (8) p. 194. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 151 

Trinity Coiinty : 1, Claudetite is reported as crusts of well-formed 
monoclinie crj^stals in the pyrrhotite deposit at Island Mountain, 
Landon (1) p. 279, but tlie occurrence is probably arsenolite, Switzer 
(p.c. '49). 

CLAUSTHALITE 
Lead selenide, PbSe 

Inyo County: 1, Clausthalite is doubtfully reported in galena from 
the Darwin Mining District, Hall and MacKevett (1) p. 17, ibid. (4) 
p. 59. 

CLINOHUMITE 
Basic fluosilicate of magnesium, Mg,(Si04)4(OH,F)2 

Fresno County: 1, Clinohumite is reported to occur in small yellow- 
ish-orange striated crystals in contact limestone of the Twin Lakes 
region by Chesterman (1) p. 254. 2, Tiny (less than 1 mm) orange 
grains of clinohumite occur in a small outcrop of marble (sec. 33, T. 
11 S., R. 25 E., M.D.), west of Big Creek. (Identification confirmed 
CDMG, by x-ray), John T. Alfors (p.c. '64). 

Monterey County: 1, Clinohumite is associated with geikielite in mag- 
nesian marbles in the Santa Lucia Mts., Wise (1), p. 879. 

Riverside County: 1, Clinohumite has been observed in the contact 
rocks at Crestmore, C. Wayne Burnham (1) p. 889. 



CLINOPTILOLITE 

Hydrous calcium/sodium/potassium /magnesium /aluminum silicate, 
(Na20)o.7(CaO)o.,(K20)o.,5(MgO).o5Al203(Si02)8.5-io.5-6-7H20 

The validity of clinoptilolite as a species has been questioned by Hey 
and Bannister (1) pp. 556-559, who suggest that it is a silica-rich 
heulandite. 

Inyo County: 1, Clinoptilolite and other zeolites, as well as gay- 
lussite, occur in the lake bed deposits at Owens Lake, Hay and Moiola 
(2) p. 76A. 

Kern County: 1, A mineral, probably clinoptilolite, occurring as 
platy colorless grains, was reported by Kerr and Cameron (4) p. 234, 
from 5 miles east of the Tehachapi Pass at the property of the Filtrol 
Company. 2, Clinoptilolite has been found associated with gay-lussite 
and other zeolites, in tuffaceous layers in China Lake, Moiola and Hay 
(1) 215. 

San Luis Obispo County: 1, Clinoptilolite was reported as a con- 
stitutent of altered fragmental volcanic rocks of Miocene age in the 
Highland monocline, Bramlette and Posnjak (1) p. 169. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Clinoptilolite is reported associated with 
hectorite in montmorillonite and saponite in the North Group of claims, 
six miles northwest of Hector Station on the Santa Fe Railroad east 
of Barstow, Ames et al. (1) p. 28. Material from this deposit has been 
used experimentally for the removal of radioactive material from 
atomic plant wastes, Ames (2) p. 868. 



152 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

CLINOZOISITE 
Basic calcium aluminum silicate, Ca2Al3(Si04)3(OH ) 

Clinozoisite is a member of the epidote group, but nearly iron-free. 

Inyo County: 1, Clinozoisite is a common alteration product of 
iyneous intrusives of the Darwin Mining District, Kelley (4) p. 541. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Clinozoisite occurs as a network of pure- 
white crystals up to 1^ cm with interstitial chlorite and tourmaline in 
the Pelona schists on the north side of Sierra Pelona Valley (NE \ 
sec. 12, T. 5 N., R. 14 W., S.B.), Neuerburg (p.c. '44). 2, Quartz veins 
carrying clinozoisite crystals up to 3 or 4 inches and bundles of crystals 
up to 1 inch in diameter were abundant on the eastern edge of the old 
San Francisquito Canyon Reservoir, Murdoch and Webb (6) p. 354. 
3, The mineral occurs in lenses of greenish-gray radiating prisms as 
much as 4 inches in size, in albite amphibolite, in Pelona schist, on 
Bouquet Canyon highway near Bouquet Reservoir, (SW ^ NE j sec. 
28, T. 6N., R.'l4 W., S.B.),Durrell (p.c. '49). 

Mendocino County: 1, Clinozoisite (or epidote) in gray blades is 
present with lawsonite and rutile on the new Covelo road, Vonsen 
(p.c. '45). 

Monterey County: 1, Boulders of crystalline masses of pinkish-gray 
clinozoisite occur on the beach north of Willow Creek, Crippen (p.c. 
'51). 

Riverside County: 1, Pale brownish -green crystals up to 15 mm, in 
divergent groups, occur in pegmatite at Crestmore, Daly (1) p. 650, 
Woodford et al. (10) p. 370. 2, Clinozoisite is reported from the new 
City quarry, Richmond (1) p. 725. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Clinozoisite is found in veins in abun- 
dant pebbles of probable Pelona schist, west of the summit of Cajon 
Pass, in canyons north of the main highway, Murdoch and Webb 
(p.c. '43). 

Sonoma County: 1, Specimens of clinozoisite associated with glauco- 
phane, CDMG (21318), came from 2^ miles east of Valley Ford. 

COBALTITE 

Sulpharsenide of cobalt, (Co,Fe)AsS 

Calaveras County: 1, Cobaltite has been observed in a number of 
mines in the Foothill Copper belt. W. B. Clark and Lydon (4) p. 24, 
who cite Heyl (2) p. 20. 

Tnyo County: 1, Cobalt minerals are disseminated in small quantities 
in the metamorphic rocks of Chocolate Peak on the South Fork of 
Bishop Creek, near Bishop. The only established occurrence of cobaltite 
is on the west side of Chocolate Peak, 500 ft. east of Long Lake. Asso- 
ciated minerals are pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, and pyrite ; 
?i'ossans carr}^ erythrite, Bateman (3) p. 83. 

Madera County: 1, Cobaltite is reported to have formed more than 
1^ percent of one lot of ore from the 200-foot level of the Jessie Bell 
mine (SE ^ sec. 13, T. 9 S., R. 18 E., M.D.), Logan (24) p. 452. 

Mariposa County: 1, Good cobaltite crystals were found in the Cop- 
per Chieftain mine, CDMG (L5481). 

Mono County: 1, Cobaltite occurred with gold in the Tioga mine, H. 
W. Turner (3) p. 469. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 153 

Nevada County: 1, Small seams of cobaltite with chalcopyrite occur 
in a schist on Rattlesnake Creek south of Signal Peak (T. 17 N., R. 13 
E., M.D.), Lind!:rren (19) p. 7, E. M. Boyle (1) p. 37. 2, Cobaltite was 
reported from the Otis ledge, MeadoAv Lake (T. 18 N., R. 13 E., M.D.), 
C.W.Raymond (1) p. 48. 

Placer County: 1, Cobaltite was found with arsenopyrite in the Me- 
tallic mine, near Cisco, CDMG (1901), and 2. with chalcopyrite about 
4 miles northeast of Alta, CDMG (13493). 

COCCINITE 
Mercury iodide, Hglj 

This compound has not as yet been identified with certainty in na- 
ture, but the name coccinite is reserved for it when it is established, 
Palache et al. (11) p. 42. The two occurrences reported below must be 
considered very doubtful. 

Ker7i County: 1, Coccinite is reported from San Emigdio Canyon 
(probably in the antimony mines). Hanks (12) p. 147, (15) p. 104. 

Santa Barbara County: 1, The mineral coccinite is reported by G. E. 
Moore, in Cronise (1) p. 593. C. D. Woodhouse (p.c. '63) considers 
it very doubtful that this mineral in fact was found in the county. 

COFFINITE 

A basic uranium silicate, probably U (Si04)i-x(0H )4i 

Kern County: 1, Coffinite has been identified from the Little Sparkler 
mine in Kern River Canyon, Troxel and Morton (2) pp. 327, 332. 

*COLEMANITE, 1883 
Hydrous calcium borate, CajB^Oji-SH^O 

Colemanite was first discovered in Death Valley in October 1882 by 
R. Neuschwander, Hanks (11) p. 86 (with analysis by Price) and later 
(April 1883) at the old ghost town of Borate in the Calico Mountains, 
A. W. Jackson (3) p. 358. Subsequently the deposits were described by 
many writers. A discussion of the origin of colemanite is found in H. S. 
Gale (3) p. 3. 

Inyo County: 1, Colemanite was discovered in the Death Valley re- 
gion, where immense deposits occur along Furnace Creek in the Amar- 
gosa Range, A. W. Jackson (3) p. 358, G. E. Bailey (2) p. 46, M. R. 
Campbell (1) p. 16, Engineering and Mining Journal (10) p. 781, 
Foshag (10) p. 8. 2, Colemanite occurs near Ryan, G. E. Bailey (2) 
p. 48, H. S. Gale (2) pp. 861-865, Cloudman et al. (1) p. 863, Foshag 
(10) p. 9. Analyses of material from occurrences (1) and (2) are pre- 
sented by Whitfield (1) pp. 281-287. 3, Some colemanite crystals from 
the Biddy McCarthy mine were shown by A. F. Rogers (20) p. 135, to 
be pseudomorphs after inyoite. The crystals were formed by dehydra- 
tion of invoite. 4, Important deposits of colemanite with ulexite occur 
in clay-shale near Shoshone (T. 22 N., R. 7 E., S. B.), Noble (3) p. 63. 
5, Colemanite has been reported with ulexite and probertite from Rest- 
ing Springs Range near Shoshone, Nolan (3) p. 11. This may be the 
same deposit referred to by Noble in (4) above. 6, Colemanite has been 
reported from Bennetts Wells on the floor of Death Valley, as surface 



154 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

incrustations, G. E. Bailey (2) p. 45, but the samples were probably 
inaccurately identified. 7, The atomic structure was determined on cole- 
manite from the meyerhofiferite tunnel, Twenty Mule Team Canyon, 
Christ et al. (3). 8, Colemanite ore is mined on the 65 foot level of the 
Kern Borate mine near Ryan. The mineral is associated with ulexite and 
probertite, Anon. (47) p. 9. 

Kern Count}/: 1, Colemanite occurs with kernite and borax near 
Boron in the deposits at Kramer (sec. 22, T. 11 N., R. 8 W., S. B.), 
Yale and Gale (4) p. 287, Noble (2) p. 47, Schaller (41) p. 24, (45) 
p. 138. 

Los Angeles Comity: 1, An important and extensive deposit of 
colemanite which Eakle (10) p. 179 (with analysis), described as a 
variety and called "neocolemanite," occurs at the Sterling borax mine 
near Lang. Hutchinson (1) p. 16 shows neocolemanite to be identical 
with colemanite. The colemanite occurs as thin and thick seams, and has 
considerable howlite associated with it; see also F. J. H. Merrill (2) 
p. 480, Armstrong and Van Amringe (1). 

Bivcrside County : 1, Colemanite reportedly occurs in the foothills of 
the San Bernardino Range northeast of Salton Sea (N. R.). 

San Bernardino County: 1, The extensive deposit of colemanite at 
Borate, in the Calico Mountains near Yermo, was discovered in the 
spring of 1883 and became the principal source of borax before the 
Death Valley colemanite deposits were worked. Beautiful crystals of 
colemanite in large geodal masses occur with celestite crystals. The cole- 
manite is described by A. W. Jackson (1) p. 447, (2) p. 3, (3) p. 358, 
G. E. Bailey (2) p. 56, Eakle (2) p. 31, Foshag (9) p. 208; analvses are 
given by Hiortdahl (1) p. 25, Bodewig and Rath (1) p. 290. 2, Cole- 
manite is reported from 4 miles west of Lone Willow Springs on the 
south flank of Browns Mountain, G. E. Bailey (2) p. 12; 3, from Lone 
Star Range (T. 18 N., R. 2 E., S. B.), in beds 2 to 3 feet thick. G. E. 
Bailey (2) p. 62, Cloudman et al. (1) p. 855. 4, Cavities lined with 
slender colemanite crystals on calcite crystal crusts are found in old 
borax mines on the north side of Lead Mountain, northeast of Barstow, 
Durrell (p.c. '46). 5, Colemanite is reported from Searles Lake, De 
Groot (2) p. 537 (probably an error). 6, Colemanite was collected as 
float in the lower canyon of the Amargosa River, G. E. Bailey (2) 
p. 62, Cloudman et al. (1) p. 855; 7, the mineral is reported from Owl 
Holes (T. 18 N., R. 3 E., S. B.) in niter beds with priceite (?), G. E. 
Bailey (2) p. 62, Cloudman et al. (1) p. 855; 8, it is also reported from 
the Pilot beds at the south end of Slate Range southeast of Searles Lake 
under niter beds, G. E. Bailey (2) p. 63, Cloudman et al. (1) p. 856. 9, 
Colemanite is found from southeast of Cave Springs on the south flank 
of the Avawatz Mountains on the road from Daggett, G. E. Bailey (2) 
p. 60, Cloudman et al. (1) p. 854. (Bailey notes this occurrence as 
"borate of lime," with sodium carbonates and sulphates, and it is 
probably ulexite.) 

Ventura County: 1, Deposits of colemanite, similar to those at Lang, 
in Los Angeles Countv, occur near Frazier Mountain. G. E. Bailey (2) 
p. 70, H. S. Gale (3) p. 5, (11) p. 440. 

Additional references to literature on colemanite: Arzuni (1) p. 272, 
J. T. Evans (1) p. 57, (21 p. 37. Miilheims (1) p. 202, Braumhauer (1) 
p. 107, M. R. Campbell (1) p. 517, (2) p. 401, Foshag (7) p. 199. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 155 

An excellent general summary of the origin of borate deposits is 
found in Poshag (13) p. 419. A collecting expedition of interest to 
amateurs is described by Foshag (15) p. 39. 

COLORADOITE 
Mercuric telluride, HgTe 

Calaveras County: 1, Coloradoite is reported from the Stanislaus 
mine on Carson Hill, A. Knopf (11) p. 39. 

Tuolumne Cou7ity: 1, Hillebrand (3) p. 62, found one specimen 
which he identified as coloradoite, associated Avith other tellurides from 
the Norwegian mine near Tuttletown ; see also W. W. Bradley (5) 
p. 203. 

COLUMBITE— Tantalite 
Niobate and tantalate of iron and manganese, (Fe,Mn) ( Nb,Ta)205 

Columbite is the niobium-rich member. 

Tantalite is the tantalum-rich member of a series in which these two 
elements are completely interchangeable. 

Calaveras County: 1, Tantalite has been reported near Milton, Irelan 
(4) p. 47. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Small crystals of columbite have been found 
in a pegmatite at the head of Rattlesnake Canyon (SW^ sec. 36, T. 4 
N., R. 14 W., S. B.), Gregory (p.c. '51). 

Madera County: 1, Massive and crystalline black columbite (tan- 
talum-rich?) has been found at the Reynolds mine. Kings Creek, Irelan 
(4) p. 46, CDMG (13546). 

Riverside County: 1, Columbite (30 percent tantalum-rich), high in 
manganese and poor in iron, is found at the Fano mine, in fan-shaped 
masses of radiating crystals up to 3 inches, in an albite-quartz mixture 
in pegmatite, Fisher (1) p. 75. 2, Minute platy crystals of probable 
columbite occur in cleavelandite about 400 vards west-southwest of the 
northeast corner of sec. 16, T. 7 S., R. 2 E.] S. B., Fisher (1) p. 67. 3, 
Columbite is reported from the Anita mine 10 miles southeast of Hemet 
(west-southwest of center, sec. 22, T. 6 S., R. 12 E., S. B.) as minute 
wafers with garnet, lepidolite, and albite, ibid., p. 85. 

San Diego County: 1, A crystal of columbite from the Little Three 
mine, near Ramona was described by Eakle (7) p. 87, Schrader et al. 
(1) p. 53. 2, Small imperfect crystals were found at the Victor mine, 
Rincon, A. F. Rogers (4) p. 217. 3, Columbite occurs in the Clark vein 
at Rincon up to 2 inches, in well-formed crystals, Murdoch (p.c. '45), 
Hanley (1) p. 17; 4, it is also reported from the Mack mine, Rincon 
(sec. 25, T. 10 S., R. 1 W., S. B.), Kunz (24) p. 50 ; 5, from Pala, Kunz 
(23) p. 942; 6, from the Mountain Lily mine on Aguanga Mountain 
in pegmatite, Kunz (24) p. 62; 7, it occurs in good crystals associated 
with eassiterite, tourmaline, albite, and orthoclase in the Chihuahua 
Valley, 10 miles east of Oakgrove (SW^ sec. 12, T. 9 S., R. 3 E., S. B.), 
Schaller (36) p. 353. 8, Columbite, rich in tantalum and manganese, 
from the Catharina (Katerina) mine, near Pala was analyzed by 
Schaller in F. W. Clarke (10 p. 345. 



156 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

CONNELLITE 
Basic hydrous chloride and sulphate of copper, Cu,,(S04)Cl4(OH)32-3H20? 

Madera County: 1, Radiating groups of blue-green acicular crystals 
occur up to 5 mm in diameter, and were found on cleavages of gray 
schist near the Buchanan copper mine, 5 miles northeast of Daulton 
by E. H. Oyler, Crippen (p.c. '57), CDMG (21703). 

COOKEITE 
Basic lithium aluminum silicate, LiAl4(Si,AI)40,o(OH)8 

San Bernardino County: 1, Cookeite has been reported from Oro 
Grande, CDMG (12826). 

San Diego Coimty: 1, Cookeite from Pala has been reported by Kunz 
(23) p. 942, and analyzed by Sehaller in F. W. Clarke (9) p. 288. 2, 
Colorless and deep-pink cookeite is found in pockets at the Victor 
mine, Rincon, coating quartz, lepidolite, orthoclase, albite, and kunzite, 
and as pseudomorphs after kunzite, A. F. Rogers (4) P- 216. 

COPIAPITE 
Primarily a basic hydrous iron sulphate, perhaps R2*Fe3*4(S04)4(OH)2-»i HjO 

where R2+=Fe,Mg,AI,Cu or Naj 

Alameda County: 1, Copiapite was found as yellow needles at the 
Alma mine, Leona Heights, E. S. Larsen (11) p. 61, analysis by Sehal- 
ler (1) p. 214. 

Contra Costa County: 1, Copiapite is reported from the Mount Diablo 
mine (SEJ sec. 29, T. 1 N., R. 1 E., M. D.), C. P. Ross (2) p. 42, 
Pampeyan (1) p. 24. 

Ker7i County: 1, Copiapite is reported as efflorescence in yellow balls 
as coatings, at the California borate property, Kramer Borate area, 
G. I. Smith et al. (1) p. 1074, Pemberton et al. (1) p. 38. 

Lake County: 1, Copiapite occurred at Sulphur Bank, Becker (4) 
p. 389, Everhart (1) p. 139, analysis bv Melville and Lindgren (1) 
p. 25. 

Napa County: 1, Knoxvillite, described as a new mineral from the 
old Redington mine, Becker (4) p. 389, has been identified as magne- 
sio-copiapite. Berry (1) p. 21. Some mineralogists consider magnesio- 
copiapite a variety of copiapite. 

Riverside County: 1, Specimens of copiapite as yellowish-brown crys- 
talline masses, with amarantite have been described from the Santa 
Maria Mountains by Schairer and LaAvson (1) p. 242, with analysis. 
This is probably identical with a locality mentioned as "near Blythe" 
by E. S. Larsen (11) p. 61. Magnesian copiapite has been analyzed 
from the Santa Maria Mountains near Blythe, Bandy (2) p. 737. It is 
reported as a.ssociated with amarantite, E. S. Dana (6) p. 626. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Copiapite occurs as pale-yellow scaly 
masses with krausite, eoquimbite and alunite in the Calico Hills near 
Borate, about 6 miles northeast of Yermo, Foshag (19) p. 352. 

Shasta County: 1, Copiapite is reported as probably found in the 
gossan at the Iron Mountain mine, Kinkel et al. (2) p. 89. 

Trinity County: 1, Copiapite occurs with pyrrhotite as pale-brown 
scaly masses at the Island Mountain copper mine, Vonsen (p.c. '45), 
analysis by Foshag (p.c. '29). 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 157 

COPPER 
Native copper, Cu 

Metallic copper has been found in most of the copper mines of the 
state, but no commercial deposits of native copper are known. It is 
frequently mixed with cuprite and malachite in the oxidized zone of 
copper deposits, or found as coatings along the walls of copper veins, 
or near intrusive dikes, which have brought about a natural reduction 
of the ores. Most occurrences of chalcopyrite have yielded some native 
copper. 

Alameda Coujiti/: 1, P^ine arborescent groups of native cO])per crys- 
tals were found in the Alma Pyrite mine at I^eona Heights, East Oak- 
land. The minerals of this mine have been described by Schaller (1) 
p. 195. 

Amador County: 1, Arborescent masses of copper occurred in the 
old Newton mine, Woodhouse (p.c. '45). 

Calaveras County: Some of the mines along the Foothill eo])per belt, 
especially 1, at Copperopolis, Irelan (3) p. 151, J. D. Whitney (7) 
p. 255, and 2, at Campo Seco, Hanks (12) p. 152, CDMG (6049) have 
produced native copper. Other localities are mentioned: Auburv (1) 
p. 190; Hanks (12) p. 152, CDMG (1751). 

Colusa County: 1, Co])per is found in serpentine with cuprite and 
tenorite at the Gray Eagle mine (sec. 20, T. 16 N., R. 6 W., M.D.), 
Auburv (4) p. 159. 2, The mineral occurs at the Candace, CDMG 
(2439), and Lion mines (sec. 17, T. 17 N., R. 6 W., M. D.), with 
cuprite. Copper was tirst discovered in Colusa Countv in 1863, J. H. 
Rogers (1) p. 320, W. W. Bradley (1) p. 178. 

Del Norte County: 1, Some large pieces of native copper have come 
from the Diamond Creek Mining District, Anbury (1) p. 115; 2, from 
the Keystone mine in the Rockland area in masses up to 300 pounds^ 
J. D. Whitney (7) p. 362, Anbury (1) p. 115, and 3, from near Crescent 
City, in serpentine (?), Richthofen (3) p. 44. 4, Copper with native 
silver and tetrahedrite is reported from the Occidental mine (T. 18 N., 
R. IE., H.), Crawford (2) p. 58. 

El Dorado County: Native copper occurs in numerous places in this 
county, wherever significant copper deposits are known. Some locali- 
ties are mentioned by Hanks (12) p. 152, Tucker (3) pp. 276-278, 
Aubury (1) p. 177. 

Glenn County: 1, Large pieces of native copper fioat have been found 
near Peckville (sec. 18, T. 18 N., R. 6 W., M.D.), Aubury (1) p. 132. 

Humloldt County: 1, Copper occurs on Red Cap and Boise Creeks 
as float, Crawford (1) p. 66, Aubury (1) p. 127. W P. Blake (14) 
p. 124; 2, it is reported from Horse Mountain in masses up to 400 
pounds as float (T. 6 N., R. 4 E., H.), Aubury (4) p. 153, Laizure (3) 
p. 305. 

Imperial County: 1, Native copper was reported from the Cargo 
Muchacho Mining District, Henshaw (1) p. 185. 

Inyo County: 1, The copper deposits in the Ubehebe Mountains con- 
tain native copper, Aubury (1) p. 245. 2, Copper comes from Chloride 
Cliff, Death Valley, Ball (1) p. 73, (2) p. 174. 



158 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA |Bull. 189 

Kern County: 1, Some native copper has been reported from near 
Gorman, Troxel and Morton (2) p. 294. 

Lake County: 1, Native copper was reported from the head of Little 
Indian Valley, as large pieces in rich oxide ores, Anbury (1) p. 138. 

Lassen County: 1, Native copper occurred in epidote rock at the 
Lummis mine, Woodhouse (p.c. '45), and 2, in the Meadow Mountains 
(.see. 28, T. 28 N., R. 10 E., M.D.), 9 miles southeast of Westwood, 
Laizure (1) p. 508. 

Los Angeles County : 1, Copper was found in quartz at the Free Cuba 
mine, near Acton, F. J. H. Merrill (2) p. 471. 

Madera County: 1, Native copper was reported from north of the 
June Belle mine near Danlton (T. 9 S., R. 18 E., M.D.) in quartz veins, 
Forstner (4) p. 747. 

Mariposa County: 1, Massive copper occurred with malachite in the 
Copper Queen mine (see. 19, T. 5 S., R. 19 E.. M.D.), Anbury (1) 
p. 216. 2, The mineral was reported from north fork of Chowchilla 
Creek (sec. 34, T. 6 S., R. 19 E., M.D.), Anbury (1) p. 216, and 3, from 
Satellite mine, with melaconite, CDMG (12010). 

Mendocino County: 1, Sheets and grains of metallic copper occcur at 
Red Mountain, 15 miles southeast of Ukiah (sec. 23, T. 15 N., R. 11 W., 
M.D.), Anbury (4) p. 161, and 2, in the serpentines in Lost Valley. 
Crawford (1) p. 67. 

Merced Counixj: 1, Copper occurs with ((uartz and chaleopyrite in the 
Victor Bonanza mines, 16 iniles from Dos Palos (T. 13 S., R. 9 E., 
M.D.), Lowell (1) p. 605. 

Modoc County: 1, Copper was observed with malachite and limonite 
at the Seitz mine 7 miles south of Fort Bidwell, Tucker (3) p. 241. 

Mono County: 1, Copper was found sparingly in the Detroit mine, 
Jordan Mining District, 6 miles northeast of TAindy, CDMG (7378). 

Napa County: 1, Copper was found near St. Helena with cuprite. 
Hanks (12) p. 158, and 2, 6 miles west of Monticello, W. W. Bradley 
(28) p. 207, CDMG (20908). 

Nevada County: 1, Copper occurs with gold in quartz at Meadow 
Lake, John A. Veatch (2) p. 210; 2, with chalcocite and graphite at 
Buckeye Hill, Sweetlands, Mining and Scientific Press (2) p. 5, (3) 
p. 5, and 3, from South Yuba mine. Engineering and Mining Journal 
(14) p. 230. 

Placer County: 1, Copper occurred at the Algol mine near Spence- 
ville (sec. 9, T. 13 N., R. 7 E., M.D.), Anbury (1) p. 173; 2, at Valley 
View mine 6 miles from Lincoln (sec. 24, t. 13 N., R. 6 E., M.D.j, 
Silliman (7) p. 351, C. A. Waring (4) p. 329. 3, Lindgren (7) p. 272, 
reported iiative copper as one of the minerals of tlie Gpliir Mining 
District, from the Gold Blossom shaft. 

Plumas County: 1, Copper occurs with rhodonite at Mumfords Hill, 
Hanks (12) p. 152. 2, Large lumps of copper occurred with cuprite, 
malachite, and native silver in the old Pocohontas mine, Indian Valley, 
20 miles from Susanville, Crawford (1) p. 69. 3, Blackened grains and 
scales of copper were found in placers from North Fork of the Feather 
River, Edman (1) p. 372. 

Riverside County: 1, Copper occurs in the McCoy Mountains, 20 
miles southwest of Blythe, F. J. H. Merrill (2) p. 525. 



in66| DESCRIPTIONS 159 

San Luis Obispo County: 1, Copper is reported from the Tip Top 
mine Smiles southwest of Santa Margarita, Aubnry (1) p. 147; 2, from 
Refugio claim on Chorro Creek, 7 miles north of San Luis Obispo, ibid., 
p. 148. 3, Copper occurs as fine wires in serpentine southwest of Santa 
Margarita near the summit of the Santa Lucia Range, Logan (3) p. 686, 
Laizure (3) p. 512; 4, with barite in tlic manganese property of tlie 
Noble Electric Coiiipany, Tiiliaferro and Hudson (3) p. 269. 

Santa Barbara County: 1, Hanks (12) p. 152 quotes Blake as record- 
ing copper in serpentine from the county. 

ShaMa County: Arborescent growths and compact masses of copper 
have been fount! in many of the copper mines of the county. Specimens 
have come from the Bully Hill and Copper City mines, Shasta King 
mine, Mountain Copper and Mammoth mines, Balaklala, Greenhorn, 
Kosk Creek, and other mines. Some localities are described in Aubury 
(1) p. 65, H. W. Turner (26) p. 276, F. M. Hamilton and Root (5) 
pp. 91-93, Tucker (9) p. 433, L. L. Root (4) p. 149. 

Sierra County: 1, Native copper is reported from Bassetts' Pride 
mine (sec. 11, T. 20 N.. R, 12 E., M.D.) 5 miles northeast of Sierra 
City, E. MacBoyle (3) p. 30. 

Siskiyou County: 1, Copper is found in slate from Humbug Creek 
north of Yreka, CDMG (10600). 

Tehama County: 1, Small amounts of native copper occurred at 
Easier (sec. 4, T.^ 25 N., R. 7 AV.. M.D.), J. C. O'Brien (3) p. 189. 

Trinity County: Nntive copper occurs 1, with hausmannite, barite 
and copper carbonates in the Blue Jay mine CNW^ sec. 17, T. 26 N., 
R. 12 W., M.D.). J. C. O'Brien (1) p. 84, Taliaferro and Hudson (3) 
p. 269 ; 2, in crystals and masses from North Fork Trinity River (sees. 
27, 28, 34, T. 34 N.. R. 11 W.. M.D.). J. B. Trask (1) p. 24. 

Tulare County: 1, Masses of copper have been found on the Middle 
Fork of Tule River, about 30 miles east of Porterville (sec. 30, T. 19 S., 
R. 31 E., M.D.), Aubury (1) p. 234. 

COQUIMBITE 
Hydrous iron sulphate, Fe2(S04)3-9H20 

Calaveras County: 1, Coquimbite was found at Quail Hill, Silliman 
(7) p. 351. 

El Dorado County: 1, Coquimbite occurred in siliceous shales near 
Georgetown, CDMG (11249). 

Inyo County: 1, Yellow crystals of coquimbite have been found near 
Lone Pine, CDMG (7667). 

Lake County: 1, Coquimbite has been identified in opalized vein ma- 
terial at Sulphur Bank, D. E. AVhite and Roberson (2) p. 407. Hanks 
(15) p. 104, oricinallv reported this mineral from Sulphur Bank in 
1886. 

Napa County: 1, Large masses of yellowish-green, granular coquim- 
bite found at the old Redington cinnabar mine were described by Eakle 
(1) p. 322. 

Placer Cou7\ty: 1, Coquimbite is reported from Valley View mine 
(Whiskey Hill) 6 miles north of Lincoln, with chalcanthite, Silliman 
(7) p. 351, J. R. Browne (4) p. Ill, Logan (17) p. 40. (This entry is 
incorrectly listed under Tuolumne County in older issues of this 
bulletin.) 



160 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

San Bernardino County: 1, Coquimbite occurs with krausite and 
alunite near Borate in the Calico Hills about 6 miles northeast of 
Yermo, Foshag (19) p. 352. 

CORDIERITE— lolite 
Magnesium iron aluminum silicate, (Fe,Mg)2(AI,Fe)4Si50,8' HjO 

Cordierite occurs chiefly as a microscopic constituent of highly alumi- 
nous metamorphic rocks. 

Lake County: 1, Purple cordierite occurs in a "gem stone" prospect 
(SEi SEi sec. 20, T. 12 N., R. 7 W., M.D.). The material was originally 
described as amethystine quartz, Briee (1) p. 62. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Cordierite is a common constituent of the 
"spotted slates" of the Santa Monica Mountains, in megascopic sub- 
hedral crystals, Hoots (1) p. 88. 

Mariposa County: 1, Cordierite is reported from the Green Mountain 
Mining District with anthophyllite, AV. W. Bradley (29) p. 311. 

Riverside County: 1, Cordierite is found in small grains in pegmatite 
with andalusite near Winchester, Murdoch (3) p. 69, Heinrich (2) 
p. 178. 

Tulare County: 1, Cordierite occurs with andalusite, biotite, quartz 
and orthoclase in a metamorphic rock on the north side of the South 
Fork of Kaweah River, about two-thirds of a mile southeast of Three 
Rivers (between sees. 25 and 36, T. 17 S., R. 28 E., M.D.), Durrell 
(p.c. '45). 

CORONADITE 
Hydrous oxide of lead and manganese, PbMn2*Mn''*70,|i- HjO 

Inyo County: 1, Coronadite is reported by Charles Milton (p.c. '45) 
in massive form from an unknown locality. 2, The mineral is also 
known from the Lookout (Modoc) Mining District, Fleischer and Rich- 
mond (1) p. 283. 3, Hall and Stephens (3) pp. 24. 26, report coronadite 
from several mines in the Inyo- Argus Mountain area on the west side 
of the Panamint Valley. The mineral has been observed in ores of the 
Defense, Minietta and Big Four mines. It is likely that locality (1) 
and locality (2), as reported by Fleischer and Richmond, are from the 
mines listed by Hall and Stephens. 

CORUNDUM 
Aluminum oxide, AI2O3 

Corundum-bearing rocks are rare in the state and no workable de- 
posits of this useful mineral are known. The gem varieties, ruby and 
sapphire, have not been found in good clear crystals. 

Butte County: 1, A few sapphires are said to have been found with 
diamonds in stream gravels in this county (N. R. ). 

Los Angeles County: 1, The first mention of corundum in the state 
was of some sapphire-blue pebbles found in San Francisquito Pass, W. 
P. Blake (9) p. 10, Hanks (12) p. 157, Kunz (24) p. 45. 2, Corundum 
was found on Santa Catalina Island in gneiss with kyanite, E. H. 
Bailey (1) p. 1955. 

Mariposa County: 1, Corundum occurs in pegmatite with andalusite 
from May Lake, Yosemite National Park, Rose (1) p. 635. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 161 

Mono County: 1, Coarse nodular masses of corundum occur with an- 
dalusite at the mine of Champion Sillimanite, on the western slope of 
the White Mountains, north of Bishop, Peck (1) p. 151, Kerr (3) p. 
633. 

Plumas County: 1, Large violet-blue crystals of corundum occur in 
the plumasite of Spanish Peak, A. C. Lawson (5) p. 219, Kunz (14) 
p. 436, (24) p. 45. 

Riverside County: 1, Large crystals of corundum have been found 
near the summit of the San Jacinto Mountains (sec. 5, T. 4 S., R. 1 E., 
S. B.), Murdoch and Webb (14) p. 328. 2, Blue crystals up to half an 
inch in length were collected with andalusite from a pegmatite near 
Winchester (sec. 12, T. 5 S., R. 2 W., S. B.), Webb (11) p. 581. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Corundum was found in the Kingston 
Range, Kunz (24) p. 45. 2, Pale-rose to deep-lilac crystals of corundum 
occur in metamorphosed limestone in Cascade Canyon, a branch of 
San Antonio Canyon, in the San Gabriel Mountains, Louderbaek and 
Blasdale (6) p. 793, R. H. Merriam and Laudermilk (1) p. 716. 3, 
Corundum is found at the head of Cascade Canyon as |- to ^-inch blue 
crystals disseminated in rock near the lapis lazuli occurrence [see 
lazurite, San Bernardino County (1)], Schmeltz (1) p. 69. 

San Diego County: 1, Corundum is a microscopic constituent of the 
dumortierite schist of Dehesa, Schaller (7) p. 97. 2, Pink and gray 
crystals of corundum occur in a vein with garnet in mica schist on 
the northern slope of the San Miguel Mountains, 26 miles east of San 
Diego, Kunz (24) p. 45. 3, Blue corundum is reported from Tule 
Mountain, north of Jacumba (N. R.). 

Sierra County: 1, Emery is reported sparsely in aggregates (sec. 1, 
T. 19 N., R. 8 E., M. D.), Crawford (1) p. 406." 

COVELLITE 
Cupric sulphide, CuS 

Covellite is much rarer than chalcocite. It is usually associated with 
bornite, chalcocite, or chalcopyrite. 

Calaveras County: 1, Covellite has been found at the Satellite mine 
near Campo Seco, CDMG (14351). 2, A. F. Rogers (6) p. 300, mentions 
specimens of covellite from the Poole mine at Nassua and from a 
prospect between Nassua and Copperopolis in which covellite formed 
hy replacement of sphalerite. 

Imperial County: 1, Covellite is reported from the Cargo Muchacho 
Mining District, Henshaw (1) p. 185. 

Inyo County: 1, Covellite occurs as veinlets in sphalerite, and as 
blebs in galena, in the mines of the Panamint Mining District, Murphy 
(2) p. 323. 2, Covellite occurs in some of the sulphide ores of the Dar- 
win Mining District, Hall and MacKevett (1) p. 18. 

Mono County: 1, Small amounts of covellite have been found in Blind 
Spring Hill, A. L. Ransome (2) p. 172. 

Nevada County: 1, Covellite occurs with gold and chalcopyrite, from 
Spenceville, CDMG (13866). 

Plumas County: 1, Covellite occurs in blue needles as a marginal 
replacement of bornite and chalcopyrite at Engels, H. W. Turner and 
Rogers (32) p. 379. 



162 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

SJwsfa Cuuniy: 1, Covellite occurs in the Balaklala mine, G. C. Brown 
(2) p. 762, Tucker (9) p. 427, and 2, at the Bully Hill mine as an 
alteration of chaleopyrite, A. F. Rogers (6) p. 302. 3, Covellite is found 
as a coating on pyrite at the Mountain Monarch prospect 2 miles south 
of Whiskeytown, Ferguson (1) p. 44. 

Sierra County: 1, Covellite was found at the Black Jack mine, Kan- 
aka Creek (N.R.). 

Siskiyou County: 1, Small amounts of covellite occur with some born- 
ite and chaleopyrite at the Preston Peak mine (sec. 22, T. 17 N., R. 5 
E., H.), J. C. O'Brien (4) p. 428. 

Tuolunfine County: 1, Covellite is reported from near Groveland, W. 
W. Bradley (26) p. 608. 

CREDNERITE 
Oxide of copper and manganese, CuMn204 

Napa County: 1, Massive crednerite occurs near Calistoga, CDMG 
(15349). 

CREEDITE 

Hydrous basic calcium aluminum sulfate with flourine, 

CajAljF^COH.DjSO^ 2HjO 

Inyo County: 1, Creedite was first reported from California by Pabst 
(11a) p. 19. Excellent crystals were described from mineral specimens 
collected by Mr. Richard Thomssen from Darwin. Clusters of crystals 
occur embedded in pyrite and in linings in vugs. Hall and IMacKevett 
(1) p. 18, (4) p. 64, report creedite from the Anaconda mine, Darwin 
Mining District, from what is presumed to be the same locality. 

t*CRESTMOREITE, 1917 
See riversideite and tobermorite 

Riverside County: Crestmoreite was discovered at the Crestmore 
quarry, and was described and named as a new mineral by Eakle (15) 
p. 344. Subsequently, studies showed crestmoreite to be identical with 
tobermorite, H. F. W. Taylor (1). 

CRISTOBALITE 
Silicon dioxide, SiOj 

Imperial County: 1, Cristobalite occurs with tridymite and feldspar 
in an obsidian metamorphosed by hot gases on Cormorant Island, Sal- 
ton Sea, A. F. Rogers (30) p. 219, (42) p. 328. 

Inyo County: 1, Christobalite is associated with orthoclase, tridy- 
mite, opal, fayalite and magnetite in the linings of small spherical 
cavities in obsidian near Little Lake, about 8 miles west of Coso Hot 
Springs, A. F. Rogers (23) p. 213, W. W. Bradlev (28) p. 494, M. B. 
Strong (7) p. 16, Stinson (4) p. 207, CDMG (20946). 

Lake County: 1, Cristobalite has been identified in tlie opal at Sul- 
phur Bank, D. E. White and Roberson (2) p. 407. 

Modoc County: 1, Cristobalite occurs on the summit of Mount Hoff- 
man in botryoidal masses lining cavities in dacite, Powers (1) p. 272. 

Mono Comity: 1, Cristobalite occurs in spherulites with feldspar 
from Casa del Diablo, A. F. Rogers (30) p. 82. 2, Minor cristobalite 
has been identified in the clays of Little Antelope Valley, Cleveland 
(Dp. 19. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 163 

Nevada County: 1, A specimen of cristobalite from Doiiner Lake is 
in the Stanford University Collections. 

Plumas County: 1, Cristobalite occurs with anauxite in cavities in 
pyroxene andesite, sometimes as paramorphs after tridymite, at Drakes- 
bad, A. P. Rogers (38) p. 160, and 2, in scattered minute crystals on 
fracture surfaces of basalt near Two Rivers, Murdoch (15) p. 500. 

Riverside County: 1, Cristobalite has been identified accompanying 
lecliatelicrite. in fulgurites near Tndio, A. F. Rogers (50) p. 120. 

Shasta County: 1, A specimen of cristobalite from Black Butte, near 
Mount Shasta, is in Stanford University Collections. 

Siskiyou County: 1, Cristobalite occurs with fayalite in lithophysae 
in spherulitic obsidian, near Canyon Butte (sec. 13, T. 44 N., R. 43 E., 
M.D.), C. A. Anderson (p.c. '45). 2, The mineral is reported from 
Shasta Springs, in Stanford University Collections. 

Tehama County: 1, Cristobalite is a constituent of volcanic rock 
near Tuscan Springs, A. F. Rogers (18) p. 222. 

Tuolumne County: 1, Distinct octahedral crystals of cristobalite oc- 
cur in augite andesite, near Jamestown, A. F. Rogers (18) p. 224, (30) 
p. 85, (38) p. 160. 

CROCOITE 
Lead chromate, PbCrO^ 

Inyo County: 1, Crocoite was reported as early as 1923 from the 
Darwin mines, with wulfenite. The occurrence is confirmed by identi- 
fication in ores by Hall and MacKevett (1) p. 18. 

Riverside County: 1, Crocoite is reported as occurring with wulfenite 
in the El Dorado mine, near Indio (N. R.). 



CRYPTOMELANE 

Essentially a hydrous oxide of manganese with potassium, near 

KMn^^Mni^^.jsOijHjO 

Cryptomelane was proposed by W. E. Richmond and Fleischer (2) 
p. 607 as the name to be used for "true psilomelane" of Ramsdell (1). 

Inyo County : 1, Cryptomelane is found in the Defense, Minietta and 
Modoc mines. Lookout (Modoc) Mining District, Hall and Stephens 
(3) p. 24. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Cryptomelane has been identified in the 
Logan mine, near Hector, Hewett (7) p. 1440. 2, The mineral is also 
reported from the Van Dorn mine, ibid., p. 1452. 

CUBANITE 

Copper iron sulphide, CuFe2S3 

Madera County: 1, Cubanite is reported from Daulton mine, one 
mile southeast of Daulton Station, W. W. Bradley (32) p. 106. 

Plumas County: 1, Cubanite occurs with chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite 
in the Walker mine, 9 miles northeast of Spring Garden, A. Knopf (14) 
p. 244. 

San Luis Obispo County: 1, A large mass of cubanite (1,000 lbs.) is 
said to have been found on Santa Rosa Creek, near San Simeon. Hanks 
(12) p. 158, considers this doubtful. 



164 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

CUPRITE— Red Copper Ore 
Cuprous oxide, CujO 

Chalcotrichite is a delicate hair-like variety of cuprite. 

Cuprite is an important ore of copper. It occurs in most of the copper 
localities as a secondary mineral in the oxidized portions of the deposits. 
Massive specimens have come from various counties, but no large bodies 
of cuprite are known in California. Only occurrences of mineralogical 
interest will be given specific references. 

Calaveras County: 1, Masses of cuprite as very rich ore wdth chalco- 
pyrite are occasionally found at Copperopolis, J. D. Whitney (7) p. 
255, Reid (3) p. 398. 

Colusa County: 1, Chalcotrichite was found with massive cuprite in 
the Lion mine (sec. 17, T. 17 N., R. 6 W., M. D.), CDMG (13484), J. R. 
Browne (4) p. 210, W. W. Bradley (1) p. 178. 

Del Norte County : 1, Deposits in veins up to 4 feet wide are found in 
the Rockland area, McGregor (1) p. 167. 

Riverside County: 1, Abundant masses of cuprite occur in the Red 
Cloud mine, Chuckawalla Mountains, Orcutt (2) p. 901. 2, Cuprite is 
reported as an oxidation coating on chalcopvrite from Crestmore, 
Woodford et al. (10) p. 367. 

References to other localities bv countv are: Calaveras, Silliman (7) 
p. 349; Colusa, Hanks (12) p. 158, (15) p. 104; Del Norte, Hanks (12) 
p. 158, (15) p. 105, Aubury (1) p. 115; El Dorado, Aubury (1) p. 181, 
(4) p. 212, Tucker and Waring (2) p. 276; Fresno, Irelan (3) p. 209; 
Humboldt, W. P. Blake (14) p. 124; Laizure (3) p. 306; Imperial, 
Henshaw (1) p. 1S5; Inyo, Aubury (1) p. 245, (4) p. 301, Zalinski (1) 
p. 81, C. A. Waring and Huguenin (2) pp. 69, 70; Kern, Hanks (12) 
p. 158, Storms (13) p. 635, Troxel and Morton (2) p. 294; Mariposa, 
W. P. Blake (9) p. 20, Hanks (12) p. 158, Liebenam (1) p. 543, Au- 
bury (1) pp. 204, 213; Mendocino, Auburv (1) p. 137; Modoc, Tucker 
(3) p. 241; Mo7io, Hanks (12) pp. 158, 159, 259. (15) p. 105, Whiting 
(1) p. 364, Aubury (1) p. 243; Napa, Hanks (12) p. 158, (15) p. 105; 
Nevada, Hanks (12) p. 158, Aubury (1) p. 27; Placer, Silliman (7) 
p. 351, Hanks (12) p. 158, (15) p. 105, Auburv (1) p. 173, (4) pp. 207, 
210, C. A. Waring (4) p. 329; Plumas, Hanks (12) p. 158, Crawford 
(1) p. 69; Riverside, F. J. H. Merrill (2) p. 526, Tucker (8) p. 195, 
Woodford et al. (10) p. 371; San Bernardino, Aubury (1) p. 255. 
Tucker (4) p. 339, Weber (3) p. 27; Shasta, Hanks (12) p. 158, (15) 
p. 105, Diller (10) p. 12, Laizure (1) p. ^l^-SisHyou, CDMG (15679) ; 
THnity, Hanks (12) p. 158, (15) p. 105, CDMG (15116), (15149), 
(4223), (4556); Ventura, Tucker and Sampson (20) p. 257; Yu'ba, 
Aubury (1) p. 172. 

CUPROPLUMBITE 
See galena 

Riverside County: Cuproplumbite was reported as a mineral species 
distinct from galena from Black Eagle mine. Eagle Mountains, Tucker 
(8) p. 195, CDMG (19939). The mineral was shown to be identical 
with galena, Palaehe et al. (10) p. 200. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 165 

CU PROS KLODOWS KITE 
Basic hydrous copper uranyl silicate, Cu(U02)2(Si03)2(OH)2-5H20 

Plumas County: 1, Cuprosklodowskite is reported from Chilcoot area, 
CDMG (21610). 

CUPROTUNGSTITE 
Basic copper tungstate, Cu2W04(OH)2 

Fresno County : 1, A crystal of cuprotungstite of unusual size, origi- 
nally described as cuproscheelite, was sent from an unknown locality in 
Fresno County to San Francisco in 1879, Planks (12) p. 159, (15) 
p. 105. It may have come from the Kern County, locality (1). 

Inyo County: 1, Cuprotungstite is reported as a replacement of 
scheelite as light olive-green to greenish-yellow coloration in fractures 
in scheelite from the Cuprotungstite claim, 1.3 mi. N. 16° E. of Big 
Dodd Spring, Ubehebe Mining District, McAllister (4) p. 55. 

Kern County: 1, Material found with radiating black tourmaline at 
the Green Monster mine, 12 miles east of White River, was first re- 
ported as cuproscheelite. Hanks (2) p. 133. Later examination proved 
it to be scheelite with admixed cuprotungstite, Schaller (46) p. 237. 

*CURTISITE, 1930— Idrialite 
A hydrocarbon, C24H,8 

A specimen of curtisite from Skaggs Springs (Sonoma County, 1) 
has been compared with curtisite from Czechoslovakia, and with idria- 
lite from Idria, Yugoslavia, and the three appear to be identical in 
optical properties and x-ray powder patterns, according to Tucek and 
Koufinisky (1). Further study may result in the discrediting of curtis- 
ite as a species, since the name idrialite (idrialine) has priority. 

Lake County: 1, Curtisite occurs with cinnabar and dolomite in ser- 
pentine at the Mirabel (Standard) mine, near Middletown, Vonsen 
(p.c. '34). 2, Curtisite is reported from the Helen and Research mines, 
R. G. Yates and Hilpert (4) p. 247. 

Napa County: 1, Curtisite has been found in the Knoxville mine, 
Averitt (1) p. 78. 

San Francisco County: 1, Curtisite occurs in a ledge of serpentine 
veined with chalcedony at Duboce Street, near Market Street, on the 
site of the United States Mint in San Francisco, W. W. Bradley (24) 
p. 71, CDMG (20746). 

Sonoma County: 1, Curtisite was found with realgar, metacinnabar, 
and opal at Skaggs Springs. It was described and named by F. E. 
Wright and Allen (3) p. 169 (with analysis) ; see also W. W. Bradley 
(24) p. 345, CDMG (20813), Everhart (4) p. 390. 

Yolo County: 1, Curtisite occurs at the Reed mine associated with 
cinnabar and a dark heavy oil, Michael A. Price (p.c. '62) ; written 
communication, January 1962, on file CDMG. 

CUSPID! NE—Custerite 
Basic calcium silicate with fluorine, Ca4Si207(OH,F)2 

Riverside County: 1, The custerite found by Tilley (1) p. 372, in a 
metamorphic rock from Crestmore, is identical with cuspidine, Tilley 
(2), p. 90. 



166 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

CYANOTRICHITE 
Basic hydrous copper, aluminum sulfate, Cu4At2(S04) (OH ),2-2H20 

San Bernardino County: 1, A specimen of cvanotrichite is in the 
Mineral Exhibit, CDMG (21704) from Clark Mountain. 

CYRTOLITE 

See zircon 

Zirconium silicate, ZrSi04, but containing U, Y and other rare ele- 
ments. 

Kern County: 1, Cyrtolite has been found in small amounts in peg- 
matite dikes of the Havilah area, Troxel and Morton (2) p. 27. 

Riverside County: 1, Cyrtolite occurs from the Southern Pacific 
quarry near Nuevo in radial clusters and individual crystals. Spectro- 
scopic analysis shows zirconium and yttrium in large quantities. The 
mineral is associated with xenotime, monazite, and yttrocrasite (?) in 
pegmatite, Murdoch (19) p. 198. 2, Cyrtolite occurs with monazite and 
xenotime in pegmatite, 4 miles east of Nuevo, Charles Seward (p.c. '60). 

San Bernardino County: 1, Cyrtolite occurs with betafite in a dark 
mass in pegmatite north of Hector, Hewett and Glass (3) p. 1048. 

DANBURITE 
Calcium borosilicate, CaB2Si20g 

Riverside County: 1, Danburite was identified by ^I. Vonsen on 
specimens from Crestmore, Eakle (20) p. 321. 

DARAPSKITE 
Hydrous sodium nitrate and sulphate, NajC NO3SO4) • H2O 

Nitro-glauherite is probablv a mixture of darapskite and soda niter, 
W. E. Ford (8) p. 740. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Darapskite occurs in the niter beds of 
Death Valley, according to G. E. Bailey (2) p. 170. 

DATOLITE 
Basic calcium borosilicate, CaBCSiO^) (OH) 

Colusa County: 1, Datolite has been found with thomsonite, prehnite, 
and other minerals near Wilbur Springs, 2 miles east of the Lake 
County line, Vonsen (p.c. '33). 

Inyo County: 1, White massive datolite was found with idocrase and 
garnet at the San Carlos mine, 10 or 12 miles south of Fish Springs. 
Hanks (12) p. 159, Kunz (24) p. 97. The mineral was analyzed by 
J. L. Smith (1) p. 435. 2, Datolite has been reported from the Slate 
Range, Kunz (24) p. 97. 

Riverside County: 1, Massive white glassy datolite. with a slight 
greenish tinge, occurs in a pegmatite at Crestmore, Eakle (15) p. 350, 
Foshag (12) p. 88, Anon. (42) p. 462. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Hanks (12) ]). 97. reports datolite from 
the Calico Mountains. 

San Francisco Cou7ity: 1, Glassy crystals and white veins of datolite 
occur in an altered diabase dike in the serpentine at Fort Point. Com- 
plex crvstals were measured bv Eakle (1) p. 317; see also Kunz (24) 
p. 97. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 167 

DAVIDITE 

A multiple oxide of titanium and iron with uranium and rare earth metals, 
perhaps Y^ZjOaj, with Y=Fe",Ce,U,etc., and Z=Ti,Fe"',V,Cr 

Davidite is mentioned on occasion in connection with reported radio- 
active mineral occurrences in the state. According to E. S. Dana (6) 
p. 542, it is ". . . apparently a mixture, largely ilmenite, magnetite, 
rutile, and a rare-earth mineral near chevkinite. " Pabst and Thomssen 
(17) report hexagonal crystallization in a metamict occurrence from 
Arizona, which establishes davidite as a distinct species, Pabst (20). 

DAWSONITE 
Basic sodium aluminum carbonate, NaAIC03(OH)2 

Dawsonite is a very rare mineral, and occurs only in arid regions as 
white incrustations. 

Inyo County: 1, Dawsonite is reported to occur as a soft earthy in- 
crustation in a dike in Amargosa Canyon, G. E. Bailey (2) p. 102. 

* DEERITE, 1964 
A complex silicate with manganese iron and aluminum, near {lA^^^Mn,^^- 

^®"ll.99)l3.03('^®"'6.48"'-42)6.90'Sl)3-04^43-94(O'')ll06 

Mendocino County: 1, Deerite is an important mineral in some of the 
Franciscan rocks near Laytonville, associated with the new minerals 
howeite and zussmanite, Agrell (1), p. 1507. 

DESCLOIZITE 
Basic lead zinc copper vanadate, Pb(Zn,Cu)V04-OH 

Cuprodescloizitc is a variety with about half of the zinc replaced by 
copper. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Minute colorless and yellowish plates of 
cuprodescloizitc occur with cerussite and vanadinite at Camp Signal, 
Schaller (24) p. 149, (26) p. 88, Cloudman et al. (1) p. 849. 

DEWEYLITE 

A magnesium silicate near serpentine but with more water, perhaps 
hydrous magnesium silicate, Mg^Si^O^H H^O 

Inyo County: 1, Deweylite is mentioned by Hall and MacKevett (1) 
p. 16, as a gangue mineral of the ores of the Darwin Mining District; 
see also ibid. (4) p. 62. 

Napa County: 1, Deweylite occurs as a gangue mineral with the gold 
and silver ores of the Palisades mine, 2 miles north of Calistoga, Hulin 
(p.c. '36). 

Riverside County: 1, A. F. Rogers (19) p. 584 and Daly (1) p. 651, 
have described the occurrence of deweylite with chrysotile in the east 
Chino quarry at Crestmore. 2, An opaline mineral closely resembling 
deweylite in x-ray pattern has been found on the 910' level of the 
Commercial quarry at Crestmore, Murdoch (p.c. '57). Some of the 
mineral forms an alteration zone around crude merwinite crystals. 

San Bernardino County : 1, Deweylite was mentioned from the Dewey 
mine, Clark Mountains, in a carbonate zone, Schaller (50) p. 816. 

Santa Clara County: 1, Crusts of deweylite have been found at the 
Western magnesite mine on Red Mountain, A. F. Rogers (7) p. 380. 



168 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

DIADOCHITE 
Hydrous ferric sulphate and phosphate, Fe3*2(P04,S04)OH -5^120 

San Benito County: 1, Diadochite has been found in the New Idria 
quicksilver mine, A. P. Rogers (43) p. 178. 

DIAMOND 

Native carbon, C 

liort is a hard rounded form without distinct cleavage. Carbonado is 
a hard black variety without cleavage. 

Diamonds were found in California soon after placer mining began. 
As early as 1849, Lyman (3) p. 294, reported seeing a straw-yellow 
crystal about the size of a small pea, which came from one of the 
placers. A few years later diamonds were observed in the gold gravels 
at Cherokee, Butte County, and this locality has become the one most 
noted in the State for the number found. 

Placer deposits elsewhere have also yielded diamonds from time to 
time, so their occurrence has not been limited to any one field. No 
record has been kept of the total number found, but it is probably 
between four and five hundred. Since all of them are chance finds, 
there can be no doubt that many more have been overlooked or de- 
stroyed. 

A few of the stones found are over 2 carats in weight and of good 
({uality, but the majority are small and mostly "off color," usually with 
a pale-yellow tinge. Most of these diamonds, now in the possession of 
different individuals, were found during the days when placer mining 
and hydraulicking were at their height, and since that time diamond 
finds have been less frecjuent. 

In California, diamonds have been found only in placer gravels and 
in the black sands and concentrates 'of placer mines. Presumably their 
origin has been in the basic igneous rocks from which the serpentines 
of the gold regions have been derived. The discovery near Oroville of an 
apparent pipe of serpentinized rock bearing a resemblance to the dia- 
mond pipes of South Africa led to some active operations on the part 
of the Ignited States Diamond Mining Company, and a shaft was sunk, 
which proved not successful, Sterrett (2) p. 1217. The rock is a hard 
eclogite differing in its character from the kimberlite of South Africa, 
Sterrett (2) p. 1217. Hanks (12) pp. 168-172, gives an interesting ac- 
count of the diamonds found during the early days of gold mining, and 
H. W. Turner (20) and Storms (16) contribute short articles on Cali- 
fornia diamonds. 

Occurrences of special mineralogical or commercial interest only are 
noted below. 

Amador County: 1, Among the 60 or 70 stones from Jackass Gulch 
near Volcano was found one single clear crystal of 1.57 carats and two 
small crystals showing the trapezohedron with curved faces, J. D. Whit- 
ney (7) p. 276. 2, A stone (2.65 carats) with some crystal faces was 
found in 1934 near Plymouth, Sperisen (1) p. 39. 

Fresno County: 1, Small diamonds, reported to have been found near 
Coalinga, are probably quartz, and are popularly referred to as "Coa- 
linga diamonds." No published references to this supposed occurrence 
have been found. (N.R.) 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 169 

Nevada County: 1, The largest diamond recorded from the state, 
weighing 1\ carats, was found at French Corral sometime before 1867, 
Hanks (10) p. 251, (12) p. 169, Kunz (24) p. 44. 

Trinity County: 1, Hanks (1) p. 162, records a description by 
Wohler of minute diamonds occurring with finely divided platinum, 
from near the junction of Klamath and Trinity Rivers. 

DIASPORE 

Hydrous aluminum oxide, AI2O3H2O 

Calaveras County: 1, Diaspore occurs in good crystals from 5 to 6 
miles east of Altaville on Janokis Ranch, with chlorite on chromite, 
University of California Collections, Berkeley. 

Fresno County: 1, Diaspore occurs in small crystals with spinel in 
metamorphosed limestone at Twin Lakes, Chesterman (p.c. '55). 

Mono County: 1, Diaspore occurs in compact masses with andalusite 
or in veins of pyrophyllite at the mine of Champion Sillimanite, on the 
western slope of the White Mountains, north of Bishop, Kerr (3) 
p. 626. 

DIGENITE 

Cuprous sulphide, CU9-XS5, where x = 0.8 to 1.5 

8an Benito County: 1, Small crystals of digenite associated with 
neptunite and benitoite, from the Dallas Gem mine, have been iden- 
tified by x-ray methods, R. E. Desautels (p.c. '59). 

DIOPTASE 
Basic copper silicate, CuSi02(OH)2 

Mono County: 1, Dioptase is tentatively identified from the Cornu- 
copia mine in the Blind Spring Mining District, as crystals lining 
cavities in malachite. No tests have been made to confirm the identi- 
fication, A. L. Ransome (2) p. 191 

San Ber'iiardiyio County: 1, Dioptase occurs with linarite and cale- 
donite on a specimen from a mine on Silver Lake Mountain, Murdoch 
(p.c. '49), CDMG (21350). 

DOLOMITE 

Carbonate of calcium and magnesium, CaMg(C03)2 

Dolomite is a common mineral, but is not as abundant as calcite. 
Much of the limestone and marble of the state is dolomitic. Dolomite 
is commonly associated with serpentine and other magnesian rocks, in 
which it is often found as white veins. 

Dolomite is widespread in many parts of the state. Occurrences of 
the mineral are very numerous, but few have mineralogical significance. 
As a mineral resource, dolomite occurs in considerable quantity in 
many deposits. In the localities referenced below, no attempt has been 
made to systematically report commodity occurrences, nor to report 
the mineral wherever it is mentioned in the literature. Some localities 
of minor importance and of little general mineralogical interest are 
noted because they have been carried in early editions of Minerals of 
California. The authors consider it wise to retain these as part of the 
historical record, but newer and more important localities of the min- 



170 



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172 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA [BuU. 189 

eral as a mineral resource have not been added, and literature cita- 
tions to articles on such localities have not necessarily been included. 

Amador County: 1, Narrow veins of dolomite traversing chloritie 
rocks carry free gold, Hanks (12) p. 177. 

Calaveras County: 1, White crystals of dolomite occurred in the 
gold-bearing schist of Carson Hill, CDMG (13140). 2, Dolomite is 
found in fine crystals lining cavities and massive with free gold from 
Winter Hills mine near Angels Camp, Hanks (12) p. 177. 

Inyo County: 1, Well-formed microscopic crystals of dolomite are 
formed in sediments of Deep Springs Lake, M. N. A. Peterson et al. 
(1) p. 6494, B. F. Jones (1) p. 201. 

Kern County: 1, Dolomite was found replacing wood in Midway oil 
field, Adams (1) p. 357. 

Lake County: 1, Well-crystallized dolomite occurs as gangue of mer- 
cury ores in the Mirabel (Standard) mine (T. 10 N., R. 7 W., M. D.), 
W. W. Bradley (28) p. 393. 2, Dolomite is a rare constituent of the 
ores at Sulphur Bank, D. E. White and Roberson (2) p. 408. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Crystals of dolomite occur with pyrite. mar- 
casite ( ?), and other minerals in the Lomita quarry, Murdoch (p.c. '54). 

Riverside County: 1, Dolomite was found in 1942 as a few veinlets 
at Crestmore. These appear to be residuals of original dolomite most 
of which was lost during metamorphism. Woodford (11) p. 355. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Gold-bearing dolomite is reported from 
the Amargosa mine, Hanks (12) p. 177. 2, Dolomite occurs as minute 
crystals in some of the mud layers at Searles Lake, G. I. Smith and 
Haines (3) p. 28. 

Santa Clara County: 1, Veins of coarsely bladed dolomite associated 
with opalized chalcedony and some cinnabar are reported from the 
Hillsdale (also called Oak Hill, San Juan Bautista, Chapman or Cha- 
boya) mine, on the east slope of Oak Hills, 4 miles south of San Jose, 
Crittenden (1) p. 63. 2, Dolomite veins occur occasionally in the New 
Almaden ores, E. H. Bailey and Everhart (12) p. 99. 

DUFRENOYSITE 
Lead arsenic sulphide, Pb2As2S5 

Inyo County: 1, Dufrenoysite was reported to have been found in 
the Cerro Gordo Mining District, Hanks (12) p. 178. 

DUFTITE 
Basic copper lead arsenate, [PbCu(As04) (OH)] 

Inyo County: 1, An olivine-green crust on a specimen from the 
Cerro Gordo area has been tentatively identified as duftite, Murdoch 
(p.c. '63). 

San Bernardino County: 1, Duftite has been identified in a speci- 
men from the Mohawk mine. Mountain Pass area, Murdoch (p.c. '62). 

DUMORTIERITE 
Aluminum iron borosilicate, (AI,Fe)7BSi30,8 

Imperial County: 1, Boulders of dark-blue dumortierite occur over 
a wdde area about 18 miles northwest of Winterhaven, and 10 miles 
northwest of the now defunct station of Ogilby on the Southern Pa- 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 173 

cific Railroad, Kunz (10) p. 697, (24) p. 71, Tucker (11) p. 269, Wolff 
(1) p. 188. (The locality is described incorrectly in some of these 
references.) 

Kern County: 1, Dumortierite has been reported in the heavy-min- 
eral assemblagfe of drill cores from wells in the Lazard area of the Lost 
Hills (T. 27 S., R. 20 E., M.D.), R. D. Reed and Bailey (4) p. 363. 

Riverside County: 1, Murphy (1) p. 80, reports dumortierite in 
quartz monzonite, a rock resembling granite, just west of the railroad 
trestle near the mouth of Temescal Wash, 2 miles southeast of Corona ; 
see also E. S. Larsen (17) p. 106. 2, The occurrence of dumortierite 
in granodiorite near the Cajalco tin mine, 13 miles southwest of River- 
side is also reported, ibid., p. 79. 3, Minute blue needles of dumortier- 
ite occur in the andalusite pegmatite at the magnesite mine, Winches- 
ter, Murdoch (p.c. '46). 

San Diego Cou7ity: 1, Violet-red dumortierite occurs near Dehesa, 
with sillimanite in quartz, Kunz (24) p. 71, Schaller (7) p. 211 with 
analysis by W. E. Ford (2) p. 427. Spectroscopic analysis of a speci- 
men of dumortierite probably from this locality shows only trace ele- 
ments besides the normal principal ones. Hey and Claringbull (2) p. 
902. Previous analyses, W. E. Ford (2) p. 427, Schaller (7) p. 211, 
showed a noteworthy amount of titanium in addition to the normal 
principal constituents. 

t * EAKLEITE, 1917 
See xonotlite 

Santa Barbara County: A mineral specimen collected years ago near 
Santa Ynez, labelled wollastonite, was found by E. S. Larsen (8) p. 
465, to differ optically from that mineral. On the supposition that it 
was a new mineral, he proposed the name eakleite for it. E. S. Larsen 
(13) p. 181, later showed the specimen to be xonotlite. 

ECDEMITE— Heliophyllite 
Lead chloroarsenate, Pb4As207Cl4(?) (uncertain) 

Inyo County: 1, Ecdemite was reported by Woodhouse (p.c. '56) 
as an alteration of mimetite from the Defense mine in the Inyo Range. 

EDINGTONITE 
Hydrous barium aluminum silicate, perhaps BaAl2Si30,Q-4H20 

Mendocino County: 1, Edingtonite was found on Ash Creek, 1 mile 
northeast of the highway on or near the Sonoma County line, with 
brewsterite, Vonsen (p.c. '45). 

EGLESTONITE 

Mercury oxychloride, Hg4Cl20 

San Benito County: 1, Eglestonite, as greenish-yellow coatings on 
silicate carbonate rock, is reported by E. H. Oyler (p.c. '62) from 3 
miles south of the New Idria mine. It is associated with montroydite, 
calomel, native mercury and cinnabar. 

San Mateo County : 1, Minute yellow crystals of eglestonite associated 
with cinnabar, mercury, calomel, dolomite, magnesite, cpal and quartz 
occur about 5 miles west of Palo Alto. The mineral is found in seams 



174 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

and cavities in the siliceciis material so common in the serpentine of 
the cinnabar areas of the State, A. F. Rog:ers (5) p. 48, W. W. Brad- 
ley (5) p. 149. 2, Eglestonite is reported with montroydite. calomel and 
other mercury minerals from a locality in serpentine, 2 miles west of 
Redwood City, Woodhouse (3) p. 603^ 

* ELLESTADITE, 1937 

An apatite-like sulphate-silicate, with SO4 and SiO^ as partial replacements of 

PO„Ca5(Si,S,P)30,2(CI,F,OH) 

This mineral was noted in Murdoch and Webb (21) p. 134 as a 
variety of wilkeite, but it should have species rank. 

Riverside County: 1, Ellestadite occurs as pale rose stringers associ- 
ated with wollastonite, vesuvianite and diopside at Crestmore. The min- 
eral was originally described by D. McConnell (1) p. 977, with analysis 
by R. B. Ellestad, ibid., p. 983. 

EMBOLITE 
Silver chloro-bromide, Ag(Br,CI) 

Embolite has been found only in association with cerargyrite and in 
much smaller amounts. 

hiyo County: 1, Embolite is found with cerargyrite in the Indiana 
mine, near Swansea, Hanks (12) p. 178; 2, at the Lee mine, 18 miles 
east of Keeler, Tucker (11) p. 488 ; 3, from Panamint mines in Surprise 
Canyon 10 miles northeast of Ballarat, Tucker (10) p. 495. and 4, from 
the Minnietta mine (T. 19 S., R. 42 E., M.D.^, Tucker and Sampson 
(25) p. 445. 

Mono County: 1, Embolite is reported from the Minnie mine, Sweet- 
v/ater Range, Hanks (12) p. 178. and 2, from the Silver Reef mine in 
Long Valley (T. 3 S., R. 30 E., M.D.), R. J. Sampson (14) p. 146. 

Sa7i Bernardino County: Embolite is reported 1, from the Alhambra 
mine, Calico Mining District, Hanks (12) p. 178, (15) p. 107, and as 
well-formed crystals in Wall Street Canyon, Calico, D. J. Henry (1) 
p. 228; 2, from the Death Valley mine. 3 miles east of Cima on the 
northeast slope of the New York Mountains, Tucker and Sampson (16) 
p. 275, (17) p. 349; 3, from the Silver Reef Mining District, Storms 
(4) p. 367; 4, from the Oro Plata mine in the Old AVoman Mountains 
(sec. 23, T. 3 N., R. 19 E., S.B.), Tucker and Sampson (17) p. 354; 
5, from the War Eagle mine. Lead Mountains (T. 4 N., R. 10 E., S.B.), 
9 miles south of Bagdad, Tucker (8) p. 95; 6, from the Clark Moun- 
tains (T. 18 N., R. 13 E., S.B.), Tucker (8) p. 94; 7, from Trojan Lake 
area, 22 miles northwest of Fenner, Tucker (4) p. 364, and 8, reported 
by De Groot (2) p. 537 from Searles Lake. 

EMMONSITE 
Hydrated ferric tellurite, Fe2(Te03)3-2H20 

Prondel and Pough (1) p. 215, have shown that durdenite and em- 
monsite are identical and suggest the retention of the latter name. 

Calaveras County: 1, A specimen of telluride ore from this county, 
presumably from Carson Hill, contained along its fractures pale green- 
ish-yellow spherulites, which on optical examination E. S. Larsen (5) 
p. 45 and (11) p. 71, identified as durdenite. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 175 

ENARGITE 
Copper arsenic sulphide, CujAsS^, with Sb to 6 percent 

Alpine County: 1, Enargite was found in large masses associated 
with massive pyrite in the Mogul area, and formed the chief copper 
mineral of the Morning Star and a few other mines, E. W. Root (1) 
p. 201, Silliman (12) p. 126, Eakle (9) p. 232, (16) p. 12. 

Del Norte County: 1, Enargite has been reported with bornite from 
French Hill (N. R.). 

El Dorado County: 1, Enargite was found in the Ford mines, near 
Georgetown (N. R.). 

Inyo County: 1, Enargite may occur with famatinite as a constituent 
of the silver ore from the Thompson mine, Darwin Mining District, 
Hall and MacKevett (1) p. 17, ibid. (4) p. 59. 

Plumas County: 1, Small amounts of enargite occur with bornite and 
chalcopyrite at Engels, Graton and McLaughlin (4) p. 15. 

Shasta County: 1, Enargite, variety luzonite, has been identified in 
ores from the East Shasta copper-zinc mines, Albers and Robertson 

(3) p. 71. 

EPIDOTE 

Basic calcium/aluminum/iron silicate, Ca2(AI,Fe)3(Si04)3(OH) 

Epidote is a very common mineral in the State, especially as a sec- 
ondary mineral in crystalline rocks. It is ofte^ found in aggregates 
of large crystals and columnar masses in veins with quartz and feld- 
spar. It is abundant in contact-metamorphic deposits in limestone. 

No attempt has been made to report all of the occurrences of epidote 
found in the State that are referenced in the literature. The mineral 
is widespread and is so common that only occurrences of mineralogical 
interest should be included. However, some localities of minor impor- 
tance and of little mineralogical interest are noted for the historical 
record because they have been reported in early editions of Minerals of 
California. 

Butte County: 1, Epidote was mentioned by Silliman (13) p. 385, 
(12) p. 133, as a constituent of the gold washings at Cherokee. 

Calaveras County: 1, Epidote was found with garnet, quartz and 
idocrase at Garnet Hill, just above the confluence of Moore Creek and 
the Mokelumne River, H. W. Turner (12) p. 706, Melhase (6) p. 7. 
2, Large crystals of epidote were found at Bald Point on the Mokel- 
umne River, Kunz (24) p. 99. 3, Epidote was found in good crystals 
with quartz 7 miles north of Angels Camp, Woodhouse (p.e. '45). 

Colusa County: 1, Epidote is associated with hematite in a deposit 
4 miles south of Lodoga (N. R.). 

El Dorado County: 1, Excellent large crystals of epidote, coated with 
axinite, occurred in a coarse vein with orthoclase, bornite, and molyb- 
denite at the old Cosumnes copper mine, Schaller (18) p. 42. 2, Granu- 
lar aggregates of epidote occur in the schists at Mount Tallac and near 
Grass Lake, S. G. Clark (p.c. '35). 

Fresno County: 1, Epidote is common in Grub Gulch, CDMG 
(13525). 2, Crystals of epidote up to 10 inches in length have been 
found in the north end of Clarks Valley, Noren (p.c. '35). Other oc- 
currences: Tucker and Sampson (30) p. 565, Chesterman (1) p. 278. 



176 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Hnmboldt County: 1, Large prisms of epidote with calcite occur in 
schists on the west side of Horse Mountain (N. R.)- 

Inyo County: 1, Epidote is common in the contact zones of the 
tungsten deposits near Bishop, A. Knopf (6) pp. 233-238, Hess and 
Larsen (17) pp. 269, 276, Lemmon (5) p. 504; 2, the mineral occurs 
abundantly in the contact zone at Darwin, Kelley (4) p. 539. 

Kern County: 1, Epidote was found with scheelite at the Cadillac 
claims in the Greenhorn Mining District, Storms (15) p. 768. 2, Abun- 
dant crystals were found at the Aldridge mine (NW^ sec. 27, T. 25 S., 
R. 32 E., M. D.), Durrell (p.c. '45). 3, Coarsely crystalline epidote in 
quartz comes from Black Mountain, Durrell (p.c. '45). 

Lassen County: 1, Epidote occurs with native copper at the Lummis 
mine, Woodhouse (p.c. '45). 

Los Angeles County: 1, Epidote was found with bitumen and ortho- 
clase at White Point, CDMG (8688). 2, Epidote is disseminated through 
crystalline limestone in Pacoima Canyon, 3^ miles from San Fernando, 
Goodyear (3) p. 340. 3, Epidote and epidote group minerals are widely 
distributed in the Pelona schist, Ehlig (1) p. 170. 

Madera County : 1, Epidote is widespread in the Ritter Range, Erwin 
(1) p. 67. 2, Epidote is the most abundant silicate mineral in the meta- 
morphosed limestone of Shadow and Johnson Creeks, ibid ; 3, it occurred 
Avith quartz, hematite, and magnetite in the Hildreth Mining District, 
Erwnn (p.c. '34). 4, Specimens of epidote have come from Coarse Gold 
Kunz (24) p. 99. 

Marin County: 1, Epidote occurs with lawsonite near Reed Station, 
F. L. Ransome (3) p. 310. 2, Epidote occurs as yellow, fairly well- 
formed crystals in glaucophane schist on the north side of Tiburon Pen- 
insula, Watters (p.c. '58). 

Mariposa County: 1, Epidote occurs on the south side of Mount Hoff- 
man, Kunz (24) p. 99. 

Mendocino County: 1, Gray-colored blades of epidote (or clinozoisite) 
up to 24 inches occur with lawsonite and rutile on the new Covelo road, 
Vonsen (p.c. '45). 

Mono County: 1, Crystals of epidote occur in veins at the Morris 
claims, Benton Range, Lemmon (6) p. 591, 2, with garnet at Yellow- 
Jacket Spring, A. L. Ransome (2) p. 191, and 3, at Black Rock mine 
(T. 3 S., R. 31 E., M. D.), R. J. Sampson (14) p. 147. 

Nevada, County: 1, Epidote was found at Meadow Lake, Lindgren 
(5) p. 205. 

Plumas County: 1, Epidote occurs with bornite and chalcopyrite at 
Engels, Graton and McLaughlin (4) p. 20. 

Riverside County: 1, Deep-green epidote occurs in the calcite, and 
long prismatic epidote crystals, altered brown, occur in the pegmatite 
at Crestmore, Eakle (15) p. 349, Woodford et al. (10) p. 358. 2, Epidote 
was found with specular hematite in the Monte Negro Mining District, 
Storms (4) p. 369; 3, it occurs in gneiss on the Eagle Mountains, 
Harder (6) p. 48, F. J. H. Merrill (2) p. 545. 4, Epidote crystals over 
six inches in length have been found in quartz near Allessandro, Foshag 
(p.c. '35). 5, Epidote occurs with axinite and prehnite in the old City 
quarry in Fairmont Park, Riverside, A. F. Rogers (7) p. 380. 6, Clear 
crystals of epidote 1 inch by ^ inch were found near Hemet, Kunz (23) 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 177 

p. 942. 7, Epidote, with scheelite and garnet, occurs at the Carr tung- 
sten mine (sec. 31, T. 8 S., K. 3 E., S. B.), Tucker and Sampson (8) 
p. 48. 8, Considerable massive epidote occurs in copper claims in the 
Palen Mountains, 2 miles south of Packards Well, Anbury (1) p. 256. 
9, Clear slender crystals of epidote occur with quartz in a pegmatite on 
Alder Creek, a tributary of Coyote Creek, Durrell (p.c. '44). 

San Bernardino County: 1, Epidote was found with garnet, magne- 
tite and hematite in the iron-ore deposit near Dale, Harder and Rich 
(4) p. 237; 2, it occurs in boulders in the lower part of Badger Canyon 
(sees. 4, 9, T. 1 N., R. 4 W., S. B.) about 5 miles north of San Bernar- 
dino, Garner and Wilkie (p.c. '36). 3, Small amounts of epidote occur 
in vesicles of lava boulders on an alluvial fan south of Daggett, Mur- 
doch and Webb (11) p. 553. 4, Epidote occurs with garnet and scheelite 
in the Shadow Mountain mines (sees. 30, 31, T. 8 N., R. 6 W., S. B.), 
Tucker and Sampson (27) p. 78, and 5, with schdelite in sees. 8, 9, T. 5 
N., R. 17 E., S. B., Tucker and Sampson (32) p. 68. 

Sa7i Diego County: 1, Epidote occurs as a secondary mineral with 
black tourmaline at Rincon, A. F. Rogers (4) p. 213. 2, Clear, trans- 
parent epidote crystals of gem quality occur at the McFall mine, 7^ 
miles southeast of Ramona, Kunz (24) p. 99. 3, Epidote in glassy trans- 
parent prisms can be found at the Lulubelle mine, Snyder (1) p. 23. 

San Luis Ohispo County: 1, Epidote occurs with quartz, pyrite, and 
calcite near La Panza (N. R.). 

Santa Barbara County: 1, Epidote has been recorded in the heavy 
mineral content of the Alegria and Vaqueros formations of the Gaviota 
area, Grender (1) p. 269. 

Siskiyou County: 1, Epidote was found with dark-brown garnet and 
quartz on the South Fork of Coffee Creek (N. R.). 2, Crystals of epidote 
occur in the ore of the King Solomon mine, Goudey (p.c. '36). 

Sonoma County: 1, Epidote occurs in glaucophane schist near 
Healdsburg (N. R.). 

Trinity County: 1, Green epidote associated with colorless garnet, 
sphene and zircon occurs in a soda granite porphyry at Iron Mountain, 
Weaverville quadrange (N. R.). 

Tulare County: 1, Epidote is common in the Mineral King Mining 
District, Goodyear (3) p. 646, Franke (1) p. 469. 2, Large divergent 
columnar masses of epidote occur at Eber Flat, CDMG (11124), and 3, 
in crystals up to 4 inches at Three Rivers, W. 0. Jenkins (1) p. 172. 4, 
Epidote is also common in Frazier Valley, Goodyear (3) p. 644. 5, 
Massive epidote was found with quartz and garnet on a hill between 
Drum Valley and Slickrock Canyon, and on the west side of the valley 
of Sheep Creek, Durrell (p.c. '35). 

Tuolumne County: 1, Epidote occurs in contact rock in the Confi- 
dence area (sees. 11, 14, T. 2 N., R. 16 E., M. D.), Little (1) p. 287. 

EPISTILBITE 
Hydrous calcium aluminum silicate, CaAljSi^Oj^-SHjO 

Riverside County: 1, Flaky, feathery epistilbite occurs replacing 
feldspar at the Southern Pacific silica quarry near Nuevo, Murdoch 
(p.c. '45). 



178 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

EPSOM ITE— Epsom Salt 
Hydrous magnesium sulphate, MgSO^-ZHjO 

Efflorescences of epsomite are common in caves and tunnels where 
pyrite or other sulphides are decomposing in the presence of magnesian 
rocks. Long hair-like masses of epsomite are common in the cinnabar 
mines of the State. Commercial epsom salt is produced as a by-product 
in the evaporation of the bitterns of sea water. 

Alameda County: 1, Epsomite occurs as an efflorescence on the walls 
of the pyrite mines of Leona Heights, Schaller (1) p. 216. 

Amador County: 1, Epsomite was common in the mines on Copper 
Hill (N. R.). 

Contra Costa County: 1, Epsomite was found at the Mt. Diablo mine 
(SEi sec. 29, T. 1 N., R. 1 E., M. D.), C. P. Ross (2) p. 42, Pampeyan 

(l)p.24. 

Imperial County: 1, Epsomite was mentioned by Emory (1) p. 102, 
as occurring in white crusts near the head of Cariso (Carrizo) Creek, 
on the west side of the Colorado Desert. 

Inyo County: 1, Epsomite occurs with alunogen in clay at the mine 
of the American Magnesium Company in the Wingate area, near Balla- 
rat, Hewett et al. (1) p. 96. 

Kings County: 1, Epsomite is reported from old cinnabar mines at 
the head of Avenal Creek, Noren (p.c. '36). 

Lake County: 1, Epsomite was abundant in the old Abbott quick- 
silver mine, CDMG (15497). 2, Epsomite, associated with copiapite, 
jarosite, and other minerals, is common at Sulphur Bank, Everhart 
(1) p. 136. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Epsomite has been found near Point Firmin, 
CDMG (8306) . 2, Epsomite occurs on the face of the cliff at Bluff Cove, 
Palos Verdes, Herzog (p.c. '56). This may be the same as locality (1). 
3, Epsomite occurs as minute crystals and fine-grained efflorescences 
near the base of the sea cliffs at Castellamare, McGill (p.c. '57). 

Mariposa County: 1, Epsomite was found as fine fibers in the Pur- 
chase mine near Donovan (N. R. ). 

Napa County: 1, Epsomite was abundant in long white fibers (up to 
one foot in length) in the tunnels of the old Redington mine, Friedrich 
(1) p. 22, Becker (4) p. 389, Kramm (1) p. 345. 2, Extensive deposits 
of epsomite occur at the Oat Hill mines, Fairbanks (3) p. 66. 

San Benito County: 1, Crusts of long fibers of epsomite, occasionally 
cut by later cinnabar veinlets, occur at the New Idria mine, Becker 
(4) p". 306. 

San Bernardino County: 1, An extensive deposit of epsomite is de- 
scribed (approximately in T. 19 N., R. 3 E., S. B.), by Jahns (4). 

San Luis Obispo County: 1, Epsomite is reported as an alteration 
associated with morenosite, bieberite and other sulphates from the 
Klau quicksilver mine, Santa Lucia Range (sec. 33, T. 26 S., R. 10 E., 
M. D.), Woodhouse and Norris (6) p. 114. 

Santa Barbara County: 1, Colorless tufts and masses of epsomite 
have been found in a tunnel at Point Rincon, H. C. Ford (1) p. 55, 
Arnold and Anderson (3) p. 752. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 179 

Santa Clara County: 1, Epsomite is abundant on the walls of the 
New Almaden and other cinnabar mines, CDMG (13449) ; see also 
E. H. Bailey and Everhart (12) p. 102. 

Solano County: 1, Epsomite (?) is reported in tunnels at the St. 
John mine (sec. 33, T. 4 N., R. 3 W., M. D.), Anbury (2) p. 95. 

Sonoma County: 1, Goldsmith (7) p. 265, reported epsomite as in- 
crustations and stalactites, with boussingaultite at The Geysers ; see also 
E. T. Allen and Day (2) p. 39, Vonsen (6) p. 290. 

ERIONITE 

Hydrous sodium calcium potassium magnesium aluminum silicate, 
(Naj,K2,Ca,Mg)4.5[AI,Sij;0„]-27H20 

Kern County: 1, Erionite is one of several zeolites which have been 
identified in tuffaceous layers, with gay-lussite, in the sediments of 
China Lake, Hay and Moiola (2) p. 76A, Moiola and Hay (1) p. 215. 

ERYTHRITE— Cobalt BIcom 
Hydrous cobalt arsenate, Co3As208-8H20 

Coatings and incrustations of erythrite are common on primary 
cobalt minerals, and often serve to locate cobalt. 

Calaveras County: 1, Erythrite occurs with smaltite in a stringer 
between schist and quartzite (NWi sec. 21, T. 4 N., R. 14 E., M. D.), 
Logan (7) p. 4, Hess (19) p. 451. 

Inyo County: 1, Erythrite occurs with annabergite, argentite and 
other minerals at the Bishop silver-cobalt mine (sec. 14, T. 9 S., R. 31 
E., M. D.), east of Long Lake, Tucker and Sampson (25) p. 378, Bate- 
man (3) p. 83. 2, The mineral was reported from the Cerro Gordo 
region, R. W. Raymond (1) p. 29. H. E. Pemberton (p.c. '64) notes 
that Cerro Gordo was not known until about 1868, and the reference 
given is dated 1869, making it unlikely that the citation is in fact to 
Cerro Gordo. The occurrence seems invalid. 

Lassen County: 1, Erythrite is reported with smaltite and anna- 
bergite from the county,^ CDMG (9981). 

Los Angeles County: 1, Coatings of erythrite with smaltite, argentite 
and barite occurred at the old Kelsey and 0. K. mines near the San 
Gabriel Canyon, W. P. Blake (24) p. 207, (27) p. 163, Irelan (4) p. 47, 
Storms (4) p. 245. W. P. Blake (23) p. 376, reported erythrite from 
the "Bernardino Range," which is probably this same locality. This 
locality is reported erroneously as "near Compton" in some references. 

Mariposa County: 1, Erythrite was found in rock seams with danaite 
at the Josephine mine, Bear Vallev, H. W. Turner (3) p. 468, (12) 
p. 679. 

Mono County: 1, Erythrite has been noted in the lower tunnel at 
the Goleta mine, associated with an unidentified cobalt mineral and 
sulphides, Michael A. Price (p.c. '62), written communication on file, 
CDMG. 

Napa County: 1, Erythrite occurs with smaltite in serpentine and 
chlorite in the Berryessa Valley (N. R.). 

San Diego County: 1, Erythrite occurs with limonite and morenosite 
at the Friday mine, in the Julian Mining District, Hudson (1) p. 214. 



180 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

San Luis Ohispo County: 1, Cronise (1) p. 593, reports erythrite 
from near San Luis Obispo. 

Siskiyou County: 1, Erythrite is reported from Callahan, W. W. 
Bradley (28) p. 497, as eoatin^rs on smaltite. 

Tuolumne County: 1, Erythrite occurs associated with arsenopyrite 
in the Josephine mine, Logan (16) p. 189. 

ETTRINGITE 
Hydrous basic calcium aluminum sulphate, Ca4Al2(S04)3(OH),2'26H20 

Riverside County: 1, Ettringite is reported from Crestmore, as a 
vein-filling in massive contact rock from the Commercial quarry, Mur- 
doch and Chalmers (37) p. 1275. This occurrence was originally de- 
scribed as that of a new mineral "woodfordite", Murdoch and Chal- 
mers (36) p. 1620, but the name has been withdrawn since the identity 
with ettringite is established. On the 910' level of the Crestmore quarry, 
ettringite has been observed to be overgrown with a parallel oriented 
coating of thaumasite, A. B. Carpenter (2) p. 1394. The crystal chem- 
istry of ettringite has been studied by McConnell and Murdoch (5) 
pp. '59-64. 

EUCAIRITE 
Selenide of copper and silver, CuAgSe 

Calaveras County: 1, "Gray copper" showing selenium instead of 
sulphur on analysis, may perhaps be referred to this species. It oc- 
curred at the Willard Mining Company property, in the Esmeralda 
(Murphy) Mining District, Irelan (1) p. 37. 

EUXENITE 

An oxide of rare earth elements including yttrium/cerium/uranium/thorium 

and calcium, (Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th) (Nb,Ta,Ti)204 

Kern Cou7ity: 1, A mineral closely resembling euxenite has been 
found in a pegmatite in the Piute Mountains, 15 miles south of Wehlon, 
Proctor (p.c. '56). 2, Euxenite occurs in a few pegmatite dikes in small 
crystals in the Kern River uranium area, MacKevett (2) pp. 191, 197. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Euxenite occurs with ilmenite, monazite 
and allanite in the Pomona Tile ouarry on the road between Old 
Woman Spring and Yucca Valley, Hewett and Glass (3) p. 1048. It 
appears in small tabular crystals 3-8 mm in diameter near the quartz 
nucleus of the pegmatite; see also Hewett et al. (4) p. 30. 

Tulare County: 1, Goodwin (1) p. 369, states: ''. . . uranium- and 
thorium-bearing minerals which have been identified in Tulare County 
include xenotime, euxenite, torbernite, autunite and uraninite." 

FAMATINITE— Luzonite 

Copper antimony sulphide, Cu3SbS4 

Luzonite is arsenical famatinite, Cu3(Sb,As)S4 

Alpine County: 1, Famatinite is found associated with enargite at 
the Morning Star mine, Eakle (16) p. 12, Harcourt (1) p. 521. 

Inyo County: 1, Microscopic grains of famatinite have been found 
in polished sections of ore from the Darwin Mining District, Kelley 
(4) p. 544, Hall and MacKevett (1) p. 17. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 181 

Shasta County: 1, Luzonite is reported from two specimens in the 
ores of the East Shasta copper-zinc region, Albers and Robertson 
(3) p. 71. 

FAYALITE 

Iron silicate, Fe2Si04 

See also olivine and forsterite. 

Imperial County: 1, At Obsidian Butte, near Niland, lithophysae in 
the obsidian carry occasional crystals of fayalite, A. F. Rogers (42) 
p. 328. 

Inyo County: 1, Small brown crystals of fayalite occur with cristo- 
balite, tridymite and orthoclose in spheroidal openings in obsidian, near 
Coso Hot Springs, Rutley (1) p. 427, A. P. Rogers (23) p. 215, Mur- 
doch and Webb (11) p. 544 (crystal description), M. B. Strong (7) 
p. 16, Stinson (3) p. 207. 

Riverside County: 1, Fayalite in the Rubidoux Mountain leuco- 
granite, has been partly altered to "iddingsite" and other minerals, 
Banks and Silver (1) p. 5. 

Siskiyou County: 1, Fayalite occurs with cristobalite in lithophysae 
in spherulitic obsidian near Cougar Butte (sec. 13, T. 44 N., R. 4 E., 
M. D.), C. A. Anderson (p.c. '35). 

FELDSPARS 

The name feldspar is given to a group of silicates of aluminum, 
sodium, calcium, potassium, or barium, similar in hardness, cleavage, 
specific gravity, and twinning. 

The following classification of the feldspars shows the relationship 
of the varieties : 

Orthoclase 

Soda orthoclase 
Hyalophane 
Celsian 
Microcline 

Soda microcline 
Anorthoclase 
Plagioclase 

Albite molecule=a6 (NaAlSisOs) 
Anorthite molecule=an (CaAloSiaOg) 

fl6 an 

Albite 100-nO 0- 10 

Oligoclase 90-70 10- 30 

Andesine 70-50 30- 50 

Labradorite 50-30 50- 70 

Bytownite 30-10 70- 90 

Anorthite 10- 90-100 

Feldspars are the most abundant and important of rock-forming 
silicates, and the classification of igneous rocks depends partly upon 
the feldspar of the rock. The albite-anorthite feldspars are commonly 
called the plagioclase feldspars, and in many petrographic descriptions 
this name is used, so that the particular kind of feldspar is not desig- 
nated. As rock-forming minerals, the feldspars are too widely dis- 
tributed to list all localities. 



182 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

ALBITE 
Sodium aluminum silicate, NaAISi308 
Cleavelandite is a platy variety of albite, common in pegmatite dikes. 

Albite is a common constituent of granites, rhyolites, metamorphic 
gneisses and schists. It forms very prominent -white veins in the crys- 
talline schists of the Coast Ranges and the Sierra Nevada. 

Calaveras County: 1, Well-formed crystals of albite were found in 
the Winters vein, Angels Camp, analysis by Genth (3) p. 255. 2, Crys- 
tals of albite line vugs at the Stanislaus mine, and are penetrated by 
crystals of millerite, A. W. Jackson (3) p. 365. 

Contra Costa County: 1, Veins of white albite cut the aetinolite 
schists at San Pablo, Blasdale (1) p. 345. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Good transparent crystals of albite up to 
1 inch across have been found in a pegmatite near Rowlands Landing, 
Santa Catalina Island, Murdoch (p.c. '45). 2, Well developed crystals 
of albite occur in chlorite-lawsonite schist at the western tip of Santa 
Catalina Island, Woodford (1) p. 55. 

Marin County: 1, Albite crystals up to 1 cm in size occur in law- 
sonite schist near Reed Station, Schaller (19) p. 48. 

Mono County: 1, Well-defined crystals of albite up to 4 inches in size 
occur with quartz at the Standard mine. Bodie. The crystals are often 
shells studded internallv with fine quartz prisms, R. G. Brown (1) 
p. 344, H. W. Turner (30) p. 795. 

Placer County: 1, Fine crystals of albite were found in the Shady 
Run mine 8 miles east of Dutch Flat. Reid (1) p. 280. 

Plumas County: 1, White dikes in serpentine at Meadow Valley are 
composed wholly of albite, G. M. Wheeler (2) p. 379. 

Riverside County: 1, Pegmatites of the Crestmore quarry carry 
albite, Woodford et al. (10) p. 358. 

San Benito County: 1, Cleavelandite has been reported from Santa 
Rita Creek, W. W. Bradley (p.c. '44). 2, Druses of some of the veins 
at the benitoite locality have yielded crystals of albite up to 10 milli- 
meters in size, Louderbaek and Blasdale (5) p. 361. 

San Diego County: 1, Dark-colored manganese-bearing albite has 
been found in the Caterina mine, Pala, Kraus and Hunt (2) p. 466. 
2, Good small albite crystals are found in the pegmatites at Rincon, 
A. F. Rogers (4) p. 210. 3, AVell-erystallized cleavelandite occurs at 
the following gem-tourmaline localities: Pala. Donnelly (3) p. 10. 
Mesa Grande, Kunz (24) p. 137, Ramona, Kunz (24) p. 47, near 
Aguanga, Mountain Lily mine. Murdoch and Webb (p.c, '45). 



ANDESINE 
Sodium/calcium/aluminum silicate, »iNaAISi308 with xCaAI^SijOg, intermediate 

between albite and anorthite 

Riverside County: 1, Andesine is a common plagioclase feldspar in 
the country rock of the Crestmore quarry, Daly (1). 

Yolo County: 1, Sodic plagioclase (andesine) from the Nomlaki tuff 
on Putah Creek, has been observed and described by Emerson (1) p. 23. 



][966] DESCRIPTIONS 1^^ 

ANORTHITE 
Calcium aluminum silicate, CaAl2Si208 

Lake County: 1, Pine cleavage fragments of anorthite have been col- 
lected 2 miles northeast of Middletown along the highway to Lower 
Lake (N. R.)- 

CELSIAN 
Barium aluminum silicate, BaAl2Si208 

Fres7io County: 1, Fine-grained celsian associated with quartz diop- 
side, witherite and sanbornite occurs in quartzke near ^;^^_^ Creek and 
Big Creek (sees. 16, 22, 27, T. 11 S., R. 25 E., M. D.), CDMG (21889). 
Celsian was also noted in a portion of a drill core taken near Rush 
Creek (CDMG identification, '64). ^ -^ a ■^^^. 

Mariposa County: 1, Celsian was found with sanbornite and gilles- 
pite in veins in quartzite, 1 mile north of Trumbull Peak, near Incline, 
A. F. Rogers (39) p. 171. . 

Santa Crnz County: 1, Celsian is reported in the mineral suite at 
the Pacific Limestone Products (Kalkar) quarry at Santa Cruz, b. w. 
Chesterman and Gross (p.c. '64). 

LABRADORITE 
Calcium/sodium/aluminum silicate, //iCaAl2Si208 with JiNaAISijOs 

Los Angeles County: 1. Labradorite forms^the principal part o f an^ 
orthosite masses in the western San ^^^^briel Mountains (T. ^^N. R. 14 
W SB.), Tucker and Sampson (4) pp. 417, 418, W. J. Miller (7) 
pp.' 15-17, Higgs (1) p. 177. 

Modoc County: 1, Labradorite with inclusions of metallic copper has 
been found in this county, Andersen (1) p. 91. 

Riverside County: 1, Eakle (15) reports labradorite as a constituent 
of the country rock at Crestmore. 

MICROCLINE 
Potassium aluminum silicate, KAISijOg 

Amazonite or amazon stone is a green microcline, and is sometimes 
used as a semi-precious gem. 

Microcline has the same composition as orthoclase, but differs from 
it in its twinning structure and crystallization. It is a constituent ot 
some granites and pegmatites. Much of the white feldspar of pegma- 
tites is microcline rather than orthoclase. 

Inyo County: 1, Abundant green microcline^ "^ P^^^.Jj' ^''''m^"'^ 
crvstals, is found in pegmatite 1\ miles east of Lone Pme Station Mur- 
doch (p.c. '45), M. B. Strong (4) p. 20. This may be the locality noted 
by Ward in Sterrett (10) p. 321. 2, Microcline has been reported 6 
miles west of Lone Pine, W. W. Bradley (29) p. 311. This may be 
the same as locality (1), which is about 6 miles east of Lone Pme. 

Riverside County: 1, Graphic granite of the Southern Pacific silica 
quarry at Nuevo is quartz and microline, Wahlstrom (1) P- 694. ^ 
Woodford et al. (10) p. 358, report microcline in the pegmatites that 
are common in the Crestmore quarry. 



184 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

San Diego County: 1, Graphic granite from the Ramona pegmatite 
area has been described by D. R. Simpson (1) pp. 1123-1138. Microcline 
perthite is the feldspar in this graphic intergrowth. 

Tuolumne County: 1, Phenocrysts of microcline up to 2 inches in 
length occur in granite porphyry at Tuolumne Meadows, Calkins (4) 
p. 127. 

OLIGOCLASE 
Sodium/calcium/aluminum silicate, (/(NaAISijOg with nCaAljSijOj 

Riverside Comity: 1, Oligoclase is found in the pegmatites of the 
Crestmore quarry, Woodford et al. (10) p. 358. 

Tulare County: 1, Large, well-formed crystals of oligoclase occur with 
quartz and black tourmaline in a pegmatite at Salt Creek, A. F. Rogers 
(32) p. 116. 

ORTHOCLASE 
Potassium aluminum silicate, KAISi303 

Adularia is a glassy, transparent variety, sometimes found in large 
crystals. Moonstone is a variety of adularia. Sanidine, a glassy feldspar, 
frequently occurs as crystals in rhyolite. Valencianite is a varietal name 
no longer used for vein orthoclase. Perthite is an intergrowth of ortho- 
clase or microcline and albite. It is an important constituent of some 
granites and pegmatites. 

Orthoclase is an essential constituent of many igneous rocks, granites, 
syenites, quartz porphyries, rhyolites, and trachytes. Large crystals 
often form the phenocrysts of porphyritic rocks, and these crystals are 
often Carlsbad twins. The color of granites is mainly due to the color 
of the orthoclase, red granites having orthoclase colored by ferric oxide. 
Granites, syenites, and cliorites are often intersected by pegmatite dikes 
consisting of coarse crystals and massive orthoclase (or microcline) with 
quartz and mica, and these dikes vary greatly in width ; some can be 
quarried for the feldspar. 

Calaveras County: 1, Valencianite occurs 5 miles east of Milton on 
the road to Copperopolis, A. F. Rogers (7) p. 376. 

El Dorado County: 1, Colorless crystals of adularia are found on the 
south side of Fallen Leaf Lake, A. F. Rogers (7) p. 376. 

Inyo County: 1, Adularia, variety moonstone, occurs as very small 
crystals in rhyolite near Rialto, in the Funeral Mountains, Kunz (23) 
p. 950, (24) p. 79. 2, Distinct crystals of sanidine are common in the 
Bishop tuff, Gilbert (1) p. 1834. 3, Orthoclase crystals of small size are 
associated with fayalite, cristobalite and tridymite in the obsidian near 
Coso Hot Springs] A. F. Rogers (23) p. 215, Stinson (4) p. 207. 

Kern County: 1, Large phenocrysts of orthoclase, usually as Carlsbad 
twins, occur in a dike-like mass of granite porphyry, 4 miles north of 
Cinco, by the aqueduct road, Murdoch and Webb (14) p. 325. 

Madera County: 1, Large Carlsbad twins of orthoclase occur in 
granite porphyry at Reds Meadows, Goudey (1) p. 8. 

Monterey County: 1, Orthoclase phenocrysts up to 10 cm in length 
occur in the Santa Lucia granite in the Carmelo Bay area, Lawson (1) 
p. 10. 2, Orthoclase showing spectroscopic traces of germanium has come 
from Pacific Grove, Papish (2) p. 474. 3, A large mass of pure creamy 
to white orthoclase has been quarried 4 miles east of Chualar (sec. 34, 
T. 15 S., R. 5 E., M.D.), W. W. Bradley and Waring (6) p. 601. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 185 

Riverside County: 1, Orthoclase is generally distributed in the coun- 
try rock of the Crestmore quarries, Woodford et al. (10) p. 368. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Orthoclase phenocrysts up to 7 inches in 
length are abundant, usually as Carlsbad twins, in monzonitic porphyry, 
1-1 miles southwest of Twenty-Nine Palms, W. J. Miller (8) p. 428. 2, 
Flesh-colored orthoclase phenocrvsts as long as 2 inches occur 1 mile 
north of the Pines (sec. 5, T. 1 N., R. 1 E., S.B.), Baker (1) p. 338. 3, 
Orthoclase (probably variety adularia) has been found in the Bottom 
Mud and the Mixed Layer, at Searles Lake, R. C. Erd (p.c. '58), con- 
firmed by Hay and Moiola (1) p. 323. 4, A monoclinic potash feldspar 
has been found as an authigenic mineral in Pleistocene beds of Searles 
Lake, Hay and Moiola (1) p. 168. 

FERGUSONITE 

An oxide of titanium with rare earth elements and other metals, (Y,Er,Ce,Fe) 

(Cb,Ta,Ti)04 

Biverside County: 1, l|-inch crystals were reported to have come 
from Box Spring Mountain, Foshag (p.c. '46). 

San Diego County : 1, Two specimens of fergusonite from the south- 
west slope of Lawson Peak (sec. 1, T. 17 S., R. 2 E., S.B.), were pre- 
sented to the California Division of Mines and Geology, CDMG (21701- 
21702). 

FERRIERITE 

A hydrous basic silicate of aluminum magnesium sodium potassium, 
(Na,K),Mg2[AI,Si3o07i](OH)2-18HjO 

Mono County: 1, Ferrierite occurs at Leavitt Lake, Sonora Pass, 
Parnau (p.c. '63). 

FERRIMOLYBDITE— Molybdite 
Hydrous iron moiybdate, FejMo^Ois-IOHjO 

El Dorado County: 1, A specimen of ferrimolybdite in the University 
of California Collections, Berkeley, No. 278, is from the Cosumnes mine 
near Fairplay. 

Del Norte County: 1, Ferrimolybdite has been reported at French 
Hill, with bornite (N. R.). 

Fresno County: 1, Ferrimolvbdite has been found near Palisade 
Creek, with molybdenite, W. W' Bradley (24) p. 345, CDMG (20311). 

Kerji County: 1, Sulphur-yellow, fibrous crystals of ferrimolybdite 
have been found in Jawbone Canvon (sees. 10, 11, 14, 15, T. 30 S., R. 
36 E., M.D.), W. W. Bradley (29) p. 107. 

Madera County: 1, Ferrimolybdite occurs with molybdenite on Red 
Mountain in the Ritter Range, Erwin (1) p. 71, Goudey (1) p. 8. 

Mariposa County: 1, Ferrimolybdite is reported with molybdenite 
from the Kinsley Mining District, 7 miles from El Portal (N. R.). 

Mono County: 1, Ferrimolybdite occurs in white quartz with molyb- 
denite, 12 miles northwest of Bridgeport, J. H. Pratt (4) p. 265, and 2, 
on Silverado Creek (T. 7 N., R. 25 E., M. D.), Whiting (1) p. 363. 
3, Beautifully crystallized ferrimolybdite from the Tiger claim, Patter- 
son Mining District, is represented by a specimen in the University of 
California Collections, Berkeley. 

Nevada County: 1, Ferrimolybdite occurs mixed with limonite, at 
the Wisconsin and Illinois claim near Nevada City, D. D. Owen (1) 



186 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

p. 108, Genth (3) p. 248. 2, The mineral is found with molybdenite 
and gold at the Excelsior mine, Hanks (12) p. 274. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Ferrimolybdite was found near State 
Line (approx. T. 17 N., K. 16 E., S. B.), CDMG (16107). 

Sa.n Diego Coimty: 1, Ferrimolybdite is found with feldspar near 
Ramona (sec. 11, T." 13 S., R. 1 W., S. B.), Calkins (1) p. 75. 

Shasta County: 1, The mineral is found with ilsemannite and molyb- 
denite, 4 miles west of Gibson (sec. 33, T. 37 N., R. 5 W., M. D.), Cook 
(1) p. 50, and 2, from Hazel Creek, CDMG (18569). 

Sierra County: 1, Ferrimolybdite is found in copper ore at the Sierra 
Buttes mine near Hurd's Ranch, J. R. Browne (4) p. 210, Burkart (2) 
p. 21. 

Trinity County: 1, The mineral occurs with molybdenite near Lewis- 
ton, CDMG (19433). 

Tuolumne County: 1, A specimen with minute canary-vellow needles, 
in the University of California Collections, Berkeley, is from the Stuart 
ledge, E. S. Larsen (11) p. 112. 

Yuba Count ji: 1, Ferrimolybdite is reported with molybdenite near 
Camptonville (N. R.). 

FIBROFERRITE 
Hydrous basic ferric sulphate, Fe3^S040H -SHjO 

Napa County: 1, Fibroferrite has been found with cinnabar, opal, 
sulphur and sulpliates in the Redington mine at Knoxville, A. F. 
Rogers (35) p. 397. 

Sail Bernardino County: 1, Fibroferrite occurs with krausite, coquim- 
bite and other sulphates in the Calico Hills near Borate, 6 miles north- 
east of Yermo, Foshag (19) p. 352. 

Trinity County: 1, Fibrous aggregates of yellow fibroferrite occur in 
the pyrrhotite deposit at Island Mountain, Landon (Dp. 279, Melhase 
(3) No. 6, p. 2. 

FLUOBORITE 
Basic magnesium borate with fluorine, 1^93(603) ( F,OH )3 

Riverside Comity: 1, Fluoborite occurs at the Crestmore quarries, 
910' level, Segnit (p.c. '61). 

San Bernardino County: 1, In a contact zone fluoborite occurs as 
abundant sub-parallel prismatic crystals in matrix of calcite at the 
New Method mine (Hope uranium prospect), Bristol Mts., near Am- 
boy, Chesterman and Bowen (6) p. 1678. 

FLUORITE 

Calcium fluoride, CaF2 

Fluorite is a common mineral, especially as gangue in lead deposits 
with galena. It sometimes forms thick veins. 

No attempt has been made to report all of the occurrences of fluorite 
found in the State that are referenced in the literature. Tlie mineral 
is widespread and is so common that only occurrences of mineralogical 
interest should be included. However, some localities of minor impor- 
tance and of little mineralogical interest are noted for the historical 
record because they have been reported in early editions of Minerals 
of California. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 187 

Contra Costa County: 1, Small cubes of white fluorite were found on 
Mount Diablo with some copper minerals. Planks (12) p. 181, Kunz 
(24) p. 102. 

hiyo County: 1, Fluorite is found as a gangue mineral with argen- 
tiferous galena in the Cerro Gordo, Darwin, and other mining areas, 
A. Knopf (4) p. 7, C A. Waring and Huguenin (2) p. 95, Kelley (4) 
p. 543, A. L. Ransome and Kellogg (1) p. 483, Hall and MacKevett 
(4) p. 63. 2, Purple veinlets of fluorite in marble are reported to carry 
gold values, at the Waterfall prospect, 3 miles north of Antelope 
Springs, Deep Spring Valley, A. Knopf (5) p. 113. 3, An extensive 
deposit of fluorite is reported on Tin Mountain, Ubehebe Mining Dis- 
trict, Anon. (5). 4, Fluorite is reported as small purple veins from 
Warm Springs (T. 22 N., R. 1 E., S.B.), Crosby and Hoffman (1) 
p. 631. 

Kern County: 1, Fluorite is found (see. 12, T. 29 S., R. 38 E., M.D.), 
in Last Chance Canyon, Crosby and Hoffman (1) p. 632. 

Lake County: 1, Massive green fluorite comes from a locality 4 miles 
southeast of Kelseyville, W. W. Bradley (29) p. 222. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Fine specimens of fluorite consisting of 
purple and green masses and cubes have come from the P"'elix mine 
north of Azusa, Murdoch (p.c. '45), 2, Half-inch cubes of fluorite are 
found in cavities of a fault breccia at locality 20, west side of Higgins 
Canyon, Neuerburg (1) p. 159. 

Mono County: 1, Green and violet crystals and masses of fluorite 
occur in. Ferris Canyon on the eastern slope of the Sweetwater Moun- 
tains, Kunz (24) p. 102. 2, Fluorite occurs with andalusite in the mine 
of Champion Sillimanite, on the western slope of the White Mountains, 
north of Bishop, Jeff'ery and Woodhouse (3) p. 461. 

Riverside County: 1, Transparent crystals of fluorite were marketed 
for optical purposes in 1917-18, from the Floyd Brown mine, near 
Blythe, Aubury (1) p. 258. An additional reference, gives the location 
of Fluorspar group of mines (sec. 4, T. 10 S., R. 18 E., S. B.), Crosby 
and Hoffman (1) p. 632. A small tonnage was also shipped for indus- 
trial use. 2, Large veins of fluorite are reported in quartzite (sec. 27, 
T. 3 S., R. 20 E., S. B.), Tucker and Sampson (35) p. 164. 3, Fluorite 
is reported from the tin ore at Cajalco, West (3) p. 132. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Green and purple fluorite with some ice- 
land spar comes from the Kings fluorspar mine. Cave Canyon Mining 
District, Tucker and Sampson (16) p. 301, Burchard (1) p. 373, 
Hewett et al. (1) p. 171. 2, Fluorite is also found near Ludlow, CDMG 
(18952). 3, Colored fluorite occurs in a vein on the McDermott deposit, 
4 miles east of Nipton, Tucker and Sampson (16) p. 302. 4, Numerous 
small veins of green and white fluorite occur near Baxter Station, near 
Soda Lake (T. 17 N., R. 13 E., S. B.), ibid., p. 302, Crosby and Hoff- 
man (1) p. 625. 5, Lenses of fluorite up to 2 feet in length are found 
in the Philadelphia fluorspar deposit in the Providence Mountains, 25 
miles south of Cima (sees. 4, 5, 7, T. 10 N., R. 6 E., S. B.), Crosby 
and Hoffman (1) p. 633, Tucker (4) p. 343. 6, Veins of fluorite, with 
sulphides, are found at the Live Oak mine (T. 14 N., R. 16 E., S. B.), 



188 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA fBull. 189 

Crosby and Hoffman (1) p. 636. 7, At the Green Hornet mine (sees. 
7, 8, T. 6 N., R. 1 W., S. B.) fluorite ocenrs in veins with quartz, 
Crosby and Hoffman (1) p. 636. 8, Dark purple fluorite is found in 
the Ivanpah Mountains (sec. 8, T. 14 N., R. 14 E., S. B.), Crosby 
and Hoffman (1) p. 636. 9, Fluorite, colorless and purple, is common 
in the Ord Mountains, Weber (3) p. 26. 

San Diego County: 1, A small amount of fluorite is found at the 
Mountain Lily gem mine, Aguanga Mountain, F. J. H. Merrill (1) 
p. 705. 

Santa Clara Connti/: 1, White crystals of fluorite were found near 
the Almaden mine, Hart (1) p. 138, Irelan (4) p. 46. 

Tulare County: 1, A deposit of massive fluorite occurs 18 miles east 
of Springville (sec. 34, T. 20 S., R. 31 E., M. D.), Franke (1) p. 439. 

Yolo County: 1, A fluorite deposit is reported from an unspecified 
locality in the county. Mining and Scientific Press (18) p. 370. 



FORSTERITE 

Magnesium silicate, MgjSiO^ 
See also olivine and fayalite 

Riverside County: 1, Forsterite occurs with hydrotroilite in the new 
City quarry, Victoria Avenue, Riverside. W. W. Bradley (29) p. 456. 
2, Forsterite has been identified in the contact rocks of the Crestmore 
quarry, Burnham (p.c. '54). 

Sayi Bernardino County: 1, Forsterite has been found on the north- 
west slope of Ontario Peak, at Cascade Canyon (SAY^ sec. 31, T. 2 N., 
R. 7 W., S. B.), W. W. Bradley (29) p. 456. 



* FOSHAGITE, 1925 
Hydrous basic calciunn silicate, Ca5Si30,Q(OH)2-2H20 

Riverside County: 1, Foshagite was described as a new mineral from 
the Crestmore quarries by Eakle (23) p. 97, in 1925. Its validity as a 
species was questioned by Vigfussen (1) p. 76, who believed it to be a 
variety of hillebrandite. Flint et al. (1) p. 617, and Winchell (2) give 
foshagite separate status, and Heller and Taylor (1) p. 53, confirm 
the validity of the species. H. F. W. Taylor and Card (7), (8) have 
determined the crystal structure of foshagite on material from Crest- 
more. Foshagite occurs primarily as fibrous masses and slip-veins in 
vesuvianite and monticellite-rich rocks, Woodford (11) p. 357. 



FRANCKEITE 
Lead tin antimony sulphide, Pb5Sn3Sb2S,4 

Inyo County: 1, Franckeite was identified by Charles Milton of the 
U. S. Geological Survey from a rich silver ore body from the Thomp- 
son mine, Darwin Mining District, Hall and MacKevett (1) p. 17. 

Santa Cruz County: 1, This rare mineral occurs with meneghinite 
and stannite in the limestone contact rock of the Pacific Limestone 
(Kalkar) Products quarry, 2 miles northeast of Santa Cruz, Chester- 
man (p.c. '54). 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 189 

* FRESNOITE, 1965 
Barium titanium silicate, Ba2T,Sl208 

Fresno County: 1, Fresnoite, a new mineral from California, is de- 
scribed in a preliminary paper by Alfors and Stinson (5) p. 27, as 
tiny yellow grains disseminated widely in the sanbornite-bearing de- 
posits of eastern Fresno County, at the Bi"' Creek locality. This entry, 
first appearing- in February 1965, after the cut-off date of this bulletin, 
is included because the article in which the preliminary description 
occurred is Part II of a report describing 3 new minerals in the same 
locality, Stinson and Alfors (6). See also "Seven new barium min- 
erals from eastern Fresno County, California", by John T. Alfors, Mel- 
vin C. Stinson, Robert A. Matthews and Adolph Pabst : Am. Mineralo- 
gist, vol. 50, pp. 314-340, 1965. 

GAHNITE 
Zinc aluminate, ZnAljO^ 

San Diego County: 1, Small rounded patches of bright green gahnite 
occur in nodules of phosphate minerals from the Katerina mine, Her- 
iart Hill, Pala, Jahns and Wright (5) p. 31, confirming Murdoch (p.c. 

'51). 

*GALEITE, 1955 
Sodium sulphate with fluorine and chlorine, Na3S04(F,CI) 

San Bernardino County: 1, A new mineral from Searles Lake was 
found in drill cores of the lake section in small nodular aggregates of 
minute crystals, embedded in clay and other salt minerals, Pabst et al. 
(15) p. 1658. The galeite is intergrown with schairerite, and associated 
with sulphohalite, Pabst et al. (21) p. 485, G. I. Smith and Haines 
(3) p. 27. 

GALENA 

Lead sulphide, PbS 
Cuproplumbite is identical with jL^aleiui. 

Galena is a very common mineral, and occurs in nearly every ore 
deposit in the State. It is prominent in many mining regions, and 
occurs in considerable amounts in some of them. Much of it is accom- 
panied by silver minerals, and such combinations form important 
sources of silver. Galena is present, usually in minor amount, with 
chalcopyrite or sphalerite in gold-quartz veins. Its common alteration 
products, cerussite and anglesite, frequently are associated. Only the 
more important or interesting occurrences can be noted in detail, but 
some references to those of lesser consequence will be listed under the 
counties. Hanks (12) p. 181, gives a rather extensive list of occurrences 
as known at that date. 

Alameda County: 1, Lumps of coarse crystalline galena, from an un- 
known source, weighing up to 100 pounds, have been found at Euclid 
Avenue and Cordonices Creek in Berkeley, A. C. Lawson (7) p. 23. 

Alpine County: 1, Argentiferous galena is common in the Loope area 
near Markleeville, Crawford (1) p. 373, Eakle (16) p. 11, Logan (4) 
p. 402, W. W. Bradley (15) p. 488, Gianella (1) p. 342. 

Amador County: 1, Galena is widespread in small amounts in the 
mines near Plymouth and along the Mother Lode, Josephson (1) p. 475. 



190 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [ Bull. 189 

Butte County: 1, Galena is recorded at Butte Creek and other areas, 
C. A. Waring (4) p. 214. 

Calaveras Couvty: 1, Galena is one of the universal minor vein min- 
erals in the Mother Lode mines, Reid (3) p. 397, Moss (1) p. 1011. 

El Dorado County: 1, Galena is present in many of the mines of the 
county, Logan (9) p. 406. 

Fresno County: 1, Galena occurs in gold ores at a number of mines, 
Goldstone (1) p. 197. 

Imperial County: 1, Small amounts of galena occur in the Picaeho 
and other areas, F. J. H. Merrill (1) p. 732, Tucker (11) p. 262, R. J. 
Sampson and Tucker (18) p. 128, Hen.shaw (Dp. 185. 

Inyo County: Argentiferous galena has formed the important silver 
ore in the county. Extensive deposits occur in the Darwin, Cerro Gordo, 
Panamint, Ubehebe and other mining areas : 1, Cerro Gordo, A. Knopf 
(8) p. 114, C. W. Merriam (1) p. 60; 2, Darwin. Crawford (1) p. 24, 
A. Knopf (4) p. 7, Kelley (4) p. 543, Hall and MacKevett (4) p. 59; 

3, Panamint, fine crystals from the Blue Wing mine, CDMG (7616), 
Crawford (1) p. 373, Murphy (2) pp. 313, 321. Tucker (11) p. 488. 
Other lesser deposits in the countv are referred to in the following : 

4, Mining and Scientific Press (1) p. 3; 5, De Groot (2) p. 213; 6, 
Crawford (2) p. 32; 7, C. A. Waring and Huguenin (2) pp. 76, 84, 
100. 101, 105; 8, Tucker (4) pp. 284, 286, 291; 9, Tucker (8) p. 33; 
10, Tucker (11) pp. 473, 489, 495. 507; 11, R. J. Sampson (7) p. 369; 
12, R. J. Sampson (11) p. 266; 13, Tucker and Sampson (25) pp. 383, 
397, 413, 427, 429 ; 14, Tucker and Sampson (27) p. 26 , 15, Tucker and 
Sampson (32) p. 59, 16, Argentiferous galena formed the ore of mines 
on Kearsarge Peak, J. G. Moore (1) p. 148. 

Kern County: 1, Small amounts of galena are found in the Mojave 
Cove and other areas. Tucker and Sampson (21) p. 290, Simpson (1) 
p. 409, Prout (1) p. 413. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Galena was recorded from this county at a 
very early date. In 1792, Martinez (1) p. 42, reported Galena ( ?) from 
Santa Catalina Island. A "silver mine" was known here as early as 
1847, Sloat (1) p. 366. Later references to this locality are in Mining 
and Scientific Press (5) p. 263, Preston (2) p. 280, Gieser (1) p. 245. 

2, Duflot de Mofras (1) p. 186, noted "silver ore," presumably argen- 
tiferous galena, at Rancho Cahuenga, 2 leagues north of Los Angeles. 

3, Galena occurs with fluorite at the Felix fluorite mine, Azusa, Mur- 
doch (p.c. '45). Other references in the county to galena are: Preston 
(2) p. 204, Storms (4) p. 244, Tucker (4) p. 318, (8) p. 42, (13) p. 317. 

Madera County: 1, Large cubes of galena have come from the Star 
mine, in the Minarets Mining District, W. W. Bradley (9) p. 548, 
Erwin (1) pp. 66, 67. 

Mariposa County: 1, INIinor amounts of galena occur in some of the 
gold-quartz veins, J. B. Trask (7) p. 52, J. D. Whitney (7) p. 238, 
Mining and Scientific Press (26) p. 24, Preston (2) p. 303. 

Mono Comity : 1, Argentiferous galena forms important bodies of ore 
in the Bodie, Blind Spring, Lundv and Sweetwater areas, Eakle and 
McLaughlin (17) pp. 141, 172, A." L. Ransome (2) p. 171. 

Monterey County: 1, One of the early mines in the State, at the 
Alisal Ranch, reported as early as 1802, carries galena, Duflot de Mofras 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 191 

(1) p. 215, A. Robinson (]) p. 152, W. P. Blake (7) p. 295, W. W. 
Jenkins (Dp. 70. 

Napa County: 1, Galena is one of the minor minerals at the Palisades 
mine, 2 miles north of Calistoga, Hiilin (p.e. '36). 

Nevada Count}/: 1, Galena is one of the vein minerals in the gold ores 
of the county. W. P. Blake (9) p. 13, Hobson (1) pp. 384, 392-394, 
Lindgren (12) p. 118. Wisker (1) p. 194. 

Orange County: 1, "Leafy galena in narrow bands and solid 
bunches" occurs at the Alma mine (T. 5 S., R. 6 W., S.B.). Santiago 
Canyon, Fairbanks (4) pp. 115, 117, L. L. Root (3) p. 63. 

Placer County: 1, Galena is found in minor amounts in most of the 
gold mines of the countv, Silliman (7) p. 351, Lindgren (7) p. 272, 
C. A. Waring (4) p. 331, Logan (4) p. 445, (17) pp. 16-39. 

Riverside County: 1, Galena was one of the minerals at the limestone 
quarry at Crestmore, Eakle (15) p. 352. 2, The mineral occurs in vari- 
ous other localities in the countv, Goodyear (3) p. 527, Irelan (5) 
p. 904, F. J. H. Merrill (2) ppr532-541. Tucker (8) p. 195, R. J. 
Sampson (9) p. 514. 

Sacramento County: 1, Galena occurred with sphalerite and pyrite 
at Michigan Bar, Hanks (12) p. 181. 

San Bernardino County: Galena, with its oxidation product cerus- 
site, is widespread in relatively small amounts, in the silver and gold 
mines of the county. References follow: Grossman (1) p. 217 (Old 
Woman Mountains), p 231 (Lava Beds), p. 263 (Morongo) ; Storms 
(4) p. 366 (Silver Reef); Crawford (1) p. 25 (Silver Mountains); 
Cloudman et al. (1) p. 790 (New York Mountains), p. 805 (Goldstone), 
p. 821 (Ibex mine) ; Tucker (4) p. 340 (Kelso), p. 345 (Twenty-Nine 
Palms), p. 359 (Shadow Mountain), (7) p. 95 (Clark Mountain) ; Er- 
win and Gardner (3) p. 245 (Lead Mountain), p. 320 (Calico) ; Hulin 
(1) p. 83 (California Rand mine) ; Tucker and Sampson (17) p. 298 
(Dale), (27) p. 61 (Dale), (32) p. 69 (Mohawk mine); Ord Mts. 
(Martha Prospect), Weber (3) p. 26. 

San Diego County: 1, A small deposit of galena occurs 2| miles north 
of Valley Center (NW^ sec. 1, T. 11 S., R. 2 W., S. B.), Tucker (10) 
p. 350 ; also 2, in the Laguna Mountains, and 3, Deer Park area, ibid. 
4, Galena is found at the Descanso mine (sec. 24, T. 15 S., R. 3 E., 
S.B.), Tucker (8) p. 371. 

San Mateo County: 1, A 30-inch vein of galena is reported half a 
mile south of Searsville Lake, Huguenin and Castello (4) p. 172. 

Santa Clara County: 1, A little galena has been reported in the New 
Almaden ores, E. H. Bailey and Everhart (12) p. 98. 

Shasta County: 1, Galena is abundantly present in the Woodrow 
Wilson mine (sec. 4, T. 33 N., R. 2 W., M. D.), Tucker (9) p. 447. 
Other deposits are listed by Logan (9) pp. 176-193, Averill (4) pp. 7, 
57, Albers and Robertson (3) p. 76. 

Sierra County: 1, Ferguson (2) p. 165, describes an interesting oc- 
currence of galena in the Alleghany district: "... frequently a small 
nucleus of solid cleavable galena, up to 2-3 mm, and radiating from it, 
delicate needles not over 2 mm, similar to rutile, so closely spaced as to 
give the effect of chestnut burrs." 2, Masses of galena occur in a lime- 
stone cave near Downieville, Mining and Scientific Press (20) p. 23. 



192 MINEKALS OF CALIFORNIA | Bull. 189 

Siskiyou Coioity: 1, Galena is found at a number of localities, no- 
where in great amount: Logan (7) p. 181, Averill (3) p. 60, (5) pp. 
280, 298. 

Tehama County: 1, Galena occurs on Cow Creek, Hanks (12) p. 181. 

Trinity County: 1, Galena occurs widespread in the mines in the 
slates of the county, Ferguson (1) p. 44. Other references: W. P. Miller 
(1) p. 713, Logan (9) p. 16, Averill (10) pp. 28, 34. 36, 42, 64. 

Tulare County: 1, Galena occurs in minor amount in the mines of the 
Mineral King Mining District. Goodvear (3) p. 646, Tucker (3) pp. 
947-954, Franke (1) p. 436. 

Tuolumne County: 1, Galena was reported at the ]\Iarble Springs 
mine by W. P. Blake (7) p. 295, and occurs at manv other mines in 
the county, W. P. Blake (9) p. 13, Tucker (1) p. 138. 

Ventvra County: 1, Galena has come from the Piru area, CDMG 

(384). 

GANOPHYLLITE 

Hydrous manganese aluminum silicate, Mn5Al2Si7022-5H20 

Santa Clara County: 1, Ganophyllite was one of the minerals of the 
mangane.se boulder found near Alum Rock Park, 5 miles east of San 
Jose. The mineral occurred in seams with barite, as brownish-yellow 
tabular crystals, A. F. Rogers (21) p. 446. 

GARNET GROUP 

(rroisimlar, Essonite. Hyacinth. Calcium-aliimiiuini garnet, Ca3Al2- 
SisOia. These are oommon as contact minerals in crystalline limestone. 
They are generally a light shade of red or sreen, sometimes almost 
white, and when clear form a valued gem. 

Pi/rope. Magnesium-aluminum garnet, Mg,iAl2Si30ii. It occurs usually 
in serpentine and peridotite. Deep blood-red color. 

Ahuandite. Iron-aluminum garnet. Fe3Al-.'Si30i2. It is a common gar- 
net of gneisses and schists. Color brownish red ; sometimes of gem 
value. 

Atidradite. Calcium-iron garnet. CaaFe-jSiaOia. It is a common garnet 
of gneisses and schists. It is rarely clear enough for gems. Color yellow, 
green, brown, to black. Topazoliie is ti calcium-iron garnet having the 
color and transparency of topaz. Aplonie is a manganiferous variety of 
andracite. Melanite is black. 

Spessnrtine. Manganese-aluminum garnet. MnsAl^SisOia. It occurs 
usually in pegmatite dikes. Dark-red color. 

Uvarovite. Calcium-chromium garnet, CasCrsSiaOi:. It is generally 
found as crystals coating massive chromite. Color emerald green. 

Garnet is one of the common minerals of the State and probably all 
of the known varieties occur here. Garnet is generally a product of 
metamorphism and is common in metamorphic rocks such as gneiss, 
schist, quartzite, and crystalline limestone. As a contact mineral it is 
formed by the intrusion of igneous rock into limestone and other rock. 
Garnet is often found in fine large crystals, ^lany pegmatites carry 
garnet crystals, sometimes of excellent form and quality. It is a com- 
mon constituent of beach sands and of the concentrates from mining 
areas. 

No attempt has been made to report all of the occurrences of garnet 
found in the State that are referenced in the literature. The mineral 
is widespread and is so common that only occurrences of mineralogical 
interest should be included. However, some localities of minor impor- 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 193 

tance and of little minei-alogical interest are noted for the historical 
record because they have been reported in early editions of Minerals 
of California. 

Alpine County: 1, Tlie old Uncle Billy Rogers copper claim in Hope 
Valley was located in garnet rock. W. P. Blake (9) p. 13, reported 
fine green grossular from this valley; see also Hanks (12) pp. 182, 225. 
2, Uvarovite in small crystals has been reported from the Calaveras 
mine, Trainer (p.c. '46). 

Butte County: 1, Red and brown garnets were common in the sands 
of the gold washings at Cherokee, Silliman (13) p. 385. 

Calaveras County: 1, Good crystals of andradite occur in schist at 
the Shenandoah mine, Woodhouse (p.c. '45). 2, Andradite is found 
with idocrase and epidote at Garnet Hill, just above the confluence of 
Moore Creek and the Mokelumne River, H. W. Turner (12) p. 706, 
Melhase (6) p. 7. 3, Uvarovite is reported from an unidentified loca- 
tion in the county, Jarvis (p.c. '46). 4, Numerous seams of uvarovite 
in chromite are reported (SWf sec. 9, T. 1 N., R. 13 E., M.D.), Cater 
(2) p. 50. This may be a confirmation of locality (3) reported by Jar- 
vis. 5, Almandite is found at Bald Point, Mokelumne River, Kunz (24) 
p. 51. 

Del Norte County: 1, Uvarovite occurs with kammererite on chrom- 
ite at the Brown mine (sec. 28, T. 18 N., R. 2 E., H.), Vonsen (p.c. 
'45), and 2, at Camp 8 (sec. 19, T. 16 N., R. 3 E., H.), J. E. Allen (2) 
p. 123. 

El Dorado County: 1, Large crystals of grossular have been found 
at the Old Cosumnes copper mine, Tucker and Waring (2) p. 276. 2, 
Good crystals of garnet occurred 9 miles southeast of Placerville, 
CDMG (13937). 3, At the Lilyama mine, Pilot Hill, crystals of garnet 
occurred with chalcopyrite, galena, calcite, and quartz (N. R.). 4, 
Garnet occurs with quartz and epidote at Grass Lake, near Glen Al- 
pine, S. G. Clark (p.c. '35). 5, Garnet occurred at the Fairmount mine, 
3 miles from Pilot Hill, in large blocks and masses 2 or more feet thick. 
Hanks (12) p. 181, Kunz (24) p. 52. 6, Pure white grossular with 
idocrase has been described by Pabst (2) p. 2, from veins in serpen- 
tine along Traverse Creek about 2^ miles south-southeast of George- 
town. Some clear, perfect crystals were found there. 7, Uvarovite oc- 
curs at the Pilliken mine (sees. 21, 22, T. 11 N., R. 8 E., M.D.), 
Averill (11) p. 90, and 8, at the Placer chrome mine, 6 miles south 
of Newcastle, Shannon (3) p. 376. 

Fresno County: 1, Brown garnet is associated with green tourmaline 
on Spanish Peak in a ledge of white quartz, W. W. Bradley (2) p. 
439; 2, it was found in crystals near Dunlap, Irelan (3) p. 208. 3, 
White opaque garnet occurs in calcite with green californite at San 
Ramon on the south side of Watts Valley, Kunz (24) p. 52, W. W. 
Bradley (2) p. 439. 4, White garnet occurring with californite 35 miles 
east o/Selma has been analyzed by Steiger, F. W. Clarke and Steiger 
(8) p. 72. 5, Large crystals occur "frozen," in matrix on Squaw 
Creek, Melhase (6) p. 22. 

Imperial County: 1, Opaque white grossular is found with wollas- 
tonite near the highway a few miles west of El Centro, Melhase (6) 
p. 23. 



194 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Iwyo County: 1, Large semi-crystalline masses of light-yellow gar- 
net are found in the Coso area, Hanks (12) p. 182, Kunz (24) p. 52. 
2, Fine large crystals of grossular occurred with massive white datolite 
and greenish-brown idocrase at the San Carlos mine, north of Mazourka 
Canyon, on the west slope of the Inyo Range, John L. Smith (1) p. 
435. 3, Garnet is one of the principal gangue minerals at the scheelite 
deposits about 7 miles west of Bishop, A. Knopf (6) p. 233, Lemmon 
(5) p. 504. 4, An outcrop of dark-red rock, mostly garnet, with some 
crystals up to half an inch in size, occurs at New York Butte, near 
its summit, Goodyear (3) p. 256. 5, Light-green grossular-andradite 
occurs in abundant large crystals (one nearly a foot across) in the 
contact zone at Darwin, A. Knopf (4) p. 7, Kelley (4) p. 538. 6, Crys- 
tals of brown grossular showing the unusual form (210) have been 
collected near Bishop, Knowlton in Trainer (4) p. 811. 

Kern County: 1, Large crystals of almandite occur in diorite on a 
branch of Tunis Creek, about half a mile southwest of the Tejon 
Ranch headquarters, Melhase (6) p. 8, Schiirmann (2) p. 225, Murdoch 
(8) p. 189. 2, Fine crystals of green andradite occur in skarn on Ers- 
kine Creek (sec. 9, T." 27 S., R. 33 E., M.D.), Chesterman (p.c. '51). 

Los Angeles County: 1, Almandite in well-formed crystals up to 4 
cm across occurs in a biotite-chlorite schist in a road cut of the An- 
geles Crest Highway near Georges Gap, Murdoch and Webb (6) p. 
351. (This is incorrectly entered under Kern County, as locality (2) 
in both Bulletins 136 and 173 of CDMG.) 

Madera County: 1, Pair crystals of almandite have been found on 
the divide one mile east of Island Pass, Goudey (1) p. 7. 2, Grossu- 
larite is abundant in limestone on Shadow and Johnston Creeks, and 
garnet rock occurs at Garnet Lake, Erwin (1) p. 67, Melhase (6) p. 
8. 3, Spessartite ( ?) has been found in small orange crystals in cavities 
near Shadow Lake, A. M. Short (1) p. 493. 

Mann County: 1, Almandite crystals are common in the schists of 
the Tiburon Peninsula, Kunz (24) p. 52, F. L. Ransome (3) p. 311. 

Mendocino County: 1, Uvarovite occurs coating chromite about 12 
miles north of Willits, Melhase (6) p. 23. 

Mono County: 1, Uvarovite crystals occur locally in marble on the 
western side of Mt. Baldwin, S. J. Rice (p.c. '64). 

Monterey County: Trautwinite, which was described as a new min- 
eral by Goldsmith (1) p. 348, (2) p. 365, (5) p. 152, from this county, 
appears from the analysis to be a mixture of uvarovite and chromite, 
E. S. Dana (5) p. 447. 1, Uvarovite is reported west of King City 
(probably Los Burros Mining District), with chromite and kiimmererite, 
W. W. Bradley (28) p. 497. 2, Garnet is abundant in the beach sand 
at the mouth of the Sur River, P. D. Trask (1) p. 165. 

Nevada County: 1, Fine green crystals of uvarovite occurred coating 
chromite at the Red Ledge mine, 2 miles southwest of Washington 
(sec. 13, T. 17 N., R. 10 E., M.D.), associated with rhodochrome and 
Kanimererite, E. MacBoyle (1) p. 77. 

Orange County: 1, Pale apple-green pebbles of grossular were found 
near El Toro and analyzed by Steiger, F. W. Clarke (5) p. 76. 

Placer County: 1, Essonite is found at Deer Park, Kunz (23) p. 925. 
2, Uvarovite has been found on chromite near Towle, Lindgren (2) p. 5, 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 195 

Melville and Lindgren (1) p. 27. 3, Fine uvarovite crystals have been 
found on chromite, 7 miles southeast of Newcastle at the Farmer Swan- 
ton mine, with rhodochrome and kammererite, Melhase (6) p. 23. 4, 
Uvarovite is found with chromite at the Placer chrome mine, 6 miles 
south of Newcastle, Shannon (3) p. 377. 

Plumas County: 1, Green grossular occurs at Good Hope mine, Kunz 
(24) p. 52. 

Riverside County: 1, Abundant grossular and some andradite garnet 
occurs in the crystalline limestone at Crestmore, associated with ido- 
crase, diopside and wilkeite, Eakle (15) p. 339. Minute grains of 
uvarovite have been found on occasion in the limestones, A. B. Car- 
penter (p.c. '64). 2, Essonite or hyacinth garnet occurs with tourma- 
line in fine crystals at Coahuila, Kunz (24) p. 52. 3, Good crystals of 
garnet have been found in a pegmatite near the Southern Pacific silica 
quarry at Nuevo, J. W. Clark (p.c. '35). 4, Garnet occurs in the old 
Riverside City quarry, Melhase (6) p. 23. 

San Benito County: 1, Fine green crystals of uvarovite were found 
coating chromite and rhodochrome at New Idria, Brush (1) p. 268, 
Hanks (12) p. 183. 2, Topazolite has been reported near New Idria, 
Melhase (6) p. 22. 3, Uvarovite has been found with kammererite on 
chromite near the headwaters of San Benito River ( SW^ sec. 21, T. 18 
S., R. 12 E., M.D.), Murdoch (p.c. '45). 4, Black garnets (melanite), 
in well-formed small crystals, are abundant in chlorite schist, locally 
associated with spinel, 1 mile south and west of the benitoite mine, 
Williams (p.c. '49). 

San Bernardino County: 1, Garnet was found with epidote and cal- 
cite in the iron ores at Dale, Harder and Rich (4) p. 237. 2, Showy 
green patches of uvarovite in rock have been found northeast of Yermo 
on the road to Coyote Lake, T. V. Little (p.c. '47). 

San Diego County: 1, Fine crystals of transparent essonite garnet 
are found in the tourmaline areas: Mesa Grande, Kunz (17) p. 745, 
(24) p. 53; Pala, Kunz (24) p. 128, and Rincon, A. F. Rogers (4)^ 
p. 212. Garnets have been cut into gems under the name "hyacinth." 
2, Essonite occurs about 10 miles east of Jacumba Hot Springs with 
idocrase and quartz, Kunz (24) p. 52. 3, Garnet is found near Julian, 
ibid. p. 26. 4, Fine-granular red garnet Occurs at Rincon, Rogers (4) 
p. 212. 5, Essonite or hyacinth in good crystals has come from Hercules, 
Surprise, Lookout and Prophet mines at Ramona, Kunz (24) p. 52. 
6, Garnet occurs near San Vicente, ibid., p. 52. 7, Massive garnet oc- 
curs at the McFall mine, 7^ miles southeast of Ramona, F. T. H. Mer- 
rill (1) p. 705. 8, Essonite is found near Banner (sec. 25, T. 13 S., R. 
8 E., S.B.), ibid., p 765. 9, Hyacinth garnet has come from Dos Ca- 
bezas, Kunz (24) p. 27, Sterrett (3) p. 810. 10, Spessartine from the 
Katerina mine on Heriart Hill, near Pala, was analyzed by Schaller, 
R. C. Wells (3) p. 101. 11, The first record of garnet in California was 
made at Point Loma in 1792 by Martinez (1) p. 40, 12, Spessartine 
occurs with rhodonite in the Jacumba area (sec. 16, T. 18 S., R. 8 E., 
S.B.), P. D. Trask et al. (4) p. 85. 13, Essonite garnet, sometimes of 
gem quality, is found at the Lulubelle mine, Snyder (1) p. 23. 

Santa Barbara County: 1, Beach sands produced from the Santa 
Barbara formation are locally rich in almandite along the Santa Bar- 
bara coast, Woodhouse (p.c. '63). 



196 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Santa Clara County: 1, Garnet from the omphacite-eclogite of Coyote 
Creek was analyzed by W. 0. Clarke, J. P. Smith (1) p. 203. Some of 
the small red ijarnets at this locality carry free gold, Holway (1) p. 
347. 2, Red garnets up to half an inch in size occur in the eelogites of 
Hilton Gulch, Oak Ridge, Holway (1) p. 353. 

SJiasta County: 1, Uvarovite has been found on chromite on Shotgun 
Creek, Kunz (24) p. 52, Melhase (6) p. 23. 2, Bands of garnet mixed 
with pyroxene occur on the McCloud River on a contact between dia- 
base and carboniferous limestone, Prescott (2) p. 473. 

Siskiyou Courdy: 1, Uvarovite coats chromite at the Martin McKean 
mine, near Callahan, Melhase (6) p. 23. 2, Massive white to pale-green 
garnet occurs with californite on Indian Creek, ibid. 3, Uvarovite oc- 
curs with chromite in Seiad Valley (T. 46, 47 N., R. 11, 12 W., M.D.), 
Rynearson and Smith (1) pp. 304, 306. 4, Uvarovite with kammererite 
is found in the Youngs Valley group (T. 17 N., R. 5 E., H.), J. E. 
Allen (2) p. 123. 5, Uvarovite with kammererite has been found 14 
miles southeast of Yreka, Symons (4) p. 101. 

Sonoma County: 1, Large masses of garnet occur near Petaluma, 
W. P. Blake (9) p. 13, W. AV. Bradley (1) p. 321. 2, Almandite gar- 
nets occur abundantly with glaucophane and actinolite in schists at 
Camp Meeker and near Healdsburg, W. W. Bradley (1) p. 321. 

Stanislaus County: 1, Minute crystals of uvarovite, coating fractures 
and shear planes, are found in the Del Puerto area (T. 6 S., R. 5 E., 
M.D.), Hawkes et al. (2) p. 91. 

Tehama County: 1, Uvarovite is found with chromite and kammer- 
erite on North Elder Creek (T. 25 N., R. 7 W., M.D.), Rvnearson (3) 
p. 200. 

Trinity County: 1, Emerald-green crystals of uvarovite occur on 
chromite near Carrville, Kunz (24) p. 53. 

Tulare County: 1, Topazolite was found at the Old Soldier mine, 
Drum Valley, 12 miles northeast of Visalia, Kunz (24) p. 53, Melhase 
(6) p. 22. 3, Aplome was found near Visalia (sec. 25, T. 17 S., R. 28 E., 
M.D.), Durrell (p.c. '35). 4, Garnet occurs with tremolite on the 
North Fork of Tule River, Kunz (24) p. 53; 5, it was found in good 
crystals with quartz and epidote on the Kaweah River, 25 miles north- 
east of Exeter, Goodyear (3) p. 644. 6, Large crystals of grossular 
occur with diopside, quartz and epidote in metamorphic rock on a hill 
between Drum Valley and Slickrock Canyon, Durrell (p.c. '35). 7, 
Essonite is abundant in the metamorphic rocks near Three Rivers, 
Kunz (12) p. 1204. 8, Massive white grossular is found near the Fresno 
County line, 1^ miles from Hawkins schoolhouse, Kunz (24) p. 52. 

Tuolumne County: 1, A lens of spessartine occurs in a pegmatite one 
mile north of the town of Tuolumne. Some of the crystals are over 2 
inches in diameter, Goudey (2) p. 10. 

Ventura County: 1, Garnet crystals occur in the Piru Mountains, 
Kunz (24) p. 54. 

Yuba County: 1, Uvarovite is found at the Red Lodge mine, Melhase 
(6) p. 23. 

References to a number of other occurrences, not of special impor- 
tance or interest, listed by counties, are: Fresno, Kunz (24) p. 52, 
Tucker and Sampson (30) pp. 565, 566; Inyo, A. Knopf, (5) p. 120; 



1966J DESCRIPTIONS 197 

Kern, CDMG (11388), Kunz (24) p. 52; Lassen, CDMG (2328) ; Los 
Angeles, Hanks (12) p. 182; Mariposa, Kunz (24) p. 52, Laizure (6) 
p. 146; Monterey, Kunz (24) p. 52; Nevada, Lindgren (20) p. 75, Lo- 
gan (20) p. 380; Plumas, Hanks (12) p. 182; San Bernardino, Tucker 
and Sampson (16) p. 307, Murdoch and Webb (11) p. 553, Tucker and 
Sampson (27) p. 78; San Diego, Kunz (24) pp. 52, 53, (26) p. 1342, 
Hanks (12) p. 182; Santa Clara, Kunz (24) p. 53, Hanks (12) p. 182; 
Sonoma, Hanks (12) p. 182; Tulare, Kunz (24) p. 53, Melhase (6) 
p. 22; Tuolumne, Little (1) p. 286; Ventura, Hanks (14) p. 68, Kunz 
(11) p. 911. 

GARNIERITE 
Basic magnesium nickel silicate, (Ni,Mg)3Si205(OH)^ 

Del Norte County: 1, Garnierite occurs as veins in serpentine associ- 
ated with laterite at Pine Flat Mountain, Elk Camp Ridge and Red 
Mountain, Rice (p.c. '55), CDMG (21675). 

El Dorado County: 1, Garnierite has been reported near Lotus, W. 
W. Bradley (29) p. 222. 2, Garnierite in laterite soils is found in the 
Pilliken Chrome mine, W. B. Clark and Carlson (3) p. 438. 

Humboldt County: 1, Lateritic ores from this county have been found 
by Montoya and Baur (1) p. 1228 to carry lizardite (nickel-bearing), 
garnierite, clinochrysotile, antigorite and nepouite. 

Imperial County: 1, Garnierite was found on the south slope of 
Coyote Mountain, F. J. H. Merrill (1) p. 732. 

Mariposa County: 1, Garnierite was reported with gerdsdorffite from 
the Pine Tree mine (sec. 9, T. 4 S., R. 17 E., M.D.), W. W. Bradley 
(30) p. 491. 

San Benito County: 1, Garnierite has come from the Aurora mine, 
near New Idria, W. W. Bradley (26) p. 608. 2, The mineral has been 
tentatively reported from Clear Creek (sec. 15, T. 18 S., R. 11 E., 
M.D.), in a serpentine mass, K. G. Hines (p.c. '45). 

Tulare County: 1, A specimen from veins represented as crystalline 
garnierite associated with chrysoprase in altered serpentine, CDMG 
(21575), is in the collections of the CDMG. 2, Garnierite occurs as 
irregular veins in silicified serpentine at Venice Hill and near Porter- 
ville, Rice (p.c. '55). 

GAY-LUSSITE 
Hydrous sodium calcium carbonate, Na2Ca(C03)2'5H20 

Inyo County: 1, Gay-lussite is reported by B. F. Jones (1) p. B200 
from muds of Deep Spring Lake. 2, Gay-lussite appears in the lake bed 
deposits of Owens Lake, G. I. Smith and Pratt (2) p. 5. 

Kern County: 1, Gay-lussite has been found in the China Lake de- 
posits, along with analcime, various zeolites, and other minerals, Hay 
and Moiola (2) p. 76A, G. I. Smith and Pratt (2) p 16, Moiola and 
Hay (1) p. 215. 

Lake County: 1, Gay-lussite was found with northupite and glau- 
berite in the muds of Borax Lake, Vonsen (3) p. 22, Vonsen and Hanna 
(4) p. 103. 

Mono County: 1, The mineral was reported as present at Mono Lake, 
L C. Russell (1) p. 297. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Gay-lussite was reported from Searles 
Lake by Hanks (18) p. 222, H. S. Gale (13) p. 306. Crystal forms were 



198 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

described by J. H. Pratt (1) p. 130, Murdoch (26) p. 360. A much 
more detailed description of the occurrence and relationships is re- 
ported in G. I. Smith and Haines (3) p. 27. Galeite is associated with 
gay-lussite in the Searles Lake occurrence, Pabst et al. (2) p. 489 and 
G. I. Smith and Pratt (2) p. 30. 2, Gay-lussite was reported from the 
Owl Springs niter beds. G. E. Bailey (2) p. 102. 

GEIKIELITE 
Magnesium titanate, MgTi03 

Monterey County: 1, The second occurrence of geikielite in the State 
is reported from highly metamorphosed magnesian marbles in the 
Santa Lucia Mts., in place, as grains associated with spinel, clinohumite 
and other minerals, Wise (1). 

Riverside County: 1, Geikielite occurs in microscopic red grains and 
crystals disseminated in brucite limestone, at the Jensen quarry, Mur- 
doch and Fahey (20) p. 1341, (23) p. 835. This was the second re- 
corded locality in the world for this exceedingly rare mineral. It has 
previously been found only in Ceylon. 

GEOCRONITE 
Lead arsenic antimony sulphide, Pb27(As,Sb),2S44 

Inyo County: 1, Geocronite was reported by Hanks (12) p. 182, (15) 
p. 110, with anglesite and argentiferous galena, from the Santa Maria 
and Eclipse mines, in the Inyo Mountains. 

Mono County: 1, Geocronite was reported from the Garibaldi mine, 
Prescott area, CDMG (4279), with argentiferous galena and sphalerite. 

GERSDORFFITE 

Sulpharsenide of nickel, NiAsS 

Mariposa County: 1, Gersdorffite is found with garnierite at the Pine 
Tree mine (sec. 9,'T. 4 S., R 17 E., M.D.), W. W. Bradley (30) p. 491. 

*GERSTLEYITE, 1956 
Hydrous sodium lithium antimony arsenic sulphide, (Na,Li)4As2SbgS,7-6H20 

Kern County: 1, This new mineral is described by Frondel and Mor- 
gan (7) p. 839, from the Kramer borate region. It occurs in the work- 
ings of the Baker mine as cinnabar-red to blackish-red spherules, up 
to an inch in diameter, with a crudely radial fibrous structure. It also 
occurs as granular aggregates and groups of small thick plates. 

GIBBSITE — Hydrargillite — Bauxite 
Aluminum hydroxide, Ai(0H)3 

The name "bauxite" was originally applied to a supposed species 
with the composition A1203-2H20 found at Les Baux, France. The 
original analysis was made on a mixture of minerals in a rock mass, 
and approached only by chance the ratio cited. Actually, Al203*2H20 
has not been found either as a natural or as an artificial product, 
Palacheet al. (10) p. 667. 

Bauxite closely resembles clay and is distinguished at sight from 
clay only by its characteristic pea-shaped or pisolitic structure. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 199 

Clay and clay-like minerals such as bauxite, gibbsite, halloysite, 
inontmorillonite, and others are widespread in many localities. Often, 
identification has been by field examination. This is especially true in 
early reported occurrences. Accordingly, few occurrences are included 
in the listings, some chosen for historic reasons, and some for min- 
eralogic reasons. It is impractical to include all localities, especially 
since many important areas produce mineral commodities, and are not 
strictly mineral occurrences. Many reports may also in fact be in error 
as far as specific mineral identification is concerned. X-ray and optical 
examination is required for certain identification of most clay minerals. 

Kern County: 1, Pale to deep pink gibbsite was found in boulders 
of brecciated gray chert on the alluvial fans at the southern tip of the 
San Joaquin Valley, on the Tejon Ranch, Murdoch and Webb (6) 
p. 352. 

Nevada County: 1, Gibbsite has been doubtfully reported from the 
Brunswick mine at Grass Vallev. Mining and Scientific Press (33) 
p. 271. 

Riverside County: 1, Pisolitic bauxite has been reported from the 
clay pits at Alberhill (sec. 26, T. 4 S.. R. 6 W., S. B.), Richard (1) 
p. 13, but according to Bramlette (p.c. '45), this is a high-alumina clay. 

GILLESPITE 
Iron barium silicate, BaFe,Si40,o 

Fresno County: 1, Gillespite is found sparingly in the Rush Creek 
sanbornite deposit (sees. 22, 27, T. 11 S., R. 25 E., M. D.), associated 
with witherite and taramellite, Matthews and Alfors (1) p. 2. 2, Gil- 
lespite, sanbornite, and taramellite are found in sulphide-bearing quartz 
rock at Big Creek (sec. 16, T. 11 S., R. 25 E., M. D.), with a number 
of unidentified minerals, CDMG (21880) ; CDMG confirmed identifica- 
tion, 1964, Stinson and Alfors (3) p. 10. 

Mariposa County : 1, Gillespite was found with sanbornite and celsian 
in a vein in quartzite one mile north of Trumbull Peak, near Incline, 
A. F. Rogers (39) p. 161, Melhase (5) no. 9, p. 4. Its atomic structure 
was studied by Pabst (7) p. 372, ibid. (16). 

GILSONITE 
A variety of asphalt, a hydrocarbon 

Santa Barbara County: 1, Gilsonite was reported on the Goldtree 
Ranch, Sisquoc, Irelan (4) p. 47. 

GINORITE 
Hydrous calcium borate, Ca2B,4023-8H20 

Inyo County: 1, Ginorite is first reported from California from the 
head of Twenty Mule Team Canyon, Death Valley (SW^ sec. 9, T. 26 
N., R. 2 E., S. B.), from the Mott open-cut colemanite prospect. The 
ginorite occurs in white pellets embedded in a pale yellow-brown matrix 
of sassolite and clay, "R. D. Allen and Kramer (6) p. 56. 

GLAUBERITE 
Sodium calcium sulphate, Na2Ca(S04)2 

Imperial County: 1, Good crystals of glauberite have been found in 
the mud of the dry lake half a mile east of Bertram siding on the 



200 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Southern Pacific Railroad, near the east shore of the Salton Sea, Mur- 
doch (p.c. '45), confirmed by M. F. Berkholz (18), p. 17. 

Inyo County: 1, Glauberite is found with halite in the salt pools at 
Pluto Sprinprs in the bottom of Death Valley, H. S. Gale (13) p. 303. 
It also appears here in drill cores down to a depth of 100 feet, ibid. 
2, Specimens have been collected from the playa in Saline Valley, ibid, 
p. 303. 3, Glauberite is reported from saline crusts and efflorescences 
from Deep Spring Lake, B. F. Jones (1) p. B200. 

Lake County: 1, Thin, flattened crystals of glauberite have been 
found in blue clav 40 feet below the surface at Borax Lake, Silliman 
(10) p. 399, Hanks (12) p. 182, Vonsen (3) p. 22. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Glauberite is common at Searles Lake, in 
platy crystals. Rath (5) p. 233, De Groot (3) p. 535, H. S. Gale (13) 
p. 303. 

GLAUCONITE 

Essentially a hydrous iron aluminum and potassium silicate, 

K2(IVIg,Fe)2AI,(Si,0,o)2(OH),2(?) 

Glauconite is found abundantly in ocean sediments near the con- 
tinental shores. For central and southern California, see report in 
W. L. Pratt (1) p. 58. 

Butte County: 1, A 2-foot layer of glauconite-anauxite sandstone 
occurs in Chambers Ravine, 4 miles north of Oroville, V. T. Allen 
(3) p. 369. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Glauconite is found with glaucophane and 
crossite in siliceous shale at Malaga Cove, near Redondo, R. D. Reed 

(5) p. 347. 

Merced County: 1, Glauconite occurs with jarosite in sandstone (sec. 
35, T. 11 S., R.'lO E., M. D.), 10 miles south of Los Banos, Briggs 
(1) p. 902. 

Monterey County: 1, Glauconite has been found in dredgings from 
Monterey Bay, Galliher (2) p. 1359, (3) p. 1580. 

San Diego County: 1, The mineral occurs extensively with collophane 
on submarine banks off the coast, R. S. Dietz et al. (2) p. 819. 

GOETHITE 
Basic iron oxide (alpha-iron monohydrate), FeO(OH) 

Goethite is usually found as slender prismatic crystals in masses of 
hematite, and resembles limonite so closely that it is often classed as 
such. 

Inyo County: 1, Goethite has been found with chrysocolla and lim- 
onite at the St. Ignacio mine (N. R.). 

Lake County: 1, Goethite pseudomorphs after pyrrhotite crystals 
have been found at Sulphur Bank, D. E. White and Roberson (2) 
p. 409. 

Mariposa County: 1, Goethite is found in (juartz on Burns Creek, 
Kunz (24) p. 105. 

Riverside County: 1, A very small amount of goethite has been found 
in the Iron Age ore deposit near Dale, in the Eagle Mountains, Harder 

(6) p. 63. 



1966J DESCRIPTIONS 201 

GOLD 

Native gold, Au 

Native gold has a very wide distribution in California. It has been 
found in every county, and has been produced from two-thirds of them. 
It occurs either as free flakes or nuggets in sands and gravels, or in 
quartz veins, either alone, or more commonly with small amounts of 
pyrite, arsenopyrite and other sulphides. It is sometimes in such tine 
particles in quartz as to be invisible to the naked eye, or it may occur 
in minute grains in massive sulphides, or in the "limonite" gossans 
derived from their weathering. Less commonly it is finely disseminated 
in slates or greenstones. It has been found associated with any one of 
a long list of minerals, but is most common in quartz. A somewhat un- 
usual association is with cinnabar, and occurrences of this type are 
listed below. Calcite, barite. arsenopyrite and pyrite are common gangue 
minerals, and gold and silver tellurides are occasionally found with the 
native metal. 

Gold occurs in nuggets, flakes and stringers of a great variety of 
shapes: arborescent, spongiform, wires, plates and less commonly as 
well-formed crvstals. Small octahedral crvstals were described and 
figured by Alger (1) p. 102. C. U. Shepard (1) p. 231, has described 
some gold crystals two-fifths of an inch in diameter. W. P. Blake (11) 
p. 120, noted one cavernous crystal nearly 2 inches on its longest side 
(probably from Forest Hill, Placer County, ibid. (7) p. 299). Blake's 
report in November 1861 on the Mariposa Estate, quoted in J. R. 
Browne (4) p. 25, describes specimen gold "... crystals are bunches 
of tetrahedrons with perfectly flat and polished faces from i to 3^ 
inches across, and are attached to masses of white quartz." 

Numerous large nuggets and masses of gold and quartz have been 
found in the stream gravels and in the "pockets" of quartz veins. The 
first large nugget, weighing between 20 and 25 pounds, was found in 
1848 on the Mokelumne River, by a soldier in Stevenson's regiment, 
Hanks (8) p. 148. A great number have been discovered since that 
time. A complete list would be too long to insert here, but probably 
well over 60 big finds, and hundreds of smaller ones, have been re- 
corded, with the large ones ranging from 50 to 2300 ounces Troy 
weight. More detailed records of nuggets may be found by consulting 
the following references: Hittel (2) p. 492; Mining and Scientific 
Press (12) p. 178; ibid. (23) p. 162, Hanks (8) pp. 147-150; W. W. 
Allen and Avery The California Gold Booh (]) p. 91; Hurley (1) ; 
Del Mar (1) p. 629. 

The largest nugget on record, found at Carson Hill in 1854, weighed 
2340 ounces. Several others nearly as large have been found at various 
times: Holden's Garden. El Dorado County, 1500 ounces (1850) ; Mon- 
umental mine. Sierra Buttes, 1596 ounces (1860), and 1893 ounces 
(1869). More large nuggets have come from Sierra County than from 
any other, with El Dorado County next. In Tuolumne County a great 
many nuggets weighing from 2 to 70 pounds were found between 1850 
and 1858, in a 5-mile radius including Sonora, Columbia, and Spring- 
field. A list of 25 or more of these is given by Hittel (2) p. 492. Coming 
down to more recent times, a $3,000 nugget was found in Siskiyou 
County in 1903, Engineering and Mining Journal (8) p. 49. Several 



202 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

large masses of practically pure crystallized gold have been found at 
various places within 3 years of 1935, LaizAire (8) p. 29. 

Primary deposits occur along the Mother Lode belt, at various points 
in the Sierra Nevada, east and north of the Lode, and in isolated 
ranges in the northwestern and southeastern parts of the state. The 
western slopes of the Sierra Nevada where the main streams leave their 
deep canyons to enter the valley, the large river courses in the north- 
Avest, and parts of the desert regions in the southeastern part of the 
state were important placer mining areas. 

Some gold is found in the Coast Range and some has been mined 
in the southern counties, but the great bulk came from the northern 
half of the state and from counties along the Sierra Nevada. 

Gold occurs in so many localities that it would be impossible to cite 
all of them. The literature on the gold deposits is also extensive. The 
gold placers of California have been described in Bulletin 92 of the 
CDMG, and the Mother Lode gold belt has been described in Bulletin 
108. Professional Papers 73 and 157 of the United States Geological 
Survey are the best authorities on the Tertiary gravels of the Sierra 
Nevada and the Mother Lode gold belt, respectively. 

The leading lode-gold producing counties of the state were : Amador. 
Calaveras, El Dorado, Kern, Mariposa, Nevada, Shasta, Siskiyou, 
Sierra, Trinity and Tuolumne. 

The leading placer-gold producing counties of the state were : Butte, 
Merced, Placer, Sacramento, Stanislaus and Yuba. 

Gold production has been curtailed significantly since about 1945. 

For contemporary pictures and information concerning the early 
days of gold in California, see Egenhoff (1). See also Anon. (33) and 
Eric et al. (1). 

Alameda County: 1, Stringers of quartz with visible free gold were 
found on the west and north slopes of the Berkelev Hills, Lawson 
(7) p. 23. 

Amador County: 1, Talc filled with gold particles came from the 
Soapstone lode, Engineering and Mining Journal (2) p. 195. 2, A rib- 
bon of solid gold, three-eighths of an inch or more in thickness, was 
found in the old Eureka mine (sec. 8, T. 6 N., R. 11 E., M.D.), Logan 
(16) p. 101 (quotation from a report by John B. Trask, 1855). 

Butte County: 1, A nugget weighing 832 ounces came from the Wil- 
lard claim near Magalia, J. D. Hubbard (1) p. 353. 2, Gold in barite 
gangue came from Pinkstown Ledge, half a mile south of Big Bend 
Mountain, H. W. Turner (12) p. 588. 

Calaveras County: 1, The largest mass of gold-quartz ever reported 
in California came from the Morgan mine and was valued at $43,534, 
Logan (16) p. 129; see also Tuolumne County, (3). 2, F. L. Ransome 
(9) p. 8, records the presence of beautiful arborescent masses of crystal- 
lized gold associated with large arsenopyrite crystals in the Mother 
Lode belt. 

Colusa County: 1, Gold deposited on quartz crystals occurred in the 
Manzanita cinnabar mine on Sulphur Creek. This mine was worked 
for gold from 1865-92, Anbury (2) p. 44. 

Contra Costa County: 1, Gold is reported with sulphide minerals 
from Mitchell Canyon, Mt. Diablo, H. W. Turner (1) p. 391. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 



203 



El Dorado County: 1, Near Coloma, 3 miles from Sutter's Mill, a 
specimen was found weijihin^ 31 ounces, a beautiful mass with a deli- 
cately marked surface consisting' of a network of fibers, W. P. Blake 
(3) p. 79. 2, A mass of gold in imperfect crystals was found 7 miles 
from Georjjetown, in 1866, W. P. Blake (11) p. 120. 3, A beautiful 
specimen of large crystalline plates studded with trianp:ular markings 
was found at Spanish Dry Diggings, E. S. Dana (3) p. 138. 4, Gold 
occurred in albite at the Shaw mine. Storms (6) p. 173. 

Humboldt County: 1, Gold washed out of the black sands of the sea 
cliffs at Upper Gold Bluffs was observed to form a nearly complete 
coating of the beach sands. This coating was temporary, and was dissi- 
pated with the next tide, S. Johnson (1) p. 536. R. W. Raymond (7) 
p. 145, described the bluff and presents a structure section. 

Inyo County: 1, Gold occurs in purple fluorite, producing an unusual 
ore, at the Waterfall prospect, 3 miles north of Antelope Springs, A. 
Knopf (5) p. 113. 2, Microscopic octahedral crystals were found at the 
Ida mine, Hanks (12) p. 184. 3, A nugget weighing 39^ ounces was 
reported from the Halleluja claim, at the north end of Death Valley, 
Los Angeles Times, July 30, 1945. 

Kern County: 1, Occurrences of gold, as shown by mines and pros- 
pects throughout the county, are listed by Troxel and Morton (2) 
pp. 92-196. 

Lake County: 1, Gold nuggets with attached cinnabar were found 
near Sulphur Springs, Bear Valley, 10 miles northeast of Borax Lake, 
J. A. Phillips (1) p. 326. 

Los Angeles County: 1, One of the early discoveries of gold was made 
on the San Francisquito Ranch in June 1841, J. J. Warner (1) p. 170. 

Mariposa County: 1, "Crystals [of gold] are bunches of octahedrons 
with perfectly flat and highly polished faces from I" to -fV" across," at 
the Princeton mine, Mariposa Estate, J. R. Browne (4) p. 25 quoting 
W. P. Blake's report of November 1861. 

Nevada County: 1, Gold associated with altaite occurred at the Provi- 
dence mine, Lindgren (12) p. 116. 2, Beautiful leaf gold occurred in 
cavities lined with quartz crystals, at the Granite Hill and North Gold 
Hill veins, ibid., p. 115. 3, Wires of gold were found on large crystals 
of pyrite at the Pennsylvania mine, Nevada City,' MacBoyle (1) p. 43. 
4, Beautiful plates and angular masses of gold in snow-white quartz, 
often associated with brilliant crystals of arsenopyrite, were found at 
the Lafayette and Helvetia mines, W. P. Blake (3) p. 76. 5, A superb 
specimen of crystallized gold is reported to have been collected from 
a pocket in the Red Ledge mine, near Washington. The specimen was 
1| X li inches, and is presumed to have been collected in September 
1956, Anon. (32) p. 12. 

Placer County: 1, Several octahedral crystals three-eighths of an inch 
across, and a large ' ' skeleton ' ' crystal 1 by | inches, came from Forest 
Hill, W. P. Blake (3) p. 78, (7) p. 299. One of these crystals of gold 
was used as the model for the drawing of the gold crystal in E. S. 
Dana (4), System of Mineralogy, and the specimen is in the collection 
of Dr. George Bain, of Amherst College, Amherst, Mass. The crystal 
was, in 1964, on display in the Amherst College Museum. 2, Several 
beautiful arborescent specimens of gold were found on Irish Creek, 



204 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

One (12 by 4 inches in dimensions) was in the form of a leaf, with one 
side arborescent and the other studded with 25 perfect octahedrons, W. 
P. Blake (3) p. 78. 3, A mass, nearly all gold, weighing 187 ounces was 
found 2 miles above Michigan Bluff on American River, W. P. Blake 
(16) p. 166. 4, The Golden Bear nugget, official insignia of the Cali- 
fornia Federation of Mineralogical Societies, was purchased by the 
Federation, and deposited for perpetuity in the CDMG Exhibit. The 
nugget was found in 1857. 

San Bernardino Coiintif: 1, Gold, in tremolite, is reported from the 
Wild Rose group of claims, 30 miles southeast of Victorville, H. W. 
Turner (31) p. 835. 

San Joaquin County: 1, Gold was discovered in specks from gravels 
of the San Joaquin River near Stockton in 1846, G. M. Evans (1) p. 
385. The discovery went unnoticed by the general public. 

Santa Clara County: 1, Gold has been found in red garnets of the 
eclogite at Coyote Creek, 6 miles north of San Martin, Holway (1) 
p. 347. 

Shasta County: 1, A slab of gold nearly a quarter of an inch thick, 
weighing 100 ounces, came from the Mad Mule mine in Grizzly Gulch, 
northeast of Tower House, Ferguson (3) p. 251. Normally the gold 
here occurs as thin films or as dendritic forms in calcite. 

Sierra County: 1, A large nugget or mass from the vein, weighing 
about 95 pounds, came from the Monumental mine, near Sierra Buttes, 
Newberry (2) p. 10. The original mass was probably as much as 140 
pounds. 2, The Alleghany-Downieville region in 1956 was the only 
producing lode area in the state. A good discussion of this activity is 
found in Carlson and Clark (3). 

Siskiyou County: 1, Thin triangular plates of gold with a hexagonal 
pattern came from Yreka, E. S. Dana (3) p. 138. 2, A mass of leaf 
gold from Quartz Valley, 25 miles from Yreka, was valued at $6,000, 
Engineering and Mining Journal (11) p. 828. 3, Gold occurring in 
conglomerate was reported from the Cottonwood area, H. W. Turner 
(25) p. 653. 4, Gold flakes in nephrite jade were found at Chan jade 
mine, Indian Creek, near Happy Camp, Kraft (1) p. 34. 

Tuolumne County: 1, A large nugget weighing 209^ ounces was 
foand at Sonora, Du Bois (1) p. 177, (2) p. 175. 2, Numerous large 
nuggets have come from a small area including Sonora, Columbia, 
Springfield, and Shaws Flat, Hittel (2) p. 300. 3, Small brilliant 
prisms of gold (distorted crystals) have come from Sonora and Angels 
Camp in Calaveras County. W. P. Blake (11) p. 57. 4, Wire gold 
resembling a braided cord was found at the Golden Rule mine, CDMG 
(15176). 5, Placer gold was reported as commonly coated with quick- 
silver, at Curtis Creek, J. S. Wilson (1) p. 315. 6, A beautiful specimen 
of gold found in loose quartz crystals and talc measured 6 x 13 inches 
and weis'hed 67 ounces. It was found in 1946 on the Eureka and 
Grizzlv claim (E^ Ei sec. 26, T. 1 S., R. 15 E., M.D.), Logan (23) 
p. 65. 

GOLD, var. ARGENTIAN (ELECTRUM) 
Alloy of gold and silver 

Colusa County: 1, Argentian gold was mined with cinnabar and 
sulphur from Sulphur Creek, E. S. Dana (5) p. 1096. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 205 

Fresno County: 1, Electrum is reported from the Jeff Davis mine 
near Millerton, Hanks (3) p. 25. 

Inyo County: 1, Hanks (15) p. 135, reported electrum from the 
Kearsarge Mining District. 

Kern County: 1, Electrum has been found in the gold ores of the 
Cactus Queen mine, Mojave Mining District, Troxel and Morton (2) 
p. 44. 

Lassen County: 1, Electrum occurred with free gold from the Hay- 
den Hill Mining District, Preston (1) p. 212. 

Madera County: 1, Wire argentian gold was found at the Hanover 
mine, Fine Gold Gulch, CDMG (1598), Hanks (14) p. 89. 

Mono County: 1, Electrum is reported from Bodie, Hanks (3) p. 25, 
(12) p. 190. 

Placer County: 1, Electrum occurred in the Moore and other mines 
of the Ophir Mining District, Lindgren (7) p. 271. 

Tulare County: 1, Angel (2) p. 732, reported electrum from the 
White River. 

GOLD AMALGAM 
A native alloy of gold and mercury very rarely found 

Mariposa County: 1, Gold amalgam was found in the region around 
Mariposa, noted first by Sehmitz (1) p. 713, and analyzed by Sonnen- 
schein (1) p. 244. 

Nevada County: 1, Gold amalgam was reported from the Odin drift 
mine near Nevada City Lindgren (12) p. 116. 

GONNARDITE 
Hydrous calcium sodium aluminum silicate, Na2Ca[(AI,Si)50i()]26H20 

Riverside County: 1, Gonnardite was found in white, silky, radiated 
fibers with wollastonite and pyrite in the Commercial quarry at Crest- 
more, Foshag (p.c. '36). 

GOSLARITE 
Hydrous zinc sulphate, ZnSO^-ZHjO 

Goslarite is formed through the decomposition of sphalerite and is 
sometimes found on mine walls. 

Inyo County: 1, Goslarite is mentioned as a component of silver-lead 
ores in the oxidized zone from the mines of the Darwin region. Hall 
and MacKevett (1) p. 18, ibid. (4) p. 64. 

Ker7i County: 1, Goslarite has been found in the Blackhawk mine, 
near Loraine, Troxel and Morton (2) p. 41. 

Shasta County: 1, Goslarite is reported from some of the copper 
deposits in the county, Graton (3) p. 100. 

Trinity County: 1, Goslarite occurs with other sulphate minerals in 
the alteration products at Island Mountain, Langdon (1) p. 279. 

*G0WER1TE, 1959 
Hydrous calcium borate, CaB40,o-5H20 

Inyo County: Gowerite, a new borate mineral, was described in 1959 
by Erd et al. (1), from Death Valley. Several occurrences of gowerite 
have been noted : 1, Mott open-cut eolemanite prospect. Furnace Creek 
deposits, Erd et al. (1) p. 912; 2, Hard Scramble claim on the west 



206 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

slope of the foothills of Black Mts., west of Ryan, Erd et al. (1) p. 912; 
3, 1.4 miles S. 43° E. of the Mott open-cut prospect, Erd et al. (1) p. 
912, and 4, 3000 ft. N. 72° W. of Ryan, Erd et al. (1) p. 912; see also 
Christ and Clark (6). 

GRAPHITE— Plumbago— Black Lead 
Native carbon, C 

Graphite is prominent in some schists and gneisses and when present 
in considerable amount the graphitic gneiss or schist is sometimes mined 
for the graphite. In mining regions it is often seen coating the walls 
of veins and mixed with talcose gouge. 

Graphite is a common constituent of crystalline limestones and is 
often disseminated through the limestone in minute flakes and in larger 
foliated masses. 

No extensive deposits of high quality graphite are known to occur 
in the State, but a few small deposits have been worked for the manu- 
facture of paints and lubricants. Much of the graphite of California 
is so intimately mixed with silica that its separation as pure material 
is an expensive operation. It is typically a constituent of metamorphic 
rocks. 

Amador County: 1, Graphite is rather abundant at the Argonaut 
mine, Josephson (1) p. 475. 

Calaveras County: 1, Graphite has been mined at Campo Seco, Bastin 
(Dp. 197. 

Del Norte County: 1, Foliated plates of graphite in limestone are 
found 18 miles northea.st of Crescent City, Irelan (3) p. 164. 

Fresno County: 1, Graphite is prominent in the rocks on the Reeves 
Ranch, 3| miles west of Dunlap, Crawford (2) p. 642, 2, at Borer Hill, 
Hanks (12) p. 224, and 3, at Sycamore Creek near Trimmer, W. W. 
Bradley (2) p. 451. 

Imperial County: 1, A large deposit of good graphite occurs on the 
southeast slope of Coyote Mountains 7 miles north of Coyote Wells, 
Tucker (4) p. 267. 

Kern County: 1, Graphite was noted near Fort Tejon, J. R. Browne 
(4) p. 254. 

Los Angeles County: 1, A large deposit of graphite occurs in the 
Verdugo Hills (sec. 4, T. 1 N., R. 13 W., S. B.), Anbury (3) p. 280. 
2, Graphite schist occurs in Kagel Canyon, 8 miles east of San Fer- 
nando, Beverly (1) p. 349. 3, Two deposits of graphite are in Pacoima 
Canyon (sec. 17, T. 3 N., R. 15 W., S. B.), ibid., p. 351. 4, Several de- 
posits (graphitic schist) have been found near the head of San Fran- 
cisquito Canyon (T. 6, 7 N., R. 15, 16 W., S. B.), ibid., p. 349. 5, Crys- 
talline graphite in a biotite-sillimanite schist occurs near Elizabeth 
Lake Canyon (T. 7 N., R. 15 W., S. B.), ibid., p. 351. 6, A deposit of 
graphite in Bouquet Canyon (sees. 11, 12, T. 6 N., R. 15 W., S. B.), 
has been worked occasionally for a considerable period, E. C. Simpson 
(1) p. 410. 

Marin County: 1, A deposit of graphite has been reported from the 
border of Tomales Bay, J. A. Walker (1) p. 915. 

Mendocino County: 1, Graphite has been mined east of Point Arena 
(sec. 8, T. 12 N., R. 15 W., M. D.), Anbury (3) p. 280. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 207 

Monterey County: 1, Graphite occurs in lustrous flakes in most of the 
limestones of the Sur series, P. D. Trask (2) p. 131. 

Nevada County: 1, A deposit of orraphite carrying 26 percent carbon 
Avas reported at the Black- Quartz mine, near Washington, Mining and 
Scientific Press (42) p. 840. 

Riverside County: 1, Graphite flakes are abundant in the brucite 
limestone at Crestmore, Woodford et al. (10) p. 354. 2, Crystals as 
much as 2-3 mm in size occur associated with wollastonite in the crys- 
talline limestone at the Jensen quarry, Peebles (p.c. '44). 

San Bernardino County: 1, Large deposits of graphite are reported 
near the head of the Santa Ana River, 15 miles from East Highlands, 
Anbury (3) p. 280. 2, Fine-grained graphite schist comes from Eva 
Canyon half a mile to one mile from its mouth, Bastin (2) p. 164. 
3, Graphitic schist occurs in Green Canyon, in the Big Bear Lake area 
(sees. 28, 29, 32, 33, T. 2 N., R. 2 E., S. B.), L. A. Wright et al. (5) 
p. 166. 

San Diego County: 1, Graphite in mica schist is reported near Mason 
(sec. 34, T. 13 S., R. 5 E., S. B.), Tucker (4) p. 378. 2, "Black mica," 
presumably graphite, was reported in 1792 by Martinez (1) p. 40, as 
occurring "near San Diego." 

Sonoma County: 1, Small deposits of graphite and graphitic schists 
occur southwest of Healdsburg, Anbury (3) p. 281; 2, near Petaluma, 
ibid., p. 281, and 3, in Knights Valley, "Hanks (12) p. 225. 

Ttdare County: 1, A large low-grade deposit (Camp Nelson graphite) 
is described by (sec. 34, T. 20 S., R. 31 E., M. D.), Franke (1) p. 444. 
2, Graphite schist is found in Drum Valley, Anbury (3) p. 280. 

Tuolumne County: 1, Graphite was mined at an early date at the 
Eureka plumbago mine (discovered in 1853) (E. ^ sec. 24, T. 2 N., 
R. 14 E., M. D.), J. R. Browne (4) p. 252, Logan (23) p. 75. 



GREENOCKITE 
Cadmium sulphide, CdS 

A very rare mineral occasionally found coating sphalerite. 

Xanthocroite has been shown to be identical with greenockite, 
Palache et al. (10) p. 230. 

Inyo County: 1, Orange yellow prismatic crystals of greenockite were 
found in a vein with hemimorphite at Cerro Gordo, Woodhouse 
(p.c. '45). 

Mono County: 1, Rock specimens from the South Forty claim (T. 8 
N., R. 22 E., M. D.), near the Golden Gate mine, West Walker River 
area, were coated with brilliant yellow to orange greenockite {xantho- 
chroite), Schaller (34) p. 137. Other specimens show as a coating on 
magnetite, CDMG (18924), Eakle and McLaughlin (17) p. 141. 

Riverside County: 1, Thin coatings of greenockite were reported on 
sphalerite at Crestmore, Eakle (15) p. 352. These coatings have been 
shown to be hawleyite, A. B. Carpenter (p.c. '62). 

San Bernardino County: 1, Thin coatings of greenockite were found 
on quartz from the San Bernardino Mountains (sec. 31, T. 1 N., R. 1 
E., S. B.), W. W. Bradley (30) p. 194. 



208 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Sa7ita Clara Comity: 1, CDMG (18467) was sent in from this county. 

Santa Cruz County: 1, Greenoekite is one of the minerals found by 
C. W. Chesterman (p.c. '64) at the Pacific Limestone Products 
(Kalkar) quarry at Santa Cruz. 

Shasta County: 1, Several thousand pounds of cadmium were pro- 
duced at the Mammoth Copper Company plant, presumably from 
cadmium in the sphalerite. Logan (9) p. 130, reports that g-reenockite 
occurs in the copper-zinc ores as lemon yellow coatings on sphalerite. 
F. M. Hamilton (4) p. 241, also suggests that cadmium may in part 
occur as greenoekite associated with sphalerite. 

*GRIEGITE, 1964 
Iron sulphide, Fe3S4- 

San Bernardino County: 1, Small grains and crystals occurring in 
clays from the Kramer-Four Corners area are identified as a new iron 
sulphide, described and named griegite by Skinner et al. (1) pp. 543- 
555. The occurrence in lake beds confirms in nature the synthesized 
iron sulphide which was predicted by chemical and crystallographic 
studies of laboratory products. The mineral was recovered from cores 
of test holes drilled in the lake beds. The geological relations are de- 
scribed by Dibblee (1) and precise location data are given by Benda 
etal. (1). 

*GRIFFITHITE, 1917 
Hydrous magnesium iron calcium sodium aluminum silicate, 
(S'6.38AIi.42)(Mg3.76Fe2^.o4Fe3*o.8aAl.o8)02o(OH)4Cao.5Na.22 

Griffithite, originally placed as a member of the chlorite group, has 
been determined to be a trioetahedral member of the montmorillonite 
group, Faust (1) p. 66. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Griffithite, "a variety of chlorite," occurs 
in amygdules up to 1 inch in basalt of Cahuenga Pass. The mineral 
was described and named by E. S. Larsen and Steiger (6) p. 11. 2, 
Griffithite occurs in the Pacific Electric quarry. Brush Canyon, locality 
2, Neuerburg (1) p. 136. 

GUADALCAZARITE 

Variety of metacinnabar 

Mercury zinc sulphide, (HgZn)S, Zn up to 5 percent 

Santa Clara County: 1, Minute rhombohedral-hemimorphic crystals 
from New Almaden described by Melville (2) p. 292 as metacinnabar, 
should be called guadalcazarite. Wherry (3) p. 37. According to 
Palache et al. (10) p. 216, however, guadalcazarite is simply a zinc- 
bearing metacinnabar. It is possible that these crystals were wrongly 
identified as to their form. 

GUANAJUATITE 
Bismuth sulpho-selenide, Bi2(Se,S)3 

Inyo County: 1, Irregular white inclusions (microscopic) in a 
polished surface of franckeite from silver ore of the Thompson mine, 
Darwin Mining District, are probably guanajuatite. Hall and Mac- 
Kevett (1) p. 17, ibid. (4) p. 61. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 209 

GUMBELITE — Hydromuscovite 

The composition is essentially the same as hydromuscovite, hut the 
hahit is fibrous instead of platy ; see Aruja (1) p. 11. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Fine fibrous material from a locality be- 
tween Bloomingrton and Jensen quarry (NE ^ sec. 33, T. 1 S., R. 5 W., 
S. B.) has nearly the composition of muscovite, but is not micaceous. 
It is thought by Woodford (p.c. '45) to be giimbelite. 

GUMMITE 
Hydrous uranyl oxides 

Gummite has the same relationship to well-defined secondary uranium 
oxides that limonite or wad have to oxides of iron or manganese. It 
may actually be largely one or more of the following minerals, four- 
marierite, schoepite, becquerelite, clarkeite. 

Ker7i Comity: 1, Gummite is tentatively reported in quartzite float 
in the McKittrick-Taft area, Anon. (28) p. 2. 2, The mineral is reported 
with autunite from the Buster Tom claims, 6 miles SSE of Tehachapi 
(sec. 8, T. 11 N., R. 14 W.), G. W. Walker et al. (5) p. 17; 3, from 
the Embree property near Bodfish, but lacking positive identification, 
CDMG (21617), G. W. Walker et al. (5) p. 31; 4, tentatively identified 
from the Jumpin claim, with autunite (sees. 9, 10, T. 9 N., R. 13 W., 
S. B.), 5i miles WNW of Rosamond, G. W. Walker et al. (5) p. 15, 
and 5, tentatively identified with autunite from the Rosamond prospect 
(SW i sec. 25, T. 10 N., R. 13 W., S. B.), 10 miles S. of Mojave, as 
coatings in tuft'aceous sedimentary rocks, G. W. Walker et al. (5) p. 
15. 6, Gummite was reportedly mined from the Miracle mine in the 
Kern River uranium area, MacKevett (2) p. 211. 7, Gummite with 
pitchblende has been tentatively identified in quartzite at the Radia- 
tion property, Erskine Creek, Troxel and Morton (2) p. 34. 

Sonoma County: 1, Gummite has been questionably identified from 
Bodega Head, CDMG (21646). 

GYPSUM 
Hydrous calcium sulphate, CaS04-2H20 

Selenite, satin spar, alabaster and gypsite are varietal names. The 
granular, bedded and efflorescent deposits are the only ones of value 
in the state and the term ' ' gypsite ' ' is generally applied to the material 
of such deposits. Gypsum is a very common mineral. Since it is easily 
formed by the action of sulphate waters on limestone, small amounts of 
gypsum are common in mining regions where sulphides are decompos- 
ing. Larger bodies are generally bedded deposits formed by the evapora- 
tion of calcium sulphate waters. These are apt to be impure from 
admixtures of calcium carbonate and clay. The principal gypsum de- 
posits of the State have been described by Hess (16) pp. 58-86, Ver 
Planck (2). 

Gypsum is widespread in many parts of the state. Occurrences of 
the mineral are very numerous, but few have mineralogical significance. 
As a mineral resource, gypsum occurs in considerable quantity in many 
deposits. In the localities referenced below, no attempt has been made 
to systematically report commodity occurrences, nor to report the 



210 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

mineral wherever it is mentioned in the literature. Some localities of 
minor importance and of little general mineralogieal interest are noted 
because they have been carried in early editions of Minerals of Cali- 
forriia. The authors consider it wise to retain these as part of the his- 
torical record, but newer and more important localities of the mineral 
as a mineral resource have not been added, and literature citations to 
articles on such localities have not necessarily been included. 

Calaveras County: 1, Platy aggregates of gypsum occur with quartz 
at the Utica mine, Angels Camp, A. Knopf (11) p. 37. 

Fresno County: 1, Gypsite of good quality occurs in beds 3-15 feet 
thick at the Paoli mine, Tumey Gulch (SW \ sec. 1, T. 16 S., R. 12 E., 
M. D.), and on adjacent lands, Hess (9) p. 9. 2, Several deposits of 
gypsum are found near Coalinga (sec. 21. T. 19 S., R. 15 E., sec. 22, 
T. 20 S., R. 14 E., M. D.), ibid., p. 9. 3, Satin spar has been found at 
the San Joaquin coal mine (sec. 26, T. 20 S., R. 14 E., M. D.), W. W. 
Bradley (2) p. 452. 4, Gypsum encrusts nodules containing apatized 
wood in the Moreno formation, head of Escapardo Canyon (N\V \ sec. 
7, T. 15 S., R. 12 E., M. D.), Gulbrandson et al. (1) p.^ 101. 

Imperial County: 1, An extensive deposit of good quality gypsum, 
some of it in large cleavage plates, occurs with associated celestite, in 
the Fish Creek Mountains (T. 13 S., R. 8, 9 E., S. B.), Tucker (11) p. 
271. The stratigraphic position of these layers has been determined by 
J. W. Durham and Allison (1) p. 22. 2, Another extensive deposit 
occurs 3 miles northwest of Coyote Wells, Tucker (4) p. 267. Emory 
(1) p. 103, noted gypsum and mica crystals on the approaches to 
Carizzo Gorge, which may be near this deposit. 

Inyo County: 1, Several beds of pure white gypsum, 6 to 10 feet 
thick, are reported from China (Morrison) Ranch one mile northeast 
of Acme Station on the now abandoned Tonopah and Tidewater Rail- 
road, Hess (16) p. 63. 2, Six-inch veins of transparent selenite have 
been found in the Upper Canyon Bed niter deposits, G. E. Bailey (2) 
p. 172. 3, Small crystals of gypsum are associated with glauberite and 
halite in the muds at Pluto Springs in the bottom of Death Valley, 
Webb (p. c. '45). 4, Gypsum, in thin layers in shale, occurs in the 
Funeral Peak area, Drewes (1) p. 35. 

Kern County: 1, Gypsite has been found in extensive deposits at a 
number of localities on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley (T. 25, 
26, 30, 32 S., R. 18, 22, 23, 24 E., M. D.), Hess (16) pp. 64, 65, Fair- 
banks (20) p. 123. 2, Beds up to 10 feet thick are found southeast of 
Cane (Koehn) Springs (sec. 28, T. 30 S., R. 38 E., M. D.), He.ss (16) 
p. 73. 3, Good gypsum crystals have been found at the San Emigdio 
mine, W. P. Blake (5) p. 308. Two principal deposits of rock gypsum 
are : 4, near Bitterwater Creek, and 5, Cuddy Canyon west of Lebec, 
Troxel and Morton (2) pp. 198-208. 

Lake County: 1, Gvpsum is abundant in efflorescences at Sulphur 
Bank, D. E. White and Robertson (2) p. 407. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Loose, well-formed crystals in sand and clay 
have been found half a mile from the shore, north of Sunset Boulevard, 
Murdoch (p.c. '45). 

Mono County: 1, Selenite crystals are occasionallv found in the tubes 
of tufa at Mono Lake, I. C. Russell (1) p. 311. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 211 

Napa County: 1, Good crystals of gypsum have been found in the 
Palisades mine, 2 miles north of Calistoga, Hulin (p.c. '36). 

Nevada County: 1, Gypsum in stellate radial groups up to 3 inches 
in diameter was found near Truckee Pass, Hanks (12) p. 226. 

Riverside County: 1, Good crystals of gypsum can be found in tun- 
nels in Gypsum Canyon, 2 miles south of Corona, Hess (16) p. 77. 2, 
Extensive deposits of gypsum associated with anhydrite occur at the 
Midland mine of the U.S. Gypsum Company, in the Little Maria Moun- 
tains, Ian Campbell (p.c. '36). 3, Another large deposit of gypsum is 3 
miles north of Packards Well, at the north end of Palen Mountains, 
F. J. H. Merrill (2) p. 579. 4, Thick beds of gypsum occur in the Maria 
Mountains (T. 3, 4 S., R. 21 E., S. B.), F. J. H. Merrill (2) p. 577. 5, 
Gypsum is reported as selenite from the Lone Star quarry at Crest- 
more, Woodford et al. (10) p. 368. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Crystals and cleavage slabs of selenite 
occur in veins in the borate beds of the Calico Hills, G. E. Bailey (2) 
p. 58, Hamilton (3) p. 352. 2, Massive gypsum occurs (sees. 15, 22, 
etc., T. 18 N., R. 5 E., S. B.), in the Avawatz Mountains, Hess (16) 
p. 82. 3, Extensive beds interstratified with salt are present in the 
Avawatz Mountains, Cloudman et al. (1) p. 869. 4, Gypsum is one of 
the minor minerals at Searles Lake, H. S. Gale (13) p. 297 ; 5, it occurs 
in Amboy sink at Bristol playa, H. S. Gale, (17) p. 5. 

Santa Barbara County: 1, Alabaster occurs on a branch of Santa 
Barbara Creek (SEi sec. 34, T. 9 N., R. 25 W., S. B.), Hess (16) p. 84. 
2, Crystals are reported from Santa Rosa Island, CDMG (12313). 3, 
Large quantities of gypsum are found at Point Sal, Fairbanks (14) p. 
16. 4, Fishtail gypsum twins occur in clay shale of the Rincon forma- 
tion, northward from the contact with the Vaqueros, approximately 
one mile north of Drake (Radio Tower) on the Hollister Ranch west 
of Gaviota Pass, in Caiiada del Coyote. The crystals are well-formed 
individuals up to 3 inches in length. The locality was reported by Mr. 
Jerry McKey, Webb (p.c. '64). 

Siskiyou County: 1, Abundant gypsum crystals are found with crys- 
tallized sulphur at a spring at the summit of Mount Shasta, H. Wil- 
liams (2) p. 240. 

Ventura County: 1, Massive gypsum is interbedded with diatoma- 
ceous shale 4 miles south of Fillmore (sec. 12, T. 3 N., R. 20 W., S. B.), 
Huguenin (2) p. 761. 2, A 40-foot bed of pure gypsum is reported at 
French Point Hill, in the Cuyama Valley, Angel (2) p. 599. 3, Selenite 
and massive gypsum are found at the Russell borax mine, north of 
Lockwood Valley, H. S. Gale' (11) p. 446. 

Occurrences of no particular commercial or mineralogic interest have 
been reported from the following counties: Butte, CDMG (7235); 
Kings, Hess (9) p. U;' Los Angeles, Hess (16) p. 75, E. C. Simpson 
(1) p. 412; Merced, Watts (1) p. 331; Orange, CDMG (12216) ; San 
Benito, Fairbanks (20) p. 120, W. W. Bradley and Logan (7) p. 639; 
San Bernardino, Hess (16) p. 81, Tucker and Sampson (17) p. 382; 
San Francisco, Eakle (1) p. 316; San Joaquin, CDMG (13885) ; San 
Luis Ohispo, Hanks (12) p. 226, Crawford (1) p. 325; Solano, J. D. 
Dana (2) p. 656; Stanislaus, Hanks (12) p. 266; Tulare, Hanks (12) 
p. 226. 



212 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

GYROLITE 
Basic hydrous calcium silicate, Ca2Si30;(OH)2- H2O 

Gyrolite is formed as a secondary mineral in crevices of rocks by the 
alteration of lime silicates. 

San Francisco County: 1, Gyrolite was found with apophyllite as 
spherical or massive, platy or plumose aggregates replacing wall rock 
in fissures of basalt at Fort Point, San Francisco, Schaller (8) p. 124. 

Santa Clara County: 1, A fibrous layer of gyrolite 1 to 3 cm thick 

was found associated with apophyllite and bitumen in veins at the 

New Almaden mine, F. W. Clarke (4) p. 128, E. H. Bailey and Ever- 

hart (12) p. 102. 

* HAIWEEITE, 1959 

Hydrous calcium uranyl silicate, CaU2Si50,7-5H20 

Inyo County: 1, Haiweeite is described as a new mineral from the 
Coso Mts., near the Haiwee Reservoir, as spherulitic aggregates on 
fracture surfaces in granite, McBurney ahd Murdoch (1) p. 839, 
CDMG (21739). 

HALITE — Common or Rock Salt 
Sodium chloride, NaCI 

Most of the salt produced in the State is obtained by the evaporation 
of the water of San Francisco Bay; also at San Diego and Monterey 
Bays. Extensive deposits of the mineral exist in the southern counties 
and some of them are mined. Salt is common in the desert regions, 
where former lakes existed and the deposits reach considerable thick- 
ness in some localities, often alternating with beds of sulphates, borates, 
carbonates and shales. Salt wells, salt springs, salt marshes and salt 
rivers occur in these arid plains, and white incrustations of salt are 
often found along their borders. 

Almost all of the desert playas in Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Riverside, 
San Bernardino and San Luis Obispo Counties have incrustations, or 
sometimes considerable layers, of halite in the dry season. G. E. Bailey 
(2) pp. 110-134, records in detail many of these occurrences. A compre- 
hensive discussion of all phases of salt (history, occurrence, mining, 
purification) is contained in Ver Planck (4). 

Alpine County: 1, Hopper-shaped crystals of halite have been found 
around pools, and in glacial potholes, at Hams Salt Springs, on the 
north fork of the Mokelumne River, H. W. Turner (la) p. 453. 

Inyo County: 1, Cubes of halite up to one inch have been collected, 
as individuals and aggregates, from Pluto Springs salt pools on the 
floor of Death Valley, Webb (p.e. '28). 

Lake County: 1, Slender square prismatic crystals of halite were 
found at Borax Lake, Vonsen (3) p. 25. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Octahedral crystals of halite have been 
found at Searles Lake, where the main beds are solid halite, H. S. Gale 
(13) p. 298, G. I. Smith and Haines (3) p. 14. 2, Extensive beds of 
rock salt occur on the north flank of the Avawatz Mountains, G. E. 
Bailey (2) p. 126, Phalen (3) p. 526. 3, Large quantities of salt have 
been produced from Danby Dry Lake, G. E. Bailey (2) p. 128; 4, from 
Amboy sink, Bristol playa, southeast of Amboy, Tucker (4) p. 357, 
H. S. Gale (17) p. 6. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 213 

HALLOYSITE 

Hydrous aluminum silicate, Al2Si207-4H20 

Clay and clay-like minerals snch as bauxite, gibbsite, halloysite, 
montmorillonite, and others are widespread in many localities. Often, 
identification has been by field examination. This is especially true in 
early reported occurrences. Accordingly, few occurrences are included 
in the listings, some chosen for historic reasons, and some for min- 
eralogic reasons. It is impractical to include all localities, especially 
since many important areas produce mineral commodities, and are not 
strictly mineral occurrences. Many reports may also in fact be in error 
as far as specific mineral identification is concerned. X-ray and optical 
examination is required for certain identification of most clay minerals. 

Imperial County: 1, Halloysite has been recorded in association with 
realgar and claudetite 6 miles north of the 4S Ranch, 1^ miles west of 
the Colorado River, Kelley (1) p. 137. 

Inyo County: 1, Banded white and brown, and massive white, hal- 
loysite has been found at the Cerro Gordo mine, A. F. Rogers (7) p. 
381, A. Knopf (8) p. 115. 

Mono County: 1, Halloysite from the Detroit copper mine near Mono 
Lake has been analyzed, F. W. Clarke and Chatard (1) p. 23, (2) 
p. 12. 

San Diego: 1, The so-called "pay streak" of pink clay in the 
pegmatite mines at Pala is halloysite, Schaller (3) p. 191. It occurs in 
large seams several inches thick and many feet in length. 

HALOTRICHITE— Iron Alum 
Hydrous aluminum iron sulphate, Fe2*Al2(S04)4-24H20 

Alpine County: 1, Halotrichite is found as incrustations and thin 
seams at the Leviathan sulphur mine, Garv (1) p. 488, Nichols (1) 
p. 172. 

Alameda County: 1, Halotrichite occurs as fibrous masses in the Eu- 
reka tunnel near Livermore (N. R.). 

Contra Costa County: 1, Halotrichite is found at the Diablo mine 
(SEi sec. 29, T. 1 N., R. 1 E., M. D.), C. P. Ross (2) p. 42, Pampeyan 
(l)p.24. 

El Dorado County: 1, The occurrence of halotrichite is reported by 
gift of specimen, CDMG (21343). 

Los Angeles County: 1, Halotrichite occurs with melanterite in al- 
tered boulders of a conglomerate, in a road cut on Cahuenga Peak 
(Si SWi sec. 25, T. 1 N., R. 14 W., S. B.), Neuerburg (1) p. 159. 

Mono County: 1, Halotrichite occurs with pyrophyllite at the Pa- 
cific Coast pyrophyllite mine, one mile north and 7 miles east of Mo- 
calno, north of Bishop, at the west base of the White Mountains, Baur 
and Sand (1) p. 678, with analysis. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Halotrichite is found with other sul- 
phates in the "sulphur hole" close to the borax mines. Calico Range, 
Foshag (19) p. 352. 

Shasta County: 1, Halotrichite is found as incrustations around 
springs on Lassen Peak, A. L. Day and Allen (1) p. 118. 



214 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Sonoma County: 1, Halotrichite, reportedly rich in nickel, occurs 
sparingly at The Geysers, Vonsen (6) p. 290. 

Trinity County: 1, Halotrichite occurs in tufts at the Island Moun- 
tain pyrrhotite mass, Vonsen (p.c. '44). 

HAMBERGITE 
A basic beryllium borate, Be2(OH)B03 

San Diego County: 1, This is the first reported occurrence of this 
rare beryllium mineral in the United States. Hambergite is reported 
from the workings of the Little Three mine near Ramona, and was 
discovered by Captain J. Sinkankas, U.S.N. The mine is owned by Louis 
B. Spaulding, who screened the dump after the discovery, and recov- 
ered some crystals. The crystals come from a pocket and range in size 
from slivers up to 2 inches, Anon. (36) p. 5. A new analysis of ham- 
bergite from the Little Three mine shows up to 6% fluorine, Switzer et 
al. (10) p. 1987, CDMG (21706). 2, A second occurrence of this rare 
mineral at the Himalaya mine near Mesa Grande is reported by 
Switzer et al. (10) p. 1987. 

* HANKSITE, 1884 
Carbonate, sulphate and chloride of sodium and potassium, Na22K(S04), (603)201 

Inyo County: 1, Hanksite is reported from the borax fields of Death 
Valley by Hanks (17) p. 63. 

Mono County: 1, Hanksite in minute crystals has been found asso- 
ciated with trona on crusted deposits in salt pools on the east side of 
Mono Lake, Murdoch (26) p. 358. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Hanksite, the third most abundant min- 
eral in the Searles Lake saline layers, was discovered in 1884, Hidden 

(1) pp. 230-241, with an analysis by MacKintosh, Hanks (17) p. 63. 
Another analysis was made by E. S. Dana and Penfield (2) p. 136, and 
again by J. H. Pratt (1) p. 133. Hanksite in euhedral crystals occurs 
chiefly in the upper salt in beds up to 5' thick and their varied habits 
are described by G. I. Smith and Haines (3) p. 17. The mineral is 
stronglv luminescent, Melhase (4) p. 4; see also G. I. Smith and Pratt 

(2) p. 26. 

San Luis Ohispo County: 1, Knowlton (p.c. '57) reports hanksite 
crystals showing the prism and pyramid, from Soda Lake. 

HAUSMANNITE 
Manganese oxide, MnjO^ 

Manganese minerals like bementite, braunite, hausmannite, inesite, 
manganite, neotocite, psilomelane, pyrolusite, wad, and others are 
often not separable by field methods. It is apparent to the authors of 
this volume that many citations in the literature, especially those prior 
to 1940, may be incorrect identifications. Abundance of manganese 
minerals in the State in hundreds of localities makes systematic re- 
cording of all localities mentioned in the literature impractical. The 
following listings therefore may be incomplete, and many that are 
included are important only to reflect adequately the historic record. 

Mariposa County: 1, Hausmannite occurs with tephroite and bemen- 
tite at the Caldwell (Daly) mine (NE^ sec. 14, T. 3 S., R. 15 E., M. D.), 
Hewett et al. (6) p. 51. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 215 

Nevada Counixj: 1, Hausmannite occurs with tephroite at the Manga- 
Chrome (Duggan) mine (sec. 17, T. 14 N., R. 8 E., M. D.), Hewett 
et al. (6) p. 47, and 2, at the Smith prospect (center sec. 2, T. 14 N., 
R. 8 E., M. D.), Hewett et al (6) p. 48. 

Placer County: 1, Hausmannite has been reported near Auburn, 
Fairbanks (1) p. 47. 

Plumas County: 1, Specimens of hausmannite have come from 
Meadow Valley, Miser and Fairehild (1) p. 6. 

San Joaquin County: 1, Hausmannite was found at the old Ladd 
mine, with bementite, W. W. Bradley (32) p. 98. 

San Luis Ohispo County: 1, Hausmannite occurs as an alteration 
product of older manganese minerals at the Staneuch Ranch, Prefumo 
Canyon (sec. 6, T. 31 S., R. 12 E., M. D.), P. D. Trask et al. (4) p. 86. 
2, Hausmannite is abundant in the ore of the Noble Electric Company 
deposit, associated with barite and native copper, Taliaferro and Hud- 
son (3) p. 269. 

Santa Clara County: 1, Hausmannite was abundant as crystals and 
subhedral grains in the manganese boulder at Alum Rock Park, A. F. 
Rogers (21) p. 444. 

Stanislaus County: 1, Hausmannite occurs with bementite and other 
manganese minerals at the Buckeve mine (sees. 2, 3, T. 5 S., R. 5 E., 
M. D.), P. D. Trask et al. (4) p. 59. 

Trinity County: 1, Hausmannite makes up 40-50 percent of the ore 
at the Blue Jay mine (NW-i- see. 17, T. 26 N., R. 12 W., M. D.), and 
occurs in neighboring mines in the Mad River area, P. D. Trask et al. 
(4) p. 59. 2, Hausmannite occurs with tephroite at the Lucky Bill 
(Old Bill) prospect (sec. 9, T. 28 N., R. 11 W., M. D.), Hewett et al. 
(6) p. 45. 

HAWLEYITE 
Cadmium sulphide, CdS 

Riverside County: 1, An orange coating on fracture surfaces of 
specimens from the North Star dump, has been shown to be hawleyite 
instead of greenockite, A. B. Carpenter (p.c. '62). 

HELVITE 

A silicate of beryllium manganese iron and zinc with sulphur, 

(Mn,Fe,Zn)8Be4Sis024-S2 

San Diego County: 1, The first discovery of this rare mineral in the 
State is recorded from the Clark vein at Rincon, where it occurs in 
petalite-spodumene rock in small yellow grains and imperfect crystals, 
Murdoch (18) p. 198. 2, Ilelvite is reported as very rare minute honey- 
colored tetrahedra in the Gem Star and Caterina mines, Pala, Jahns 
and Wright (5) p. 31. 

HEMATITE— Red Ocher 
iron oxide, Fe203 

Hematite forms the universal red coloring matter of rocks. It is 
commonly fine-grained, but occasionally occurs as flaky crystalline 
specular hematite or specularite. Much more rarely it may be in larger, 
well-formed crystals. Many of the magnetite o'res in the state are par- 
tially changed to martite, a pseudomorph of hematite after magnetite. 
Many low-grade "red ocher" deposits of hematite in the state have 



216 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA, [Bull. 189 

been mined for pigment rather than for iron. It is possible to list only 
the more important occurrences of this mineral. H. Wilson (1) in 
Bulletin 370 of the U. S. Bureau of Mines, gives a good summary of 
the iron pigment ores of California. 

Fresno County: 1, A large vein of hematite and magnetite is found 
at the Magnetic and other mines in the Minaret Mountains, Goldstone 
(1) p. 191. 

Humboldt County: 1, A large quantity of hematite boulders, de- 
rived from several large veins, occur on the ocean beach 4 miles south 
of Centerville, Lowell (1) p. 408. Laizure (3) p. 295, describes what 
appears to be this deposit. Ogle (1) p. 79, was unable to verify the 
occurrence, although a large isolated fragment of altered volcanic rock 
that is probably limonite not hematite, was found at the locality. 

Imperial County: 1, Shiny, mirror-like plates of hematite are found 
in several veins in the Cargo Muchacho Mining District, Henshaw (1) 
p. 185. 

Inyo County: 1, Specular hematite occurs in considerable amount 
at the Roper iron mine 7 miles east of Kearsarge Station, Tucker (11) 
p. 475. 2, A considerable body of hematite is reported 5 miles south 
of Shepherd Canyon, almost on the edge of Panamint Valley, Craw- 
ford (1) p. 326. 3, Hematite of high grade occurs in the Millspaugh 
iron deposit, Argus Mountains (T. 22 S.. R. 42 E., M.D.), Tucker (36) 
p. 319. Localities (2) and (3) may be identical. 4, Specular hematite 
occurs in the Talc City Hills, six miles north of Darwin, Hall and 
MacKevett (4) p. 76. 

Keru County: 1, Specular hematite is found at Mount Breckenridge 
(sec. 4, T. 29 S., R. 31 E., M. D.), G. C. Brown (1) p. 516. 

Lake County: 1, Pseudomorphs of hematite after marcasite have 
been found at the Baker mine, 6 miles from Lower Lake, A. P. Rogers 
(3) p. 18. 

Lassen County: 1, An extensive deposit of hematite is reported 5 
miles south of Susanville, J. C. O'Brien (1) p. 79. 2, Micaceous hema- 
tite is found at Mountain Meadows, CDMG (13680). 

Mono County: 1, Specular hematite is locally abundant in the 
andalusite mine of Champion Sillimanite, A. Knopf (7) p. 551. 2, The 
"red vein" in the Bodie mine was so called because of the bright red 
color produced by hematite. Whiting (1) p. 385. 3, A contact meta- 
morphic deposit occurs with magnetite northeast of the Black Rock 
mine, Casa Diablo Mt. quadrangle. Rinehart and Ross (1) p. 17. 

Placer County: 1, An important deposit of hematite, associated with 
magnetite, occurs at the Hotaling mine, 3^ miles west of Clipper Oap, 
Logan (4) p. 452. 

Plumas County: Massive and specular hematite occurs in moderate 
abundance at several localities : 1, Crescent Mills, 2, Mumf ords Hill, 3, 
Lights Canyon, Hanks (12) p. 229; 4, with magnetite near the Diadem 
Lode, E. MacBoyle (2) p. 12, and 5, a large vein with magnetite near 
Moonlight, 11 miles north of Taylorsville, ibid., p. 36. 

Riverside County: 1, Considerable hematite has been formed by al- 
teration of magnetite at Eagle Mountain (T. 4 S., R. 14 E., S. B.), 
Harder (6) p. 63, Powell (1) p. 481. 2, Specular hematite with epidote 
is found in the Monte Negro Mining District, Storms (4) p. 369. 3, 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 217 

Hematite occurs as an alteration of chalcopyrite in the Lone Star 
quarry at Crestmore, Woodford et al. (10) p. 368. 

San Bernardino County: 1, At the Iron Age deposit, 6 miles east of 
Dale (sec. 29, T. 1 S., R. 13 E., S. B.), extensive deposits of hematite 
and magnetite occur, Harder and Rich (4) p. 237. 2, Hematite-mag- 
netite deposits, some of them rather sizeable, are found in the Kingston 
Mountains (T. 19 N., R. 11 E., S. B.), Tucker and Sampson (17) p. 
335; 3, at Iron Mountain (sec. 27, T. 6 N., R. 4 E., S. B.), Cloudman 
et al. (1) p. 819, and 4, Cave Canyon (sec. 12, T. 11 N., R. 7 E., S. B.), 
ibid., p. 818. 5, Soft hematite occurs near Kelso (T. 10 N., R. 13 E., 
S. B.), C. C. Jones (2) p. 1889, Lamey (5) p. 87. 6, Massive hematite 
occurs at the Tiefort Mountains deposit (sec. 22 ?, T. 14 N., R. 4 E., 
S. B.), Tucker (36) p. 319. 7, Hematite is found with magnetite in the 
Old Dad Mountains (sees. 13, 14 ?, T. 12 N., R. 10 E., S. B.), Lamey 
(3) p. 61. 8, Hematite and magnetite occur in the Iron Mountain and 
Iron King deposits near Silver Lake (T. 15 N., R. 6, 7 E., S. B.), 
Lamey (2) p. 39. 9, Hematite occurs with magnetite in the Iron Hat 
deposit (T. 6 N., R. 14 E., S. B.), Lamey (6) p. 99. 10, Hematite is 
found in the Ship Mountains deposit (T. 5 N., R. 15 E., S. B.), Lamey 
(7) p. 113. 11, Crystals and rosettes of specular hematite occur in 
metamorphic rocks at the Verde Antique quarry 15 miles northeast of 
Victorville ; 12, at Globerson Iron mine, 7 miles southeast of Hodge, 
and 13, about 3 miles north of Barstow, found with yellow serpentine, 
epidote, green garnet and actinolite, 0. E.-Bowen (1) pp. 134, 135, 148. 
14, Hematite occurs in crystalline rosettes in the Marble Mountains 
south of Cadiz, M. F. B. Strong (3) p. 21. 

San Luis Ohispo County: 1, An extensive deposit of hematite is 
found at the Harrington iron mine (T. 31 S., R. 11 B., M. D.), Franke 
(2) p. 423. 

Shasta County: 1, The Iron Mountain mine supplied a considerable 
amount of hematite to the smelter at Heroult, Hanks (12) p. 229. 

Sierra County: 1, Pure and abundant specular hematite was reported 
from Four Hills, 10 miles northeast of Downieville. J. R. Browne (4) 
p. 222. 

Sonoma County: 1, A large body of hematite was reported from the 
Hooper Ranch, 5 miles north of Nobles, near the west fork of the 
Gualala River, W. W. Bradley (1) p. 322. 

H EM I MORPHITE— Calamine 
Basic hydrous zinc silicate, Zn4Si207(OH)2' HjO 

Inyo County: 1, A little hemimorphite has been found with willemite 
and smithsonite at the Ygnacio mine, Cerro Gordo, CDMG (8587), 
Siebenthal (1) p. 922. 2, Hemimorphite occurs as colorless crusts with 
occasional crystals, at the Defiance mine, and in radial groups of crys- 
tals at the Christmas Gift mine, Darwin Mining District, A. Knopf 
(4) p. 12, Murdoch and Webb (14) p. 324, Hall and MacKevett (4) 
p. 64. 3, Fine radial groups up to half an inch in diameter occur with 
wulfenite and chrysocolla from the Reward mine, 2 miles east of 
Manzanar Station, A. Knopf (5) p. 118. 4, Hemimorphite occurs widely 
and in good crystals up to 5 mm and in coarse-grained aggregates in 
cavities in the Ubehebe mine, McAllister (4) p. 27. 5, The mineral also 



218 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

occurs in the Lippincott mine, ibid., p. 39. 6, Hemimorphite is found in 
the Big Four mine, northeast of Panamint Springs, Hall and Stephens 
(3) p. 36. 7, The mineral is found in the ores of the Santa Rosa mine, 
Inyo Mountains, Hall and MacKevett (4) p. 64. 

Kern County: 1, A specimen (1231) in the University of California 
Collections at Berkeley is from the Jewett mine. 2, The Blackhawk 
mine, near Loraine, has yielded some hemimorphite, Troxel and Morton 
(2) p. 41. 

Riverside County: 1, Abundant prismatic crystals of hemimorphite 
lining cavities, and accompanying massive material, has been found 
associated with smithsonite in sphalerite and galena-rich boulders on 
the old dump from the Lone Star quarry, Crestmore, Jenni (p.c. '57). 

San Bernardino County: 1, Hemimorphite is associated with smith- 
sonite at the Cuticura mine, CDMG (11534). 2, Crusts and radiating 
clusters of slender crystals of hemimorphite are found in cavities of 
barite at the Lead Mountain mine, Murdoch and Webb (14) p. 327. 3, 
Hemimorphite is reported from "Calico," E. S. Dana (5) p. 1097, but 
this may be questionable. 4, Hemimorphite occurs with hvdrozincite at 
the Carbonate mine (sec. 32, T. 15, 16 N., R. 14 E., S. B.), Tucker and 
Sampson (33) p. 128, Wiebelt (1) p. 1. 

HESSITE 
Silver telluride, AgjTe 

Hessite generally contains gold and often grades into petzite, so the 
two tellurides are apt to be together in mines. They occur in most mines 
where gold tellurides are found, often associated with sylvanite or cala- 
verite. 

Calaveras County: 1, Hessite was found with melonite and native 
tellurium at the Stanislaus mine on Carson Hill, Genth (5) p. 311, 
Logan (16) p. 133. 2, Hessite, carrying some gold, occurs in the Ford 
mine half a mile east of San Andreas, A. Knopf (11) p. 39. 

El Dorado County: 1, One float specimen of hessite was found in 
1854 near Georgetown, W. P. Blake (6) p. 270, (7) p. 302, Hanks (12) 
p. 229. Another was found 5 years later with native gold and galena, 
W. P. Blake (6) p. 270. 2, Hessite was reported to occur in the Barnes 
Eureka mine, 3 miles northeast of Shingle Springs (N. R.). 

Mono County: 1, Hessite was found in the upper workings of the 
Silverado mine, Patterson Mining District, in the Sweetwater Range, 
Gianella (p.c. '37). 

Nevada County: 1, A specimen of soft gray hessite, with gold and 
sulphides, has come from the Nevada City mine, Lindgren (12) p. 117. 
2, Small specks of hessite associated with petzite and naumannite were 
found in the Idaho-Maryland mine, C. F. Tolman (p.c. '36). 

Shasta County: 1, Hessite Avas found in the Shearer and R^attler 
mine, 3 miles from Redding, Irelan (4) p. 47. 

Siskiyou County: 1, A specimen of hessite in gold ore has come from 
the Scott Bar mine, 3 miles from the mouth of Scott River, CDMG 
(10637). 

Tuolumne County: 1, Very small crystals of hessite were found in 
the Reist mine. Whiskey Hill, Silliman (9) p. 9, Schrader et al. (1) 



1966 J DESCRIPTIONS 219 

p. 60, and 2, it occurred in the Bonanza and Jumper mines near James- 
town, CDMGr (13617). 3, Hessite was associated with petzite and 
coloradoite in the Xorweo^ian mine, Hillebrand (3) p. 62. 

HEULANDITE 
Hydrous calcium sodium aluminum silicate, (Ca.Naj) [AljSiyO^g] GHjO 

Heulandite is a zeolite usually formed as a secondary mineral in 
cavities and seams of basic volcanic rock, with stilbite, chabazite and 
other zeolites. 

Kern County: 1, Heulandite occurs sparingly in amygdules in lava 
at Red Rock Canvou, associated with natrolite and analcite, Murdoch 
(p.c. '52). 

Los Angeles County: 1, Heulandite occurs with natrolite in vesicular 
basalts west of Cahuenga Pass, near Mulholland highway. Funk (1) 
p. 34. 2, Neuerburg (1) p. 158, describes locality 9 where the mineral 
occurs with ptilolite in "pillow" basalt. 3, Colorless crystals of heu- 
landite in veins and cavities in basalt were found a quarter of a mile 
west of Acton, Murdoch and Webb (6) p. 352. 

Madera County: 1, Colorless plates of heulandite up to 2 mm across, 
associated with quartz, calcite and stilbite, occur in piemontite-bearing 
metavolcanic rock about 0.1 mile northeast of Shadow Lake, Alfors 
(p.c. '64). 

Plumas County: 1, Abundant heulandite replacing feldspar was 
found at the Engels mine, Graton and McLaughlin (4) p. 18. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Heulandite, as reported in Supplement 
2 to Minerals of California for 1958-1961 from Amboy Crater, is in 
error. 

San Diego County: 1, Heulandite occurs sparingly as pale-brown 
crystals with stilbite, A. F. Rogers (4) p. 214, and rather abundantly 
replacing spodumene, associated with petalite, Murdoch (18) p. 198, 
both in the Rincon area. 2, Heulandite occurs in buff-colored tabular 
crystals at Pala, in the gem pegmatites, Jahns and Wright (5) p. 42. 

HILLEBRANDITE 
Basic calcium silicate, Ca2Si03(OH)2 

Riverside County: 1, The original occurrence of hillebrandite was 
described as synonymous with foshagite. It is now known that the two 
names describe separate and distinct minerals, though they are inti- 
mately associated in the Crestmore limestone quarry, in irregular 
masses or veins of fibrous material, Eakle (23) p. 97, Vigfussen (1) 
p. 76, Woodford (11) p. 357. X-ray methods show hillebrandite to be 
distinct from foshagite and xonotlite. Heller and Taylor (1) p. 59. 

HISINGERITE 
A hydrated ferric silicate of doubtful composition, perhaps not a 

definite mineral 

Sonoma County: 1, Thin brown colloform crusts of hisingerite coat- 
ing tridymite have been found in vesicles of augite andesite (NE^ 
sec. 10, T. 7 N., R. 7 W., M. D.), Rose (p.c. '50). 



220 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

HOHMANNITE 
Basic hydrous iron sulphate, Fe3*S040H -S^H^O 

Ungemach (2) p. 115, shows that castanite is the same as hohman- 
nite. 

Napa County: 1, Crystals of hohmannite, identified as castanite in 
brecciated opalite, have been described by A. F. Rogers (35) p. 396, 
from the Redington (Boston) quicksilver mine at Knoxville. This 
occurrence is reported also by Bandy (1) p. 534. 

HOMILITE 
Calcium iron borosilicate, (Ca,Fe)3B2Si20,o 

A specimen of homilite from California (loc. uncited) was identified 
in 1957 by CDMG laboratory, 0. P. Jenkins (4) p. 50. 

* HOWIEITE, 1964 

A complex silicate with iron, aluminum, sodium, calcium, titanium and 

manganese, near (Na,.03Ca.02)i.05(Mg.45Mn2.,gFe"4.4i),.aj(Fe"'i.57Al.j2)2.i9 

(S'll.96''''-4o)l203l(OH ),2.69 

Mendocino County: 1, Howdeite occurs as a new and important 
mineral in Franciscan rocks near Laytonville, Agrell (1) p. 49. No 
description is yet available. 

HOWLITE 
Basic calcium borosilicate, Ca2B5Si09(OH)5 

Howlite is an associate of other borates, but owing to the silica 
present it is not utilized, although it contains a large amount of boric 
oxide. It has been mistaken for pandermite at several borate localities 
in California. 

Inyo County: 1, White micaceous masses of howlite have been found 
in Gower Gulch near Ryan, E. S. Larsen (11) p. 87. 

Kern County: 1, A small nodular mass of howlite was found on the 
955' level of the Western borax mine at Kramer, H. S. Gale (16) 
p. 332. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Cauliflower-like masses of howlite are abun- 
dant in the colemanite deposit in Tick Canyon, Eakle (10) p. 187, 
Foshag (7) p. 204, Armstrong and Van Amringe (1). Microscopic 
crystals of howlite were recently found at the old Sterling borax mine. 
Tick Canyon, permitting determination of crystal data for this usually 
massive mineral, Murdoch (33) p. 521. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Howlite occurs in chalky white seams 
and nodules in the borate beds at Calico, and occasionally as delicate 
thin platy crvstals encrusting celestite crystals, Giles (2) p. 353, 
Foshag (9) p.' 208. 

Ventura County: 1, Masses of howlite, originally assumed to be 
prieeite (pandermite) were found abundantly at the Russell and other 
borax mines north of Lockwood Valley, H. S. Gale (11) p. 442, 

Murdoch (p.c. '45). 

HUNTITE 
Magnesium calcium carbonate, Mg3Ca(C03)4 

Riverside County: 1, Huntite is noted as in incrustation on monticel- 
lite rock from Crestmore, A. B. Carpenter (1) p. 22A, p. 146. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 221 

HUReAULITE 
Hydrous manganese phosphate, Mn5H2(P04)4-4H20 

San Diego County: 1, Hureaulite is found at the Stewart mine, Pala, 
associated with lithiophilite and other phosphates, Schaller (29) p. 145. 
Minute, well-developed crystals from this locality were described by 
Murdoch (16) p. 19. Palaite and pseudopalaite are now considered 
to be identical with hureaulite, B. H. Mason (2) pp. 168, 175. Material 
from the Stewart mine has been studied by Fisher (2) p. 402. 

HYDROBORACITE 
Hydrous calcium magnesium borate, CaMgE^O^-eHjO 

Inyo County: 1, Prismatic or needle-like crystals have been found 
near Ryan, in the Mount Blanco area of Death Valley, Foshag (10) 
p. 9; the crystals were measured by Schaller (43) p. 256. 

Kern County: 1, Hydroboracite from "the pit" at Boron occurs 
sparingly as fibrous crystalline masses, H. E. Pemberton et al. (1) 
p. 29. 

Ventura County: 1, Hydroboracite was reported in 1899 from the 
Frazier borax mine, CDMG (15347), (15446). 

HYDROMAGNESITE 

Basic hydrous magnesium carbonate, Mg5(C03)4(OH)2-4H20 

Hydromagnesite is formed by the alteration of serpentine and other 
magnesian rocks. 

Hydromagnesite and magnesite are widespread in many parts of the 
state. Occurrences are very numerous, but few have mineralogieal sig- 
nificance. As a mineral resource, hydromagnesite occurs in considerable 
quantity in many deposits. In the localities referenced below, no at- 
tempt has been made to systematically report commodity occurrences, 
nor to report the mineral wherever it is mentioned in the literature. 
Some localities of minor importance and of little general mineralogieal 
interest are noted because they have been carried in early editions of 
Minerals of California. The -authors consider it wise to retain these as 
part of the historical record, but newer and more important localities 
of the mineral as a mineral resource have not been added, and litera- 
ture citations to articles on such localities have not necessarily been 
included. It is emphasized that validation of correct mineral identifica- 
tion in the literature has not been undertaken, so early identifications 
may be incorrect. 

Alameda County: 1, Narrow veins in serpentine, at the south slope 
of Sugarloaf Butte, show minute crystals of hydromagnesite, Kramm 
(1) p. 344, A. F. Rogers (24) p. 38. 2, Seams of hydromagnesite in 
serpentine, with calcite and aragonite, occur at Arroyo Mocho, 20 miles 
southeast of Livermore, A. F. Rogers (24) p. 46. 3, Considerable hydro- 
magnesite occurs at the Devil's Hole (sec. 3, T. 5 S., R. 3 E., M.D.), 
Dolbear (8) p. 238. 4, Massive white hydromagnesite has been reported 
near Pleasanton, CDMG (8217). 

Colusa County: 1, Hydromagnesite occurs abundantly at Sulphur 
Creek, as a chalk-like alteration product of serpentine, Kramm (1) p. 



222 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

344, A. F. Rogers (24) p. 47, and 2, it occurs with thomsonite and 
datolite near Wilbur Springs, Pabst (p.c. '45). 

Fresno County: 1, Minute crystals of hydromagnesite occur iA 
seams of serpentine east of Condon Peak, Watters (p.c. '51). 

Inyo County: 1, Hydromagnesite was reported as chalky or mealy 
crusts along the Amargosa River, G. E. Bailey (2) p. 102. 

Marin County: 1, Hydromagnesite is found at Bolinas (T. 1 X., R. 
8 W., M.D.), CDMG (15763). 

Merced County: 1, A specimen of hydromagnesite in the Stanford 
University Collections came from the Bald Eagle mine, near Gustine. 

Napa County: 1, Hydromagnesite mixed with quartz is reported 
from Phillips Springs, E. S. Larsen (3) p. 3. 

Riverside County: 1, Hydromagnesite occurs as an alteration of 
brucite in the predazzite rock of the Wet Weather quarry at Crest- 
more, A. F. Rogers (19) p. 583, (31) p. 466. Measurable crystals have 
been found at Crestmore and x-ray determination of the unit cell was 
made by Murdoch (24) p. 1465, (29) p. 24. 2, Hydromagnesite occurs 
with periclase and brucite in the crystalline limestone of the Jensen 
quarry, MacKevett (1) p. 6. 

San Benito County: 1, Hydromagnesite occurs in powdery white 
balls on Larious Creek, on the slope of Sampson Peak (W4 sec. 35, 
T. 17 S., R. 11 E.. M.D.), H. S. Gale (12) p. 508; 2, it was reported 
by J. D. Whitney (7) p. 59, between the San Carlos and New Idria 
mines, and 3, minute crystals have been found in seams in serpentine 
near the benitoite locality, A. F. Rogers (24) p. 46. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Hvdromagnesite altered from brucite is 
reported from Lucerne Vallev (^SE^ SE^ sec. 15, T. 6 X., R. 1 W., 
S.B.), Ian Campbell (1) p. 3. 

San Diego County: 1, Minute hollow spheres of hydromagnesite 
occur in the pyrrhotite ore of the Friday mine, Creasey (1) p. 27. 

San Francisco County: 1, Hydromagnesite occurs as botryoidal 
masses and veins 3 to 4 inches wide in the serpentines at Fort Point, 
Eakle (1) p. 316, Mining and Scientific Press (19) p. 28. 2, Specimens 
have come from Market Street near Guerrero, CDMG (1320), (1321). 
3, Finely crystalline hydromagnesite occurs with xonotlite as veins in 
basalt at Marshall Beach, near Fort Point, Watters (p.c. '57). 

San Luis Obispo County: 1, Small veins of hydromagnesite were 
found near Port Harford (Port San Luis), CDMG (1175). 

San Mateo County: 1, Small white patches of hydromagnesite in ser- 
pentine occur near Searsville Lake, A. F. Rogers (24) p. 46. 

Santa Barbara County: 1, A specimen of hydromagnesite has come 
from near Santa Barbara, CDMG (13699). 2, ]\Iassive hydromagnesite 
occurs on Figueroa Mountain, Woodhouse (p.c. '45). 

Santa Clara County: 1, Spherical nodules of finely crystalline hy- 
dromagnesite up to 4 cm in diameter, were found in serpentine at the 
lower end of Alum Rock Canyon, A. F. Rogers (24) p. 46, and 2, mi- 
crocrystalline masses come from the lower end of Calaveras Valley, 
ibid.," p. 46. 

Sonoma County: 1, Chalky balls of hydromagnesite have been found 
in nickeliferous serpentine near Cloverdale, W. W. Bradley (29) p. 
222. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 223 

Stanislaus County: 1, A considerable quantity of hydroma^esite 
has been reported from Red Mountain, Dolbear (8) p. 238, and 2, it 
has been found on the Pramberger. property 14 miles west of Patter- 
son, Laizure (9) p. 57. 

HYDROTROILITE 
Hydrous iron sulphide, probably FeSnHjO 

Palache et al. (10) p. 236, suggest that the validity of hydrotroilite 
as a mineral species is doubtful. 

Riverside County: 1, Hydrotroilite has been found in the new City 
quarry, Victoria Avenue, Riverside, Laudermilk and Woodford (5) 
p. 418, and 2, it occurs rather abundantly in the contact zone of the 
Lone Star quarry, Crestmore, Woodford et al. (10) p. 366. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Hydrotroilite has been found at the lapis 
lazuli occurrence in Cascade Canyon (SW^ sec. 31, T. 2 N., R. 7 W., 
S. B.), Laudermilk and Woodford (5) p. 418. 

HYDROZINCITE 
Basic zinc carbonate, Zn5(C03)2(OH)4 

Hydrozincite is of secondary origin, formed usually by the alteration 
of sphalerite. 

Inyo County: 1, Hydrozincite occurs associated with hemimorphite, 
aurichalcite, and smithsonite at the Cerro Gordo mine, A. F. Rogers 
(7) p. 374, A. Knopf (5) p. 106, C. W. Merriam (1) p. 43. 2, Color- 
less or white blade-like crystals associated with linarite occur at the 
Defiance mine, Darwin Mining District, Murdoch and Webb (14) p. 
324, Hall and MacKevett (4) p. 64. 3, Hydrozincite is associated with 
ores at Minietta and Modoc mines, Argus Range, Woodhouse (p.c. '54). 
4, Colloform linings of fine-grained hydrozincite coat and fill cavities 
in the Ubehebe mine, McAllister (4) p. 27. 5, Hydrozincite has been 
found in the Lemoigne mine, on the east slope of the Panamint Moun- 
tains, Death Valley National Monument, near Stovepipe Wells, Hall 
and Stephens (3) p. 37. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Hydrozincite is found with smithsonite 
and cerussite at the Carbonate King mine, 14 miles north of Cima (sec. 
32, T. 16 N., R. 14 E., S. B.), Tucker and Sampson (33) p. 128, and 
2, it is found at Dale Lake, ibid. (34) p. 479. 

* IDDINGSITE, 1893 
Hydrous magnesium and iron silicate, MgO- Fe203-3Si02-4H20(?) 

Iddingsite was originally described as a new mineral from Monterey 
County by A. C. Lawson (1) p. 31. It is considered a doubtful species, 
P. Gay and Le Maitre (2) p. 92. 

Alpine County: 1, Iddingsite occurs abundantly as bright orange- 
yellow pseudomorphs after olivine phenocrysts, in the West Darda- 
nelles flow, west of Dardanelles Cone on the border of Tuolumne 
County, F. L. Ransome (7) p. 52. 

Inyo County: 1, Iddingsite is found in the basalts about one kilo- 
meter southeast from the Russell borax mine, Mount Blanco area, Fo- 



224 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA fBull. 189 

shag (10) p. 10. 2, Iddingsite occurs as a prominent alteration of 
olivine phenoerysts in the basalts of the Ubehebe quadrangle, McAl- 
lister (4) pp. 57, 59. 

Kern County: 1, Iddingsite occurs rather abundantly as pseudo- 
raorphs after olivine in basalt in the Bartolas country northeast of 
Isabella, Webb (9) p. 324. 2, Iddingsite occurs at red-brown patches in 
the zeolitic lavas of Red Rock Canyon, Murdoch (p.c. '51). 

Los Angeles County: 1, Iddingsite has been found in the Santa 
Monica Mountains, E. S. Larsen (11) p. 91. 

Monterey County: 1, Iddingsite has been found as a prominent con- 
stituent of a basic rock called carmeloite. The mineral was recognized 
as new, and was described by A. C. Lawson (1) p. 31. It has been 
further discussed by C. S. Ross and Shannon (1) p. 13. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Iddingsite has been erroneously reported 
from Siberia crater, W. W. Bradley (30) p. 207, but all the material 
from here is olivine stained red by iron oxide, Foshag (p.c), Murdoch 
(p.c. '45). 

Siskiyou County: 1, Yellow iddingsite has been doubtfully reported 
from the Hayes group (T. 44 N., R. 8 W., M. D.), W. W. Bradley (30) 
p. 128, and 2, similarly from near Seiad Vallev (T. 47 N., R. 11 W., 
M. D.), W. W. Bradley (28) p. 343. 

Trinity County: 1, Iddingsite is associated with olivine from this 
county, W. W. Bradley (29) p. 106. 

IDOCRASE— Vesuvianitei 
Calcium and aluminum' silicate, Ca,o(Mg,Fe2+,Fe+32Al4Si9034(OH)4 

Idoerase is characteristically formed in limestone near a contact with 
igneous rocks, and often is associated with grossular garnet. The variety 
calif ornite is a compact, massive idoerase, sometimes called "California 
jade," occurring as streaks or nodules in serpentine. It was named 
and described from Happv Camp in Siskivou County bv Kunz (19) p. 
397. 

No attempt has been made to report all of the occurrences of ido- 
erase found in the State that are referenced in the literature. The 
mineral is widspread and is so common that only occurrences of min- 
eralogical interest should be included. However, some localities of minor 
importance and of little mineralogical interest are noted for the his- 
torical record because they have been reported in early editions of 
Minerals of California. 

Butte County: 1, Calif ornite is found near Pulga (southwestern part 
of T. 25 N., R. 8 E., M. D.), Sterrett (6) p. 858. 2, Californite occurs 
near Oroville, near the mouth of Feather River, as w-ater-worn pebbles, 
A. F. Rogers (7) p. 377. 

Calaveras County: 1, Idoerase occurs with garnet and epidote at 
Garnet Hill, at the junction of Moore Creek and Mokelumne River, 
Melhase (6) p. 7. 

El Dorado County: 1, Brown crystals of idoerase were found in the 
Siegel lode near Georgetown, W. P. Blake (15) p. 16. 2, Veins of ido- 
erase have been found on Traverse Creek, 2-i miles southeast of George- 



' The Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names of the I.M.A. has failed to 
agree on change of vesuviante to idoerase, Anon. (55). 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 225 

town (T. 12 N., R. 10 E., M. D.), L. L. Root (4) p. 409. Complex crys- 
tals of varied color have been described from this occurrence by Pabst 
(2)p. 1. 

Fresno County: 1, Californite has been produced from the south 
side of Watts Valley (see. 5, T. 12 S., R. 24 E., M. D._), Kunz (24) p. 
94, W. W. Bradley (2) p. 439. 2, Californite occurs with white garnet 
near Selma, Kunz (24) p. 94, F. W. Clarke and Steiger (8) p. 72. 3, 
Well-formed greenish-brown crystals of idocrase up to half an inch in 
diameter are widespread in a contact metamorphic limestone in the 
Twin Lakes region, Chesterman (1) p. 275. 

Inyo Couniy: 1, Brownish-green idocrase intimately intergrown with 
garnet and white datolite, was found at San Carlos, about 12 miles 
south of Fish Springs, on the west slope of the Inyo Range, John L. 
Smith (1) p. 435. 2, The mineral occurs with garnet in metamorphic 
rock in Round Valley, west of Bishop, A. Knopf (6) p. 244, Chapman 
(1) p. 866; 3, with diopside and epidote about 5 miles east of Ballarat, 
Murphv (4) p. 349, and 4, with blue calcite, half a mile north of Crys- 
tal Dome mine. North Fork Shepherd Canyon (T. 22 S., R. 42 E.,^ 
M. D.), W. W. Bradley (26) p. 195. 5, Idocrase occurs with scapolite' 
and diopside in the contact zone at the Pine Creek Tungsten mine, Hess 
and Larsen (1) p. 276. 6, Idocrase is common in the contact zone at 
Darwin, as dense green masses and crystals in calcite or wollastonite, 
Kelley (4) p. 539, Hall and MacKeve'tt (4) p. 63. 7, Idocrase occurs 
as coarse-grained crystalline masses and individuals in contact zones 
in marble in several places in the Ubehebe quadrangle, McAllister (4) 
p. 57. 

Kern County: 1, Idocrase occurs in a contact zone with garnet and 
wollastonite, as green and brown radial groups up to 6 inches across, 
3 miles south of Havilah, O'Guinn (p.c. '35). 

Mono County: 1, Idocrase has been found in a contact zone with 
boulangerite and wollastonite, on the north side of Lee Vining Canyon 
(sec. 13, T. 1 N., R. 25 E., M. D.), Murdoch (p.c. '45). 

Placer County: 1, Small crystals of idocrase occur in metamorphic 
rock on the old highwav about half a mile east of Cisco (T. 17 N., R. 
13 E., M. D.), S. G. Clark (p.c. '36). 2, Idocrase has been found in 
this county disseminated in massive garnet, A. F. Rogers (51) p. 1222. 

Plumas County: 1, Brownish-green crystals of idocrase have been 
found 5 miles from Portola, W. W. Bradley (28) p. 206. 

Riverside County: 1, Flat pyramidal crystals of idocrase up to 6 
inches across, together with abundant smaller crystals and rounded 
grains, occur in the contact zone in the Crestmore limestone quarries, 
Eakle (15) p. 338, Kelley (2) p. 141. 2 Idocrase is found in the new 
City quarry, 2 miles south of Riverside, Richmond (1) p. 725. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Idocrase, massive and in crystals is as- 
sociated with greenish garnet, green diopside and uvarovite on the 
east side of a hill which is west of a limestone quarry, 11 miles east of 
Victorville, 0. E. Bowen (1) p. 32. 

San Diego County: 1, Crystals of idocrase of gem quality have been 
found near Jacumba and San Vicente, Kunz (24) p. 95. 

Siskiyou County: 1, The original discovery of californite was made 
12 miles from Happy Camp (sec. 7, T. 17 N., R. 7 E., H.), Kunz (17) 



226 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

p. 747, (19) p. 397, Averill (5) p. 291. White calif ornite, which is al- 
most indistinguishable from white garnet, has been described from this 
locality, Sterrett (6) p. 857. 

Tulare County: 1, Red porphyroblasts of idoerase have been found 
with wollastonite and diopside in Kaweah quarries (sees. 35, 36, T. 
17 S., R. 27 E., M. D.), 2 miles northeast of Lemon Cove, Durrell 
(p.c. '35). 2, Idoerase also occurs (sec. 25, T. 17 S., R. 28 E., M. D.), 
with wollastonite, ibid. 

ILMENITE — Menaccanite 
Oxide of iron and titanium, FeTi03 

Ilmenite is very similar in appearance to magnetite, with which it 
is often confused. It is a common constituent of igneous rocks, and is 
frequently present in small grains in beach and river sands, accom- 
panied by magnetite and other heavy minerals. In this form it is very 
widespread throughout the State, and only the most important occur- 
rences can be noted. 

Alpine County: 1, Platy and massive ilmenite is found with lazulite 
and andalusite 10 miles south-southwest of Markleeville, Woodhouse 
(p.c. '45). 

Calaveras County: 1, Ilmenite is a common minor constituent of 
graphitic schists in the Calaveras formation in the Calaveritas quad- 
rangle, L. D. Clark (1) p. 6. 

El Dorado County: 1, Ilmenite occurs in the placer sands near 
Georgetown, and from this locality, W. P. Blake (7) p. 303, records 
the occurrence of beautiful complex crystals, one as much as an inch 
across, with brilliant faces. This occurrence is quoted bv Hanks (12) 
p. 260, Kunz (24) p. 105. 

Kern County: 1, Crystals of ilmenite up to 2 inches across have been 
found at the Greenback copper mine. H. W. Turner (23) p. 548. 

Los Angeles County: 1, A number of deposits of varying sizes of 
ilmenite occur in anorthosite in the San Gabriel Mountains (T. 3, 4 
N., R. 12, 13, 14 w., S. B.), Tucker (13) p. 296. 2 Ilmenite sands have 
occurred in commercial quarry at Redondo Beach, Youngman (1) p. 20. 

Madera County: 1, Large platy masses of ilmenite are found with 
pyrophyllite and quartz at the low pass immediately east of the junc- 
tion of Bench Creek and North Fork, San Joaquin River, Erwin (1) 
p. 29. 2, Ilmenite is found as platy masses with epidote on Rush Creek 
Divide, west of Agnew Pass, ibid., p. 24, and 3, fine specimens have 
come from Taylors Ranch, near Buchanan, Hanks (12) p. 260. 

Mono County: 1, Ilmenite occurs very sparingly at the andalusite 
deposit in the White Mountains, 7 miles east of Mocalno, north of 
Bishop, Woodhouse (4) p. 4 

Plumas County: 1, Small amounts of ilmenite intergrown with mag- 
netite and hematite, occur at the Engels mine. A. Knopf and Ander- 
son (12) p. 27. 

San Benito County: 1, Rhombohedral crystals, 2-3 mm thick and 
7 mm broad, were found with magnetite octahedrons in dark meta- 
morphic rock near the Gem Mine by Watters, Crippen (p.c. '50). 

San Bernardino County: 1, Ilmenite in thin plates, 1-5 mm thick and 
extending up to 3 feet, occur in radial arrangement in quartz at the 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 227 

Pomona Tile quarry, on the road between Old Woman Spring and 
Yucca Valley, Hewett & Glass (3) p. 1048. It is associated here with 
allanite, monazite and euxenite. 

Santa Cruz County: 1, Layers of black sand up to 6 inches in thick- 
ness occur at Aptos. Thev are largely magnetite and ilmenite, Hess 
(19) p. 463. 

ILSEMANNITE 
Molybdenum compound, formula uncertain, perhaps Mo308nH20(?) 

Inyo County: 1, Ilsemannite is reported as a pigment on copiapite, in 
a molybdenite deposit near the north end of Death Valley, Palache 
et al. (10) p. 604. 

Kern County: 1, Ilsemannite was identified in sooty uraninite masses 
from the Kern River uranium area, MacKevett (2) p. 203. It has been 
identified, together with jordisite, in black radioactive material from 
the Kergon mine, Troxel and Morton (2) p. 330. 2, Ilsemannite also 
occurs in the Miracle mine (SEi sec. 17, T. 27 S., R. 32 E., M. D.), 
ibid., p. 333. 

Shasta Coiinty: 1, Blue zones surrounding molybdenite in quartz, 
with associated molybdenite, 4 miles west of Gibson, have been tenta- 
tively identified as ilsemannite. Cook (1) p. 50. 

ILVAITE 
Basic calcium iron silicate, CaFe^+jFe^+SijOgOH 

Fresno County: 1, Slender black crystals of ilvaite have been re- 
ported in metamorphic limestone in the Twin Lakes area, Chesterman 
(p.c. '51). 

Shasta County: 1, Thin bands and long prisms of ilvaite occur on 
both sides of a narrow dike cutting limestone on Potter Creek, near 
Baird. The crystals occur on quartz and hedenbergite, and have been 
described by Prescott (1) p. 14. 2, Small amounts of ilvaite have been 
found in the ore of the Shasta and California iron ore deposit (sec. 26, 
T. 34 N., R. 4 W., M. D.), Lamey (9) p. 149. 

Sonoma County: 1, A boulder of quartzite, colored black with ilvaite 
was found near Petaluma (N. R.). 

INDERITE 
Hydrous magnesium borate, MgjBjOij-ISHjO 

Inyo County: 1, A specimen submitted by M. Vonsen in 1941 was 
identified by Heinrich (1) p. 71, as inderite. It came from an unspeci- 
fied locality in the county. The specimen was shown to be kurnakovite, 
not inderite, by Schaller and Mrose (56) p. 732, and the specimen was 
determined to have come not from Inyo County, but probably from 
South America, Frondel and Morgan (7). 

Kern County: 1, The rare borate mineral inderite was found in Cali- 
fornia in the Kramer borate mining area at Boron. When first reported 
in 1948, Mineral Notes and News (3) p. 12, it was the second American 
occurrence of the mineral, found elsewhere only in the Inder region of 
western Kazahkstan, USSR. Later, the first American occurrence was 
shown to be invalid (see Inyo County, 1). Ward Smith (p.c. '64) has 
provided the following clarification of the occurrence: "At Kramer, 
inderite was reported first in core from a drill hole near the Baker 
mine. Later it was found underground in the Jenifer mine, and, in 



228 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

considerable quantities, in the Open Pit. All these localities fall within 
a square mile, and all the occurrences are in the hanging wall of the 
main sodium borate ore body, in a thin, discontinuous zone a foot or two 
above the ore. In this zone monoclinic inderite occurs with triclinic 
kurnakovite, which has the same composition. The nomenclature of 
these magnesium borate minerals became confused, chiefly because the 
Russian original descriptions do not provide adequate information, but 
has been clarified by Schaller and Mrose (56). As they point out, the 
crystals initially identified as "inderite" by Frondel and Morgan (7) 
p. 839 are kurnakovite, and those given the new name "lesserite" by 
Frondel, Morgan, and Waugh (8) p. 927 actually are "inderite." 
Thus, one occurrence of inderite to date is valid for the United States. 

INESITE 
Basic hydrous manganese calcium silicate, Ca2lVln7Si,o028(OH)2-5H20 

P. D. Trask et al (4) p. 267, describe inesite in its California setting 
as " ... of common occurrence in veins cutting the deposits [of manga- 
nese ores] that have been rather strongly recrj^stallized or subject to 
weak hydrothermal action. It is readily recognized under the micro- 
scope ... " It is significant, however, that P. D. Trask reports only 
one occurrence of inesite. Trinity County (1), in his comprehensive 
bulletin on manganese in California. All of the reports of inesite en- 
tered below, except Trinity (1), are unvalidated. These entries ap- 
peared in Minerals of California between 1914 (CDMG, Bulletin 67), 
Eakle (12), and 1923 (Bulletin 91), Eakle (22). No references are 
available in the literature to support the entries. It is possible, there- 
fore, that inesite has in fact been established as occurring only from 
Trinity County. 

Alameda County: 1, Rose-red veins of inesite with bementite intersect 
the rhodochrosite at the Newhall (Bailey mine, 10 miles southeast of 
Livermore, on the Arroyo Mocho (N. R.). 

Mendocino County: 1, Inesite veins with associated bementite and 
neotocite occurred in the rhodochrosite at Impassable Rock, Mount 
Sanhedrin, about 8 miles from Hearst (N. R.). 

San Joaquin County: 1, Inesite was common at the old Ladd mine 
(N. R.). 

Stanislaus County: 1, Gray rhodochrosite on the Cummings lease is 
intersected by veinlets of rose-red inesite with bementite. Crystals from 
this occurence have been described (N. R.). 

Trinity County: 1, Veins of silky radiating crystals of inesite, up to 
a quarter of an in,ch in diameter, occur with rhodochrosite and bemen- 
tite at the Hale Creek mine (NW^ sec. 23, T. 1 S., R. 6 E., H), P. D. 
Trask et al (4) p. 59. 

* INYOITE, 1914 
Hydrous calcium borate, 632640, i-ISHjO 

Inyoite was one of the early discoveries of the many new borate min- 
erals described to date from California. 

Inyo County: 1, Inyoite was found with meyerhofferite and cole- 
manite in Corkscrew Canyon, Mouiit Blanco region, Death Valley. It 
was described and named by Schaller (33) p. 35. It is commonly altered 
to meyerhofiferite, but occasionally a clear crystal may be found. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 229 

Kern County: 1, Inyoite is reported from the Kramer borate area, 
Boron. The mineral is rare but in fine single crystals, E. H. Pemberton 
et al. (1) p. 25. 

* lONITE, 1878 
A hydrocarbon with about 50% HjO 

Amador County: 1, lonite was found in an argillaceous lignite in 
thin seams in lone Valley. Purnell (1) p. 184, described it as a new 
mineral. It appears that the substance described as scales in the lone 
sandstone as "ionite" is a varietal habit of the clay mineral anauxite, 
V. T. Allen (2) p. 145, E. S. Dana and Ford (8) p. 682. .The name 
''ionite" is sometimes locally applied in California to clay-like scaly 
material of the lone formation. It appears that the hydrocarbon to 
which the name ionite was assigned is still a valid identification ; how- 
ever, the use of the same name as the variety of clay, which is sanc- 
tioned by E. S. Dana and Ford, is not in fact used in this way else- 
where in the literature on California minerals. 

IRIDIUM 

Native iridium, Ir 
(Probably iridosmine) 

Mendocino County: 1, Iridium was reported with platinum and gold 
from the Anderson Valley placer along Navarro River, Hanks (12) 
p. 310. 

I Rl DOSM I N E— Siserskite 
Native alloy of iridium and osmium, (lr,Os) 

The name iridosmine is applied to those mixtures with Ir>Os, and 
siserskite to those with Os>Ir. The alloy of these two metals is fre- 
quently found in gold placers, associated with platinum, and analysis 
shows the presence of the rarer elements rhodium and ruthenium, 
Deville and Debray (1) p. 449. Crystals were measured by Gladhill 
(1) p. 42. 

Butte County: 1, Iridosmine was found in the gold sands at Chero- 
kee, Silliman (12) p. 132. 

Del Norte or Humloldt County: 1, The largest nugget of iridosmine 
found in California came from the lower Klamath River, Hittel (2) 
p. 61. It weighed 1| ounces. 

Humboldt County: 1, Iridosmine has been reported from China 
Flat, Horton (1) p. 874, and 2, with platinum from Humboldt Bay, 
Richthofen (3) p. 46. 

Placer County: 1, Iridosmine is found on the North Fork, American 
River, Genth (1) p. 113. 

Shasta County: 1, Iridosmine occurs in placer concentrates at the 
headwaters of Cottonwood Creek, Mining and Scientific Press (28) 
p. 209. 

Trinity County: 1, A 27-ounce lot of nuggets of platinum and iridos- 
mine from near Junction City, Trinity River, included one iridosmine 
nugget of f -ounce weight, Horton (1) p. 874. 

Tuolumne County: 1, Six-sided scales of siserskite were found by 
Genth (1) p. 113, (2) pp. 209, 247, after dissolving away the platinum 
and gold of concentrates, from near Stanislaus. 



230 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

IRON 
Native iron, Fe 

Terrestrial iron, which sometimes occurs in basaltic rocks, has not so 
far been found in California. The only iron here is meteoritic, and to 
date 18 to 20 finds have been recorded. It is customary to locate these 
finds by means of coordinate numbers Avhich give the longitude and the 
latitude to the nearest tenth of a degree. For example, 1181,349 is the 
coordinate designation of a find whose longitude is 118.1° W., and 
whose latitude is 34.9° N. Somewhat less than half the known finds are 
wholly or mainly iron, which invariably carries 5 to 30 percent nickel, 
usually a little cobalt, and other minor elements. Others are the stony 
meteorites, which usually carry some free iron, also nickeliferous, and 
which are largely composed of silicates of iron and magnesium. 

A 1966 summary on "The Meteorites of California", by C. P. Butler, 
Calif. Div. Mines and Geology, Mineral Information Service, vol. 19, no. 
7, pp. 103-108, 110-111, 1966, appeared after the cut-off date for en- 
tries in this volume. 

Butte County: 1, A 54-pound meteorite was found near Oroville 
(coord, -f 1216,395) in 1893, Farrington (2) p. 16. 

El Dorado County: 1, The Shingle Springs meteorite was discovered 
in 1869 (coord. 1209,386), half a mile from Shingle Springs. It is a 
nickel-rich ataxite weighing 85 pounds, C. IT. Shepard (2) p. 438, Silli- 
man (11) p. 18, Farrington (2) p. 412. 

Imperial Coimty: 1, A small stony meteorite (chondrite) weighing 
4 grams was found in 1908 (coord. 1156,329), near Imperial, and is 
now in the U.S. National Museum in Washington, E. P. Henderson 
(p.c, '46). 

Inyo County: 1, About 22 miles northeast of Big Pine (coord. 
1180,374 approx.), a medium octahedrite weighing 425 pounds was 
found in 1913 and is now in the U.S. National Museum and described 
by G. P. Merrill (3) p. 5. 2, B. Mason (3) p. 229 reports a meteorite 
referred to without reference source as "Death Valley." Dr. C. A. 
Moore, Director of the Center for Meteorite Studies of Arizona State 
University indicates that this find is discredited. Apparently the speci- 
men was established to be a piece of Plainview meteorite. The specimen 
is in the possession of the Arizona Center, C. A. Moore (p.c. '66). 

Kern County: 1, A stony meteorite, originally weighing about 80 
pounds, was found in the San Emigdio Mountains in 1887 (coord. 
1160,350 approx.). It was put through the crusher before its character 
was recognized, but it was definitely determined as a chrondrite bv 
G. P. Merrill (1) p. 49, (2) p. 161. It was analyzed by Whitfield (3') 
p. 114. Another reference to this meteorite is Reeds (1) p. 618. 2, In 
November 1940, an aerolite weighing 850 grams was discovered in 
Rosamond Dry Lake, W. T. Whitney (1) p. 387, (1) p. 291 (coord. 
1181,349). 3, 4, Finds of 3 stones were made in Muroc Dry Lake in 
1936, Nininger and Cleminshaw (2) p. 273, p. 23. Two stones were 
found close together, and another at a -little distance. They are all 
aerolites with nickel iron and have been designated as Muroc Dry Lake 
meteorites, weights 115 and 58 grams, and Muroc meteorite, weight 18.4 
grams (coord. 1178,349). They may represent separate finds, but they 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 231 

are probably a single find, Leonard and Rowland (8) p. 447. 5, The 
fifteenth meteorite of the California record was recovered on May 24, 
1958, 5 miles east of Ridgecrest. It is an aerolite weighing 9.6 grams, 
Humiston (1) p. 50, Leonard (9) p. 52. 

Los Angeles County: 1, The Neenach stony meteorite (coord. 
+1185,348), was found by Mr. Elden Snyder in Antelope Valley in 
1948. The stone was a gift to the University of California, Santa Bar- 
bara, by Mr. Snyder, Leonard (3) p. 28, Anon. (24) p. 80. The speci- 
men has recently been transferred to the U.S. National Museum, Wash- 
ington, D.C., as a part of the National Collection of the United States, 
and a facsimile of the stone is now on display at the University of 
California, Santa Barbara. 

Modoc County: 1, The largest known meteorite of California and the 
fourth largest in the United States was found October 13, 1938, near 
Goose Lake (coord. 1205,420). It is a siderite weighing 2573 pounds 
(1167 kilograms), and is probably an old find, Leonard (1) p. 508, (2) 
p. 3, Linsley (2) p. 308. The specimen now is in the U.S. National 
Museum, Washington, D.C. A sample is in the CDMG Museum (CDMG 
21146). 

Riverside County: 1, The Pinto Mountains stony meteorite (chon- 
drite) (coord. =: 1161,337 :), was recovered in November 1954 by 
V. Zimmerman while prospecting. The specimen weighed originally 
39.5 lbs., and was the fourteenth verified meteorite from California. 
The specimen is preserved in the collections of the In.stitute of Meteor- 
itics of the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, N.M., La Paz (1), 
p. 295. 

San Bernardino County: 1, An aerolite, gray chondrite, was found 
June 10, 1929, half a mile north of Valley Wells (coord. 1157,355), 
Reeds (1) pp. 633, 634, Coulson (1) p. 220. This is clearly the same 
find as that called Windmill Station, recorded by Linsley (1) p. 472. 
Four pieces were found with weights 10.5, 13.5, 24, 81.9 grams, Leonard 
(6) p. 174. 2, A siderite (medium octahedrite) was found in 1880, 8 
miles from Ivanpah (coord. 1153,354). It weighed about 128 pounds 
and carried about 4^ percent nickel, C. U. Shepard (4) p. 381. It was 
analyzed by him, and also by Cohen and Weinschenk (1) pp. 131-165; 
and Cohen (2) p. 149. It is now in the CDMG Exhibit (CDMG 2339). 
3, An iron meteorite weighing 1524 grams (about 3 pounds), was found 
in 1899 lying on the surface of a quartz outcrop on the south slope of 
the Bullion Range, near Surprise Springs (coord. 1159,342), the speci- 
men is in the Chicago Natural History Museum, Cohen (3) pp. 29-33, 
Farrington (2) p. 430. 4, Two specimens of native iron are reported 
from a reputed new meteorite find near the California- Arizona border 
near Needles, Anonymous (38) p. 99. Dr. C. A. Moore, Director of the 
Center for Meteorite Studies of Arizona State University (p.c. '66) 
states that this report cannot be confirmed although it is asserted that 
one specimen is supposed to be at the University of Oklahoma or at 
Oklahoma State University, and another at the University of Arizona. 
These have not been verified. It is probable that this reported find is in 
error and should be discredited. 5, Several aerolites were recovered in the 
vicinity of Lucerne Valley beginning in July 1963. To date, seven small 
pieces have been found ranging from 3.1 to 37.4 grams. The location is 



232 MINERALS OP^ CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

within an ellipse of 1.3 miles in sec. 26, T. 5. N., R. 1 W., S.B., Hartman 
and Oriti (1) p. 177. The specimens are located in the Griffith Observa- 
tory Collection in Los Angeles. 6, Dale Dry Lake (coordinates 34°02'; 
115°54') is a chondrite, and was found in 1957. There is no published 
reference describing this find, but it is recorded by B. Mason (3) p. 229. 
Dr. C. A. Moore, Director of the Center for Meteorite Studies of Ari- 
zona State University (p.c. '66 ) indicates that the stone was found by 
Mrs. Vincent Zimmerman of 29 Palms, about 2 miles north of the old 
Virginia Dale mine. One piece weighing 31.4 g. is in the collections of 
Arizona State; the balance of the original 300 g. stone is retained by 
the finder. 7, The 29 Palms meteorite (34°04'; 115°57'), a white chon- 
drite, was found as a partially encrusted stone, 4 miles west of the old 
Virginia Dale mine, by Mr. Vincent Zimmerman in 1955. The stone 
weighed 43 lbs. B. Mason (3) p. 229 records the find in his table of 
California meteorites, but no description is given. Dr. C. A. Moore, Di- 
rector of the Center for Meteorite Studies of Arizona State University, 
in a personal communication (p.c. '66) reports that a small fragment 
of the stone is in the collection of the In.stitute of Meteoritics of the 
University of New Mexico. Presumably the main mass of the stone is 
held by the discoverer. 

Trinity County: 1, An oval-shaped piece of meteoritic iron weighing 
about 19 pounds was found in 1875 on a small tributary of Trinity 
River, 3 miles northeast of Canyon City (coord. 1231,409), C. U. 
Shepard (5) p. 469, Ward (1) p. 383. 

JAMESONITE 
Lead iron antimony sulphide, Pb4FeSb4S,4 

Calaveras County: 1, Jamesonite is recorded from Mokelumne Hill, 
Hanks (12) p. 244. 

Inyo County: 1, Compact massive specimens of jamesonite associated 
with argentiferous galena have come from the Cerro Gordo mine 
(N. R.). 

Kern County: 1, Jamesonite or bournonite is reported from Soledad 
Mountain, Mojave Mining District, with cerargyrite and argentite in 
the gold ores, Schroter (1) p. 185. 

Napa County: 1, Delicate capillary crystals of jamesonite ("feather 
ore") were found with cinnabar at the Manhattan mine, CDMG 
(15530). 

Santa Cruz County: 1, Jamesonite occurs at Pacific Limestone Prod- 
ucts (Kalkar) quarry, E. H. Oyler (p.c. '60). 

Sierra County: 1, Small needles and clusters of jamesonite occur in 
vugs in quartz at the Rainbow and Plumbago mines, Forest (Alle- 
ghany) Mining District, Ferguson and Gannett (4) p. 30, (6) p. 49. 

JAROSITE 
Hydrous potassium iron sulphate, KFe33*(S04)3/i HjO 

Imperial County: 1, Crusts of small brown crystals of jarosite are 
found at the American Girl mine, Cargo Muchacho Mountains, Mur- 
doch (p.c. '49). 

Inyo County: 1, Jarosite is abundant in light-colored mica schists in 
Wild Rose Canyon, D. E. White (1) p. 318, and 2, also in veins cutting 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 233 

across most other minerals in igneous rocks of the contact zone, Darwin 
Mining District, Kelley (4) p. 542. 3, Yellow crusts of tungsten-bearing 
jarosite are found in the Yaney mine (SW cor. sec. 22, T. 7 S., R. 32 
E., M. D.), with ferberite (reinite), Bateman (3) p. 76. 4, Small 
crystals are reported in cavities in massive jarosite from the east shaft 
of the Lost Burro mine, Ubehebe quadrangle, McAllister (4) p. 58. 

Kern County: 1, A little jarosite occurs in the cassiterite ores of the 
deposit near Gorman, Troxel and Morton (2) p. 294. 2, Jarosite is 
abundant in some of the oxidized veins of the Cactus Queen (Blue 
Eagle, Cactus) mine (SW] NWi sec. 17, T. 10 N., R. 13 W., S. B.), 
Mojave Mining District, Troxel and Morton (2) p. 104. 

Lake County: 1, Jarosite occurs associated with copiapite and epso- 
mite at Sulphur Bank, Everhart (1) p. 139, D. E. White and Roberson 
(12) p. 406. 

Merced County: 1, Yellow-brown colloform crusts of jarosite have 
been found in a few antimony veins of the Stayton Mining District in 
this and San Benito Counties, E. H. Bailey and Myers (4) p. 418. 
2, Jarosite in microscopic grains occurs abundantlv in glauconite-jaro- 
site sandstone (sec. 35, T. 11 S., R. 10 E., M. D.), Briggs (1) p. 902. 

Mono County: 1, Jarosite has been reported by Hulin (p.c. '36) 
from the Blind Spring Mining District, near Benton. 2, Some jarosite 
occurs with alunite and limonite at the andalusite deposit 7 miles east 
of Mocalno, north of Bishop, White Mountains, Tucker and Sampson 
(4) p. 461, Woodhouse (2) p. 4. 

San Benito County: 1, A. F. Rogers (7) p. 376, has found measur- 
able jarosite crystals at the New Idria quicksilver mine. 2, Jarosite was 
found in the Stayton Mining District (cf. Merced County), E. H. 
Bailey and Myers (4) p. 418. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Jarosite is abundant among the sulphates 
at the "sulphur hole," east of the borax mines in the Calico Hills, 
Foshag (19) p. 352. 2, Jarosite occurs sparingly in the Keystone mine 
(SEi sec. 18, T. 7 N., R. 4 W., S. B.), in Stoddard Mountain, 14 mUes 
northeast of Victorville, in irregular microscopic crystals in clusters 
and aggregates, Hutton and Bowen (2) pp. 556-561. 

Santa Clara County: 1, Jarosite is present in the New Almaden 
mine, Irelan (4) p. 47, E. H. Bailey and Everhart (12) p. 102. 

Shasta County: 1, Jarosite is found in gangue of copper ore. Bully 
Hill mine, Anon. (44) p. 4. 

JEFFERISITE 

Basic hydrous magnesium iron aluminum silicate, 
(IVIg,Fe3%Fe2%AI)4-7(Si,AI)802o(OH),H20 

Jefferisite is a hydrated mica, a variety of vermiculite. 

Lassen County: 1, Large brown plates of jefferisite have been found 
at Susanville, Hanks (12) p. 244, CDMG (2126). 

Mendocino County: 1, A specimen of jefferisite, CDMG (13997), has 
come from this county. 

Tulare County: 1, Hanks (12) p. 244, reports jefferisite from the 
county — no precise location, CDMG (4911). 



234 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

JEzEKITE 
Basic sodium calcium aluminum fluophosphate, Na4CaAl2(P04)2(OH)2F20(?) 

San Diego County: 1, Massive amblygonite in the Stewart mine at 
Pala carries thin veins "v\ath minute colorless grains of jezekite, asso- 
ciated with glassy wardite and fibrous carbonate-apatite, Murdoch 
(p.c. '53). 

*JOAQUINITE, 1909 
Sodium barium and iron titano-silicate, NaBa(Ti,Fe)3Si40i5 

San Benito County: 1, Small brown crystals of the mineral joaquinite 
are found associated with benitoite and neptunite at the benitoite gem 
mine (sec. 25, T. 18 S., K. 12 E., M. D.). The mineral was described 
and named bv Louderback and Blasdale (5) p. 376, Palache and 
Foshag (7) p."^308. 

JORDISITE 
Molybdenum sulphide, M0S2 

Kern County: 1, Jordisite is associated with sooty pitchblende 
(uraninite) and ilsemannite in the ores from the Kern River uranium 
area, MacKevett (2) p. 203. The Kergon mine and its minerals are 
referenced in Troxel and Morton (2) p. 330. 

t*JURUPAITE, 1921 
See xonotlite 

Jurupaite was described as a new mineral from the Crestmore quar- 
ries by Eakle (2) in 1921. Subsequent study has shown the mineral 
to be xonotlite, H. F. W. Taylor (2) p. 338." 

KAOLINITE 

Hydrous aluminum silicate, Al2Si205(OH)4 

Miloschite, when it was reported [Sonoma County (2) below] was 
considered a chromian kaolinite. Lithomarge is a compact variety. 

Kaolinite forms the base of most clays. It is formed by the altera- 
tion of rocks containing aluminum silicates, especially the feldspars, 
and most good clays come from the alteration of potash feldspar. The 
mineral is practically universal in occurrence, and only those localities 
which are of considerable importance are recorded. Common brick clay 
is found in every county. Detailed information as to deposits may be 
found in Dietrich (1), Clay Resources and Ceramic Industry of Cali- 
fornia, Bulletin 99 CDMG, and the references below are to this au- 
thority, unless otherwise specified. 

Alameda County: 1, High-grade clays were at one time mined near 
Tesla (p. 38). 

Amador County: 1, A number of clay deposits occur in the lone 
formation, and have been mined in the vicinity of Carbondale and 
lone (p. 51). 

Calaveras County: 1, The lone formation near Valley Springs car- 
ries some high-grade clays (p. 68). 

Orange County: 1, A deposit of flint fire clay occurs on Goat Ranch, 
Santa Ana Canyon (p. 140). 

Lake County: 1, Kaolinite is relatively abundant at Sulphur Bank, 
D. B. White and Roberson (2) p. 407. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 235 

Placer County: 1, Valuable clay deposits in the lone formation are 
found near Lincoln (p. 147). 

RiverskJe County: 1, The Alberhill-Corona area is one of the three 
most important clay-producing areas in the state, and most of the bet- 
ter clays in the county have come from this region (pp. 162, 163). 2, 
Kaolinite is reported with uncertainty as rare as an alteration prod- 
uct in the Crestmore (juarries, Woodford et al. (10) p. 368. 

San Bernardino County: Several deposits of high-grade clays occur 
in the county ; 1, those in the Hart ]\Iountains are the most interesting 
(sees. 13, 24, T. 14 N., R. 17 E., S.B.), (p. 194), and 2, another deposit 
in the same region is half a mile south of the now extinct mining town 
of Hart (p. 197). 

Shasta County: 1, Thick incoherent deposits of kaolinite occur with 
alunite and opal on the flanks of Brokeoff Mountain, Lassen National 
Park, H. Williams (1) p. 249. 

Sonoma County: 1, A deposit of white kaolin fire clav occurs (sec. 
3. T. 6 N., R. 6 W., M. D.) east of Beltane Station (p. 227). 2, Milo- 
schite has been found at the Devils Pulpit, The Geysers, Vonsen 
(p.c. '45). 

KASOLITE 
Basic lead uranyl silicate, PbCUOj) (SiOj) (OhDj 

Sa7i Bernardino County: 1, Kasolite is reported from east of 
Twenty-nine Palms, CDMG (21630). 

* KEMPITE, 1924 

Basic manganese chloride, Mn2CI(OH)3 

Santa Clara County: 1, iMinute green crystals of kempite, a new 
mineral (1924), associated with pyrochroite, hausmannite, and other 
manganese minerals, were found in the manganese boulder in Alum 
Rock Park, near San Jose. The mineral was described and named by 
A. F. Rogers (27) p. 145. A. F. Rogers (53) p. 1944, notes the rela- 
tionship of kempite to atacamite. 

KERMESITE 
Antimony oxysulphide, SbjSjO 

Kern County: 1, Fine red needles of kermesite were found in 1899 
on stibnite at the Mojave antimony mine, about 15 miles north of 
Mojave, CDMG (15346). 2, Kermesite was reported from the Kramer 
area as small cherry red spherules with kramerite, Mineral Notes and 
News (4) p. 13. According to Frondel (p.c. '48) this is not kermesite 
but an unidentified and possibly new mineral; see under gerstleyite, 
described in 1956 as a new mineral, Frondel and Morgan (7) p. 839. 

Mono County: 1, Kermesite was found sparingly in early mining in 
the Blind Spring Mining District, W. J. Hoffman (1) p. 737. 

* KERNITE, 1927 

Hydrous sodium borate, NajB^O^^HjO 
Rasorite has been used as an alternative name. 

Kern County: 1, Kernite was described by Schaller (41) p. 24, as 
a new mineral, from the Kramer area (sec. 22, T. 11 N., R. 8 W., S. B.), 
where it forms the principal ore mineral of the borate deposits. Its 



236 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA |Bllll. 189 

occurrence and crystallography have been treated fully by Schaller 
(45) p. 146, and the x-ray structure determined by Garrido (1) p. 469. 
Muessig and Allen (1), (2), describe a new borate (ezcurrite near 
kernite) from Argentina, and comment on similarities to the mineral 
suite at Kramer. 

Kernite is also an associated mineral in the Argentine occurrence, 
as clusters of crystals in massive borax, Muessig and Allen (1) p. 429. 

t * KNOXVILLITE, 1890 
See magnesio-copiapite 

Knoxvillite was described as a new mineral in 1890 by Becker (4) 
p. 389. E. S. Larsen (11) p. 61, considered knoxvillite to be a variety 
of copiapite, but its identity with magnesio-copiapite has been estab- 
lished by Whitmore et al. (1) p. 21. 

KOBELLITE 
Lead iron bismuth antimony sulfide, Pb4FeBi4Sb2S,4 

Mariposa County: 1, A specimen from the Eureka or Excelsior mines 
is perhaps this species, CDMG (16074). 

KONINCKITE 
Hydrous iron phosphate, FeP04-3H20 

San Benito County: 1, A specimen of koninckite, CDMG (20781) 
came from the New Idria mercury mine, W. W. Bradley (24) p. 251. 

* KRAUSITE, 1931 
Hydrous iron potassium sulphate, KFe3*(S04)2' HjO 

San Bernardino County: 1, Krausite was discovered, described as a 
new mineral and named by Foshag (19) p. 352, from the "sulphur 
hole" east of the borax mines in the Calico Mountains. It is in yellow- 
grains and crystals associated with alunite, coquimbite, voltaite and 
other minerals. 

KROHNKITE 
Hydrous ccpper sodium sulphate, Na2Cu(S04)2-2H20 

Alameda County: 1, Krohnkite has been recorded from the Alma 
mine, Leona Heights, Schaller (1) p. 207. 

* KRAUSKOPFITE, 1964 
Hydrous barium silicate, presumably, BaSi205-3H20 

Fresno County: 1, Krauskopfite, a new mineral discovered in the 
Rush Creek sanbornite loealitv, is named in honor of Dr. Konrad B. 
Krauskopf of Stanford University. It is described by Stinson and Al- 
fors (6) p. 238. The mineral is accompanied by two other new minerals, 
w^ahlstromite and macdonaldite, and is associated Avith taramellite, 
celsian and gillespite. 

KURNAKOVITE 
Hydrous magnesium borate, IVIg2B40,,-13H20 

Kern County: 1, Kurnakovite is found abundantly in the Kramer 
borate area in roughly formed prismatic crystals. This mineral was 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 237 

described by Frondel and Morgan (7) p. 839 as inderite, but it has 
been shown by Schaller and Mrose (56) p. 732, to be kurnakovite, 
confirming Ward Smith (p.e. '58). 

KYANITE — Disthene — Cyanite 
Aluminum silicate, Al^SiO; 

Kyanite is a metamorphic mineral found in schists and gneisses with 
andalusite, sillimanite, and dumortierite. 

Imperial County: 1, Kyanite occurs abundantly with quartz and 
black tourmaline at the property of the Vitrefrax Corporation, 10 
miles west of Winterhaven and 3 miles north of the dismantled railroad 
station of Ogilby, on the west slope of the Cargo Muchacho Mountains, 
Tucker (11) p. 269, R. J. Sampson and Tucker (4) p. 455, Ian Camp- 
bell and Wright (2) p. 1520. 

Inyo County: 1, Kyanite occurred about 7 miles northwest of Death 
Valley Junction, in the Amargosa Range, W. W. Bradley (28) p. 343. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Kyanite was found with corundum in gneiss 
on Santa Catalina Island, E. H. Bailey (1) p. 1955. 

Riverside Counti): 1, Kyanite occurred in the Golden Charlotte mine 
west of Ferris, W.'W. Bradley (30) p. 194. 

^San Bernardino County: 1, Crystals of kyanite have been found in a 
contact zone in marble, Furnace Creek Canyon, Baker (1) p. 337. 

San Diego County: 1, Kyanite has been reported from an unspecified 
locality in this county, Friederich (1) p. 22. This is probably the same 
locality as Imperial County (1) since Imperial was at the time of the 
report of Friederich part of San Diego County. 

Tuolumne County: 1, Kyanite is a constituent of the schists on 
Yankee Hill, R. J. Sampson and Tucker (4) p. 457. 

LAUMONTITE 
Hydrous calcium aluminum silicate, Ca[Al2Si40|2] •4H2O 

An early name for laumontite is leonhardite which is partially dehy- 
drated laumontite. This is not to be confused with leonhardtite, a 
hydrated magnesium sulphate. Laumontite is a zeolite occurring in 
cavities of basic volcanic rock, usually with other zeolites. 

Inyo County: 1, A large crumbly mass of interlocking prisms of lau- 
montite was found in No. 4 glory hole of the Pine Creek tungsten 
mine, in the contact zone of the scheelite ore. Hess and Larsen (17) 
p. 276. 

Kern County: 1, Laumontite was reported with its alteration prod- 
uct, cementing a feldspathic sandstone from the Standard Oil Com- 
pany of California well, C.C.M.O. 4, No. 35, Tejon field, 30 miles south- 
west of Bakersfield. The mineral was identified microscopically, Kaley 
and Hanson (1) p. 923. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Matted prismatic crystals and friable masses 
of laumontite in crevices in basalt, have been found at the south end 
of Cahuenga Pass, Neuerberg (1) p. 156, and 2, on Mulholland Drive 
west of Cahuenga Pass, locality 4, ibid., p. 156. 3, Large crumbly 
masses of very small crystals of laumontite occur in Soledad Canyon 
above the mouth of Agua Dulce Creek, Porter (p.c. '49). 



238 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Mendocino Comity: 1, Laumontite occurs as the cement of Cretaceous 
sandstone at Anchor Bay, Gilbert (2) p. 1517. 

Plumas County: 1, Minor amounts of laumontite were identified at 
the Engels mine, Graton and McLaughlin (4) p. 18. 

Riverside County: 1, Laumontite occurs in the Crestmore limestone 
quarries, as fibrous masses on green prehnite, Eakle (15) p. 352. At the 
same locality it is found in pegmatites or pegmatite-like masses, as 
white friable aggregates or interlacing crystals, and also as compact 
masses of radiating or columnar crystals 3 to 8 mm long, or in cavities, 
Woodford et al. (10) p. 371. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Fibrous white laumontite in large veins 
has been found near the Grant mine, on the right slope of Cucamonga 
Canyon, CDMG (12479), Woodford (p.c. '44). 

San Diego County: 1, Laumontite occurred in Moosa Canyon, near 
Bonsall, Schaller (18) p. 37, associated with axinite, and 2, it has been 
found in minute crystals at Rincon, A. F. Rogers (4) p. 214. 3, Rosettes 
and sprays of thin columnar crystals of laumontite have been found in 
the pegmatites at Pala, Jahns and Wright (5) p. 42. 

Tidare County: 1, Veinlets of crystalline laumontite are associated 
with seheelite bearing tactite in the Tvler Creek (Bull Point, Vern 
Tyler) tungsten mine (Ni sec. 35, T. 23," S., R. 30 E., M. D.), Goodwin 
(1) p. 367. 

* LAWSONITE, 1895 
Basic calcium aluminum silicate, CaAl2Si20^(OH)4 

Lawsonite was discovered in 1895 as a new mineral and was described 
by F. L. Ransome (3) p. 301, in schists. It is \videspread in the meta- 
morphie rocks of the Coast Ranges. 

Alameda County: 1, Lawsonite was found in seams of glaucophane 
schist near the head of Arroyo Mocho, A. F. Rogers (13) p. 106, in 
crystals up to 1 cm in length, and 2, as tabular crystals up to 5 mm 
across, in the extreme southeast corner of Tesla quadrangle, ibid., 
p. 109. 

Contra Costa County: 1, Lawsonite was found in a chlorite boulder 
on the hiUside north of Berkeley, Thelen (1) p. 221, Eakle (7) p. 84. 
2, Lawsonite is found in schists with pumpellvite, on the private estate 
of Mrs. Anson Blake, G. A. Davis and Pabst'(l) p. 692. 

Humboldt County: 1, The northernmost recorded occurrence of law- 
sonite in the state is near Yager, A. F. Rogers (13) p. 111. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Lawsonite is a microscopic constituent of the 
crossite schists of Santa Catalina Island, Woodford (1) p. 55. 2, The 
mineral is found in the San Pedro Hills, ibid. 

Marin County: 1, The original discovery of lawsonite was made by 
F. L. Ransome (3) p. 301, in the schists of the Tiburon Peninsula, 
half a mile east of Reed Station. Crystals from the type locality were 
studied by Schaller and Hillebrand (4) p. 195. The destruction of this 
type locality for housing development is vividly described by Rice (3), 
p. 96. Analyses by Ransome (3), Schaller and Hillebrand (4). X-ray 
crystallographv of lawsonite is reported bv Pabst in G. A. Davis and 
Pabst (1) p. 697. 

Mendocino County: 1, Lawsonite was found in a large glaucophane- 
schist outcrop on Burger Creek, 2 miles northwest of Dos Rios, Vonsen 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 239 

(p.c. '32.) 2, Crystals of lawsonite occur in Franciscan schist tiear 
Covelo, at the headwaters of Jumpoff Creek, S. G. Clark (p.c. '32). 
The mineral occurs in fine euhedral tabular crystals of pale pink color, 
up to 2 inches in length, Chesterman (p.c. '51). 3, Poorly developed 
lawsonite crystals occur with glaucophane in a quarry 5.1 miles north 
of Longvale on U.S. 101, together with riebeckite and stilpnomelane, 
Watters (p.c. '58). 

Merced County: 1, Lawsonite is associated with aragonite, pumpelly- 
ite and stilpnomelane in Franciscan rocks of the Pacheco Pass area, 
Bates McKee (2) p. 384; see also Santa Clara County (6). 

San Benito County: 1, Lawsonite occurs with pumpellyite in the 
contact zone of jadeite on Clear Creek, Yoder and Chesterman (1) p. 
3. 2, Gray lawsonite occurs in veins in glaucophane schist (sec. 21, T. 

14 S., R. 10 E., M. D.), at the north end of Glaucophane Ridge (N. R.). 
San Diego County: 1, Lawsonite is found in the San Onofre breccia, 

Woodford (2) p. 192. 

San Luis Ohispo County: 1, Platy crystals of lawsonite in masses of 
green chlorite occur about 4 miles east of San Luis Obispo, Eakle (7) 
p. 86, A. F. Rogers (13) p. 111. 2, Lawsonite is found in glaucophane- 
lawsonite schist near Cayucos, J. P. Smith (1) p. 213. 

San Mateo County: 1, Lawsonite-glaucophane schist has been found 
3 miles southwest of Redwood, J. P. Smith (1) p. 212, Eakle (7) p. 86. 

Santa Barbara County: 1, Lawsonite is found sparingly in schist 
pebbles collected from Teritary sediments, at the northeast corner of 
Santa Rosa Island, T. L. Bailey and Woodford (1) p. 191. 

Santa Clara County: A. F. Rogers (13) records lawsonite from the 
schists of many localities in the county : 1, acicular crystals in cavities 
and seams of loose boulders, in the north end of Calaveras Valley, p. 
108 ; 2, in the Mount Hamilton area, crystals up to 4 mm, p. 108 ; 
3, Colorado Creek, p. 109 ; 4, Smith Creek near Santa Clara Hotel, p. 
111. 5, Lawsonite-glaucophane schist, made up almost entirely of these 
two minerals, is reported by J. P. Smith (1) p. 212 from (a), the San 
Juan mine, Oak Hill, near San Jose and (b), one mile south of Coyote 
Canyon. 6, Lawsonite occurs with aragonite, pumpellyite, and stilp- 
nomelane in Franciscan rocks of the Pacheco Pass area, McKee (2) p. 
384; see also Merced County (1). 

Sonoma County: 1, Veins of dull green lawsonite occur with pum- 
pellyite in glaucophane schist, at Mill Creek, Irving et al. (1) p. 338. 
2, Lawsonite occurs with pumpellyite at Camp Meeker, 2 miles north 
of Occidental (sec. 16 (?), T. 7 N., R. 10 W., M. D.), Vonsen (p.c. 
'23). 3, Good crystals were found on the highway half a mile south of 
Cazadero (sec. 21, T. 8 N., R. 10 W., M. D.), Vonsen (p.c. '45). 4, 
Lawsonite occurs with glaucophane 2 miles north of Valley Ford (sec. 

15 (?), T. 6 N., R. 10 W., M. D.), Vonsen (p.c. '45). A specimen, 
CDMG (21317), from 2^ miles northeast of Valley Ford, confirms 
Vonsen. 5, Lawsonite-glaucophane schist occurs at Guerneville, J. P. 
Smith (1) p. 212. 6, A specimen of lawsonite was identified from 
Buckeye Creek, CDMG (21737). 

LAZULITE 

Basic magnesium aluminum iron phosphate, (Mg,Fe2*,Al2(P04)2(OH)2 

Lazulite and lazurite are often difficult minerals to identify by field 
examination. It is evident in studying the literature that reports are 



240 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

often inaccurate. The user is reminded that all literature reports have 
not been validated for accuracy of identification. 

Alpine County: 1, Bands of lazulite mth andalusite and rutile in 
garnetiferous quartzite occur 10 miles southwest of Markleeville, W. W. 
Bradley (28) p. 207. 

Inyo County: 1, Lazulite occurs in a vein in schist in Breyfogle 
Canyon, Chloride Cliff area (approx. T. 30 N., R. 1 E., S. B.), Cloud- 
man et al. (1) p. 864. 2, Lazulite is found in the Lee Mining District, 
10 miles north of Darwin, CDMG (20758). 

Kern County: 1, Lazulite has been reported from an unspecified 
locality in this county, Pecora and Fahey (1) p. 14. 

Madera County: 1, Lazulite, originally identified as lazurite, has 
come from Wawona, in the Minarets Mining District, CDMG (18136). 
2, Scorzalite reported by Smerud and McDonald (1) p. 20, may be 
lazulite and, though unlikely, may be the same as the lazulite of 
locality (1). 

Mono County: 1, Lazulite occurs in considerable amount in the an- 
dalusite mass in the White Mountains, Kerr (3) p. 629, Woodhouse 
(4) p. 38, Lemmon (2) p. 945, Jeffery and Woodhouse (4) p. 6, and 
2, as crj^stals up to 2 inches in size in the Vulcanus claim opposite 
the andalusite mine across Dry Creek Canyon, Kerr (3) p. 629. 3, 
Large, deep-blue anhedrons of lazulite occur with rutile and anda- 
lusite 1 mile west of Green Lake (sec. 28 ( ?), T. 3 N., R. 24 E., M.D.), 
A. F. Rogers (7) p. 375. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Lazulite occurs crystalline and massive 
in veins associated with quartz, muscovite, talc, tremolite and specu- 
larite, 7 miles southeast of Hodge, 200 yards west of the Globerson 
Iron mine, 0. E. Bowen (1) p. 135. 

Sa7i Diego County: 1, A specimen of lazulite, CDMG (13591), came 
from Oceanside, Kunz (24) p. 98. 

LAZURITE— Lapis Lazuli 

Sodium calcium aluminum silicate with sulphate, sulphur 

(Na,Ca)8(AI,Si),202<(S04,S„) 

Lazurite and lazulite are often difficult minerals to identify by field 
examination. It is evident in studying the literature that reports are 
often inaccurate. The user is reminded that all literature reports have 
not been validated for accuracy of identification. 

Madera County: 1, A specimen of lazurite reported from the Mina- 
rets (Ritter Range) has been shown to be lazulite, Murdoch (p.c. '45). 

Mono County: 1, Lazurite has been doubtfully reported from the 
andalusite mine in the White Mountains, Peck (1) p. 152, but this 
was not confirmed by Kerr (3) p. 629. 2, Lazurite is listed as occur- 
ring near Mono Lake, Kunz (24) p. 98, but this may refer to the 
Green Lake occurrence of lazulite (3). 

San Bernardino County: 1, A small prospect pit (NE^ sec. 6, T. 1 
N., R. 7 W., S. B.), in Cascade Canyon, has produced a little lapis 
lazuli as patches and grains in a mica-diopside schist. It was first found 
as boulders in the bed of San Antonio Creek, and traced to the out- 
crop, Surr (6) p. 1153, A. F. Rogers (7) p. 377, (44) p. 111. Rogers 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 241 

considers the mineral to be a sulphide-bearing haiiyne. Lazurite, pre- 
sumably from this locality, was early (1867) mentioned by C. W. King 
(1) in a footnote on p. 273. A reference to lazurite from this county 
in Ostwald (1) pp. 84-101, is presumably from this same locality. 

LEAD 
Native lead, Pb 

Native lead is an exceedingly rare mineral and its reported occur- 
rence as a true mineral is sometimes open to doubt. Small bits of lead 
found in the placer gravels may be portions of lead bullets, but the 
occurrence of the metal in deep placer mines is indicative of its origin 
as a natural reduction product. 

Butte County: 1, Small, subangular fragments of lead, 3 to 4 mm 
in size, have been found 14 miles east of Chico, in the West Fork 
Feather River, A. F. Rogers (7) p. 373. 

Kern County: 1, Lead has been doubtfully reported from the dry 
placers at Goler (N. R.). 

Placer County: 1, Small pellets of lead, possibly native, have been 
found in a placer mine in North Ravine in the Edgewood area, near 
the Ophir Mining District (N. R.). 

LEADHILLITE 
Basic lead carbonate and sulphate, Pb4S04(C03)2(OH)2 

Inyo County: 1, Small, imperfect crystals of leadhillite, of a pale 
sea-green tint, were found with linarite and caledonite at the Cerro 
Gordo mine, A. F. Rogers (1) p. 46. 

LECHATELI^RITE 

Fused quartz, Si02 

Riverside County: 1, Fragments of fused quartz (lechatelierite), 
associated with some cristobalite, have been found in sand fulgurites 
near Indio, A. F. Rogers (50) p. 120. 

LEPIDOCROCITE 
Basic iron oxide, FeO(OH) (v-phase) 

Lepidocrocite occurs under the same conditions as goethite, and is 
often associated with it. 

Shasta County: 1, Lepidocrocite has been recorded from Iron Moun- 
tain, Palache et al. (10) p. 644. 

LEPIDOLITE— Lithia Mica 

Hydrous potassium lithium and aluminum silicate, 

K(Li,AI)3(Si,AI)40,o(0,OH,F)2 

This usually pink or lavender mica, characteristic of the lithia- 
tourmaline pegmatites, was first noted in California in 1856 by Antisell 
(1) p. 187, and then in 1881, by W. P. Blake (23) p. 376, who reported 
it with rubellite from the "Bernardino Range in Southern California." 

Inyo County: 1, White lepidolite is doubtfully reported from Sur- 
prise Canyon, R. W. Raymond (5) p. 34. 



242 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Riverside County: 1, Lepidolite, with tourmaline, kunzite, and am- 
blygonite, is abundant in the Fano mine (SW^ sec. 33, T. 6 S., R. 2 E., 
S. B.), Kunz (23) p. 968, and 2, it occurs in platy cleavelandite with 
colored tourmaline, on the southeast slope of Coahuila Mountain (NE^ 
sec. 16, T. 7 S., R. 2 E., S. B.), Fisher (1) p. 67. 3, Fine-grained, scaly, 
lilac lepidolite is found in moderate abundance in the Anita mine (sec. 
22, T. 6 S., R. 1 E., S. B.), Fisher (1) p. 84. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Lepidolite from an unspecified locality, 
on analysis by Papish and Holt (1) p. 142, showed traces of gallium; 
see also W. P. Blake (23) p. 376. 

San Diego County: The best general reference to lepidolite in this 
county is to be found in CDMG Bulletin 37, by Kunz (24). 1, A large 
body of massive lepidolite, some with intergrown needles of pink 
tourmaline, occurs in the Stewart mine at Pala, Fairbanks (5) p. 36, 
Kunz (24) pp. 55, 100. Fine- to coarse-grained lepidolite associated with 
lithia tourmalines also occurs in all the other mines in the region. 
Analyses and spectroscopic tests have shown some unusual elements in 
these lepidolites: cesium, Kennard and Rambo (1) p. 454; cesium and 
rubidium, Stevens (1) p. 617; germanium, Papish (2) p. 473. Kennard 
and Rambo (2) p. 108, found .67 percent rubidium and .16 percent 
cesium with spectroscopic traces of gallium and thallium in lepidolite 
from the Sickler mine at Pala. 2, Good crystals of lepidolite have been 
found in the pegmatites near Ramona (sees. 6, 9, T. 13 S., R. 2 E., S. 
B.), Schaller (8) p. 143, (7) p. 225. 3, Lepidolite is abundant in the 
lithia pegmatites at Mesa Grande, Kunz (24) p. 100. Stevens (1) p. 
617, found rubidium and cesium on analysis of material from here. 4, 
Lepidolite occurs in the Victor mine at Rincon, A. F. Rogers (4) p. 214. 
The mineral occurs also in the southern extension of the Clark dike, 
with spodumene and beryl, Hanley (3) pp. 20, 23. 5, Lepidolite is 
found with amblygonite at Granite Mountain (NW^ sec. 18, T. 13 S., 
R. 5 E., S. B.), near Banner, J. H. Pratt (5) p. 314, Van Amringe (1) 
p. 1. 6, Lepidolite occurs with cassiterite, colurabite, and blue tourma- 
line in a small pegmatite on the east side of Chihuahua Valley (SW| 
sec. 12, T. 9 S., R. 3 E., S. B.), Schaller (36) p. 353. This lepidolite also 
shows cesium and rubidium, Stevens and Schaller (3) p. 531. 7, Le- 
pidolite occurs with tourmaline in the Pete Labat (French Pete, Elinor) 
mine (SWi sec. 36, T. 9 S., R. 3 E., S. B.), Tucker and I^eed (26) p. 
40. '8, The mineral occurs with gem tourmaline at Oak Grove, Kunz 
(24) p. 100. Cesium and rubidium have been found in analyses, 
Stevens (1) p. 617. 9, An early report by Antisell (1) p. 187, records 
lepidolite near San Felipe. 

LEPIDOMELANE 

Basic iron magnesium aluminum potassium silicate, 
K2(Fe3sFeMVIg)4-4(Si,AI,Fe»-)80jo(OH)4 

Near biotite in composition, but characterized by a large amount of 
ferric iron, (Fe^* > Mg) . 

Kern County: 1, A specimen of lepidomelane, CDMG (15674) came 
from Isabella. 

Santa Cruz County: 1, Lepidomelane has been identified in the min- 
eral suite associated in the Pacific Limestone Products (Kalkar) quarry 
at Santa Cruz, C. W. Chesterman (p.c. '64). 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 243 

t*LESSERITE, 1956 
See inderite 

Kern County: 1, The mineral reported as the new California borate 
lesserite by Frondel et al. (8) p. 927, from the Kramer borate area has 
been shown to be inderite, Sehaller and Mrose (56) p. 732, confirming 
Ward Smith (p.c. '58). , 

LEUCITE 
Potassium aluminum silicate, KAI(Si03)2 

Inyo County: 1, Leucite occurs in basalt plugs in Deep Spring Val- 
ley, Nash and Nelson (1) p. 47. 

LEUCOPHOSPHITE 

A hydrous potassium iron aluminum phosphate, 

near K2(FeAI)7(P04)4(OH)„-6H20 

Fresno County: 1, Leucophosphite has been found as spherulites and 
pellets in nodules of apatized wood in the Moreno formation, head of 
Escarpado Canyon (NW^ sec. 7, T. 15 S., R. 12 E., M. D.), Gulbrand- 
sen etal. (1) p. 101. 

LIBETHENITE 
Basic copper phosphate, Cu2(P04)(OH) 

San Benito County: 1, Libethenite is found in glaucophane schist, 4| 
miles north of Llanada, E. H. Oyler (p.c. '59). 

LIMONITE— Brown Hematite 
Hydrous oxide of iron, FejOj-nHjOCw -monohydrate) 

The name limonite formerly was given to a hydrous iron oxide with 
the supposed formula 2Fe203 -31120. It has been shown that "limo- 
nite" is usually cryptocrystalline goethite with absorbed or capillary 
water. The name is conveniently used for any natural hydrous iron 
oxide which is otherwise unidentified. It may occur in stalactitic, bot- 
ryoidal or mammillary forms, and as spongy masses, or coatings. It 
varies quite widely in appearance, but always has a yellow-brown 
streak, and submetallie to dull luster. 

Limonite is formed by the weathering of minerals containing iron, 
and is very common as the "gossan" or "iron hat" forming a surface 
capping of pyrite ore bodies. It may be used locally as an ore of iron, 
but is not as important as hematite or magnetite for this purpose. It 
is frequently abundant enough to be used as a mineral pigment, the 
"yellow ocher" corresponding to the "red ocher" of powdery or mas- 
sive hematite. It is universally present in all parts of California, but 
only the most important -occurrences can be cited. The deposits used 
for mineral paints are listed and described by Symons (1) pp. 148- 
160, but none of these is of particular mineralogic interest, and most 
are of minor commercial importance. 

Imperial County: 1, Limonite pseudomorphs showing pyritohedrons 
occur in considerable abundance at the property of the Vitrefax Cor- 
poration, 10 miles west of Winterhaven, in the Cargo Muchacho area. 
The mineral occurs in massive quartzite in the Precambrian metamor- 
phic rocks of the area, Murdoch and Webb (p.c. '64). 



244 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Inyo County : 1, Pseudomorphs of limonite after long crystals of 
stibnite have been observed at the Cerro Gordo mine (N. R.). 

Mariposa County : 1, Pseudomorphs of limonite after pyrite have been 
found in Chowchilla Valley, Hanks (7) p. 200. 

Placer County: 1, The limonite gossan of some of the old mines — 
for example the Dairy Farm — in the Foothill copper belt have been 
mined in recent years for their gold content, Murdoch (p.c. '45). 

Riverside County: 1, Limonite pseudomorphous after pyrite occurs 
commonly in the Crestmore quarries, Eakle (15) p. 352, Woodford 
etal. (10) p. 368. 

Shasta County: 1, Beautiful stalactites of limonite have been found 
in the gossan at Bully Hill, Diller (7) p. 128. 2, Iridescent limonite 
stalactites, up to 4 inches in length and 1 inch in diameter, have been 
collected at Iron Mountain, Lang (1) p. 561. 3, Some stalactites from 
Charles Camden's mine were on display at the California Midwinter 
Fair in 1894, Benjamin (1) p. 153. 

Trinity County: 1, Very large cubes of limonite, pseudomorphous 
after pyrite, are found in the Golden Jubilee mine, Carrville Mining 
District, D. F. MacDonald (2) p. 31. 

Tulare County: 1, The Mineral King Mining District has furnished 
some good pseudomorphs of limonite after pyrite, CDMG (10865). 

LINARITE 
Basic lead copper sulphate, (Pb,Cu)2S04(OH)2 

Inyo County: 1, Beautiful, divergent, columnar masses of deep azure- 
blue linarite were obtained in the Cerro Gordo mines during the early 
days of mining. The specimens were sometimes banded with green 
caledonite and brochantite. Fine crystals were also obtained from 
pockets and cavities in the massive mineral, A. F. Rogers (12) p. 46, 
Eakle (9) p. 225, Waring and Huguenin (2) p. 97, C. W. Merriam (1) 
p. 43. 2, Thin platy crystals of linarite were found with aurichalcite 
p.nd malachite at the Defiance mine, Darwin Mining District, Murdoch 
and Webb (14) p. 323, and at the Wonder Prospect, with caledonite, 
in the same region, A. Knopf (4) p. 17. 3, Linarite occurred in oxidized 
ores at the Reward mine, 2 miles east of Manzanar Station, A. Knopf 
(5) p. 118. 4, Linarite, with caledonite and cerussite, was found at the 
Monster mine, on the east flank of the Inyo Range, northwest of Saline 
Valley, A. Knopf (5) p. 111. 5, Linarite is occasionally present in the 
ores of the Big Four mine, northern Panamint Mountains, Hall and 
Stephens (3) p. 26. 

Madera County: 1, Linarite was found with anglesite on the Bliss 
claims near Davis Lake, Minarets Mining District, Erwin (1) p. 70. 

Mono County: 1, Hulin (p.c. '36) reports linarite from Blind Spring 
Hill. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Linarite occurs in the Ibex (Arcturus) 
mine, 6 miles north of Saratoga Springs, with argentiferous galena and 
cerussite. Waring and Huguenin (2) p. 96, Cloudman et al. (1) p. 821. 
2, Linarite is reported with caledonite and dioptase from near Baker 
in Soda Lake Mountains, CDMG (21350), Murdoch (p.c. '49). 

Tulare County: 1, Linarite was found with cerussite and anglesite 
at the Copper Queen mine, CDMG (18680). 



1966J DESCRIPTIONS 245 

LINNAEITE 
Cobalt sulphide, C03S4 

San Luis Obispo County: 1, Linnaeite is reported as microscopic iso- 
metric crystals in fractured vein quartz, altering to bieberite, from 
Klau quicksilver mine, Santa Lucia Range (sec. 33, T. 26 S., R. 10 E., 
M. D.), Woodhouse and Norris (6) p. 114. 

LIROCONITE 
Hydrous basic copper aluminum arsenate, Cu2AI(As04) (OH)4-4H20 

Inyo County: 1, Liroconite was found at the old Cerro Gordo mine 
associated with other rare copper minerals (N. R.). 

LITHARGE 
Lead monoxide, PbO 

Inyo County: 1, Litharge has been found 9 miles east of Big Pine, 
W. W. Bradley (29) p. 106. 2, The mineral was reported in the Darwin 
(New Coso) Mining District, G. M. Wheeler (3) p. 57. 

Kern County: 1, Litharge has been recorded in plates bordered by 
massicot, from an unspecified locality in the county, E. S. Larsen (4) 
p. 18. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Brownish-orange-red scales of litharge 
bordered by massicot were found near Cucamonga Peak, Hanks (12) 
p. 256, E. S. Larsen (4) p. 18. Hanks (12) p. 256 suggests that this 
might have come from a prehistoric ore furnace. 

LITHIOPHILITE 

Lithium manganese phosphate, LiMnPo^ 

Sa.n Diego County: 1, Lithiophilite was found with purpurite and 
triphylite at Pala, Graton and Schaller (1) p. 146, Schaller (22) p. 79, 
(29) p. 145, Jahns and Wright (5) p. 40. 

L5LLINGITE 

Iron diarsenide, FeAs2 

Amador County: 1, Small crystals of lollingite were found in veins 
in slate at the Mayflower gold mine, Amador City, CDMG (14161). 

Inyo County: 1, A little lollingite was found with arsenopyrite and 
pyrrhotite at the Bishop Creek mine, 18 miles southwest of Bishop, 
Schroter (2) p. 53. 

Riverside County: 1, Lollingite forms the central part of lenses of 
sulphides in coarse-grained marble of the underground workings at 
Crestmore, Kelley (2) p. 141. 

San Diego County: 1, Lollingite is very rare, usually associated with 
phosphates, on Queen and Heriart Mountains, Pala, Jahns and Wright 
(5) p. 42. 

LUDLAMITE 
Hydrous ferric phosphate, Fe33*(P04)2-4H20 

San Diego County: 1, Ludlamite is reported from the Pedro mine, 
Pala, Anon. (19) p. 265, Frondel (p.c. '51). It occurs as small greenish 
patches in lithiophilite. 



246 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

LUDWIGITE 
Magnesium iron borate, (Mg,Fe^*)2Fe3*B05 

El Dorado County: 1, Scaly masses originally identified as ludwigite, 
from the Cosumnes mine near Fair Play, A. F. Rogers (7) p. 375, have 
been shown to be biotite or some similar micaceous mineral, Schaller 
(p.c. '46). 

Fresno County: 1, Ludwigite occurs as needle-like crystals in meta- 
morphosed dolomitic limestone in the Twin Lakes region, Chesterman 
(p.c. '55). 2, Ludwigite occurs at Kaiser Peak, on the north side of 
Kaiser Ridge, Chesterman (7), p. 1712. 

Kern County: 1, Ludwigite was identified in some of the cassiterite 
ores at Gorman, 4 miles north of Quail Lake, Wiese and Page (1) p. 
50, L. R. Page (3) p. 202; see also Riverside County (1). 

Riverside County: 1, A few black prisms in the margin of the lime- 
stone body at Crestmore have been tentatively identified as ludwigite, 
Woodford et al. (10) p. 365. Schaller (p.c. '46) suggests that the Kern 
and Riverside County occurrences may be paigeite rather than lud- 
wigite; see also Schaller and Vlisidis (57). 

San Bernardino County: 1, Ludwigite is reported by Lamey (10) p. 
673, from the Cave Canyon iron deposit, northeast of Yermo, and 2, it 
occurs at Lava Bed iron deposit, south of Newberry Springs, Lamey 
(10) p. 673. 

* MACALLISTERITE, 1964 
Hydrous magnesium borate, Mg^B^jOjo-ISHjO 

Inyo County: 1, The new mineral macallisterite has been found in 
five different localities in the Death Valley region, California. The min- 
eral is associated with ginorite, sassolite and gypsum, and is found as 
sugary white aggregates of minute crystals, intimately mixed with its 
associates, W. T. Schaller et al. (58) p. 173. No details of localities are 
given. 

* MACDONALDITE, 1964i 

Hydrous bariftjm calcium silicate, Ba.Ca^Si^jOjjiUHjO 

Fresno County: 1, Maedonaldite, a new mineral discovered along 
Big and Rush Creeks in the eastern part of the county, is named in 
honor of Dr. Gordon Andrew Macdonald. The mineral is briefly de- 
scribed by Stinson and Alfors (6) p. 234. Maedonaldite occurs associ- 
ated with the new minerals krauskopfite, walstromite and others along 
with sanbornite, gillespite, celsian and taramellite. 

MAGHEMITE 
Iron oxide, Fe203 (v-ferric oxide) 

Alameda County: 1, Maghemite was reported from this county, but 
no detail of location is given, Newhouse and Glass (2) p. 701. 

Kern County: 1, Maghemite was identified from three claims in the 
tin deposits near Gorman. Wiese and Page (1) : Upper Butler prospect, 
p. 47; Crowbar Gulch prospect, p. 49, and Gray Eagle prospect, p. 51. 

* This new mineral is described in a paper which appeared in April, 1965, after the 
cutoff date (Dec. 31, 1964) for entries in this volume. "Seven new barium 
minerals from eastern Fresno County, California", by John T. Alfors, Melvin C. 
Stinson, Robert A. Matthews and Adolf Pabst : Am. Mineralogist, vol. 50, pp. 
314-340, 1965. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 247 

Riverside County: 1, Brown-coated lodestone from the Eagle Moun- 
tain iron mine contains iliaghemite, Crippen (p.c. '49). 

Shasta County: 1, Maghemite is reported from the gossan at Iron 
Mountain, Sosman and Posjak (1) p. 332; Newhouse and Glass (2) 
p. 701, Kinkel et al. (2) p. 119. 

MAGNESIO-COPIAPITE 
Basic hydrous magnesium iron sulfate, IVIg,Fe'*4(S04)4(OH)2"nH20 

Napa County: 1, This complex mineral in greenish-yellow masses 
was described originally in 1890 as knoxvillite, and as a new mineral 
from California, Becker (4) p. 389. The mineral has been found with 
redingtonite and mercury minerals at the old Redington (Boston) 
mine at Knoxville, Melville and Lindgren (1) p. 24. It was considered 
by E. S. Larsen (11) p. 61, to be a variety of copiapite, and is estab- 
lished as magnesio-copiapite by Whitmore and Berry (1) p. 21. 

MAGNESIOFERRITE 
Oxide of iron and magnesium, (iVlg,Fe)Fe204, Mg > Fe'* 

Riverside County: 1, Black shiny crystals of this mineral, showing 
cube, octahedron and dodecahedron, have been found in the crystalline 
limestone of the Crestmore quarry, Schwartz (p.c. '53). 

San Benito County: 1, Brilliant black octahedrons, almost 1 mm 
across in chlorite schist from near the benitoite mine, were identified 
as magnesioferrite, Murdoch (p.c. '50). 

MAGNESITE 
Magnesium carbonate, MgC03 

Magnesite is widespread in California because of the great areas of 
serpentine, of which it is often an alteration product. The serpentine 
is commonly intersected by veins and patches of snow-white to light- 
buff magnesite. Some of these veins are commercially important. The 
main deposits lie in the serpentine belts of the Coast Ranges, but de- 
posits also occur in serpentines in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada 
and elsewhere. The mineral is mostly in cryptocrystalline masses with 
prominent conchoidal fracture, and the siliceous varieties are very 
hard. The magnesite deposits of California have been described in 
CDMG Bulletin No. 79, W. W. Bradley (8). 

As a mineral resource, magnesite occurs in considerable quantity in 
many deposits. In the localities referenced below, no attempt has been 
made to systematically report commodity occurrences, nor to report 
the mineral wherever it is mentioned in the literature. Some localities 
of minor importance and of little general mineralogical interest are 
noted because they have been carried in early editions of Minerals of 
California. The authors consider it wise to retain these as part of the 
historical record, but newer and more important localities of the min- 
eral as a mineral resource have not been added, and literature cita- 
tions to articles on such localities have not necessarily been included. 
It is emphasized that validation of correct mineral identification in 
the literature has not been undertaken, so early identifications may 
be incorrect, especially regarding hydromagnesite and magnesite. 



248 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Alameda County: 1, Several deposits of raagnesite occur on Cedar 
Mountain, containing stringers of magnesite in serpentine (sees. 27, 
35, T. 4 S., R. 3 E., M. D.), W. W. Bradley (8) pp. 41, 43. 2, Mag- 
nesite occurs as boulders, none in place, at Hayes Ranch (SW5 sec. 24, 
T. 4 S., R. 2 E., M. D.), ibid., p. 42. 

Del Norte County: 1, Stringers of magnesite up to 4 inches by 6 
feet are found in serpentine at the Camp 7 group (sec. 7, T. 16 N., 
R. 8 E., H.), J. E. Allen (2) p. 121. 

Fresno County: 1, Massive white veins of magnesite occur in ser- 
pentine at the Piedra mine (sees. 5, 9, T. 13 S., R. 24 E., M. D.), Gold- 
stone (1) p. 185, Hess (5) p. 50, W. W. Bradley (8) p. 44. 2, Mag- 
nesite is reported from the Vance mine. Pine Flats, Yale and Stone 
(5) p. 7. 

Humboldt County: 1, Small veins of magnesite are found in a road 
cut between Willow and Hoopa, Laizure (3) p. 319. 

Inyo County: 1, Magnesite is reported from the J. E. Gould mine 
near Owenyo, Yale and Stone (5) p. 7. 

Kern County: 1, A deposit of bedded magnesite has been found 1| 
miles north of Bissell (NEJ sec. 11, T. 10 N., R. 11 W., S. B.), H. S. 
Gale (12) p. 512, W. W. Bradley (8) p. 47. 2, Good specimens of 
magnesite have come from Walker Pass, Hess (5) p. 39. 

Kings County: 1, Boulders and segregations of magnesite in ser- 
pentine occur in a deposit which extends into Monterey County (sec. 
20, T. 23 S., R. 16 E., M. D.), W W. Bradley (8) p. 51. 

Los Angeles County: 1, A small deposit of magnesite occurs in ser- 
pentine 18 miles from Saugus (sees. 11, 12, T. 6 N., R. 15 W., S. B.), 
W. W. Bradley (8) p. 52. 

Madera County: 1, Magnesite in 3-foot veins is reported a quarter 
of a mile south of Grub Gulch, Laizure (6) p. 343. 

Mariposa County: 1, Magnesite occurs at IBig Spring Hill (sec. 30, 
T. 5 S., R. 19 E., M. D.), Laizure (6) p. 148. 

Mendocino County: 1, Small deposits of magnesite in serpentine 
occur on the Hixon Ranch (sec. 11, T. 12 N., R. 11 W., M. D.), Hess 
(5) p. 21; 2, Southard Ranch, W. W. Bradley (8) p. 52, and 3, near 
Willits, Yale and Gale (4) p. 395. 

Monterey County: 1, A continuation of the magnesite deposit found 
in Kings County is about 3 miles east of Parkfield, W. W. Bradlev (8) 
p. 53. 

Napa County: A number of magnesite veins in serpentine occur in 
the countv: 1, at Pope Valley (sec. 2, T. 9 N., R. 5 W., M. D.), Hess 
(5) p. 28; 2, Chiles Valley (sec. 28, T. 8 N., R. 4 W., M. D.), ibid., 
p. 29, and W. W. Bradley (19) p. 275, reports some crystalline pale 
to greenish vein magnesite; 3, Soda Valley (sees. 25, 36, T. 8 N., R. 
4 W., M. D.), Crawford (1) p. 328. An additional reference to segre- 
gations and veins in serpentine is in Weaver (1) p. 174. 

Nevada County: 1, Nearlj^ pure magnesite in serpentine was found 
in the Idaho-Maryland mine, Lindgren (12) p. 115. 2, Stringers and 
veins of magnesite occur in serpentine (sees. 25, 36, T. 18 N., R. 10 
E., M. D.), Averill (13) p. 74. 

Placer County: 1, Magnesite. sometimes in considerable quantities, 
occurs in veins in serpentine in the central part of the county near 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 249 

Towle, Gold Run, Iowa Hill, Michigan Bluff and Damascus (T. 15, 
16 N., R. 10, 11 E., M. D.). Hanks (12) p. 257, G. E. Bailey (2) p. 
103, H. S. Gale (12) p. 501, W. W. Bradley (8) p. 59. 

Riverside County: 1, A large deposit of magnesite veinlets in a mass 
of serpentine was mined near AVinchester (NW^ sec. 31, T. 5 S., R. 1 
W., S. B.)., Hess (5) p. 3S. W. W. Bradley (8) p. 61. 2, Magnesite is 
tentatively identified as an alteration product from the Crestmore 
quarries, Woodford et al. (10) p. 368. 

8a7i Benito Comity: Magnesite veinlets occur widespread in the ser- 
pentines of the countv. 1, One large deposit is at the Sampson mag- 
nesite claims (sees. 34. 35, 36, T. 17 S., R. 11 E., M. D.), H. S. Gale 
(12) p. 503. 

San Bernardino County: 1, A bedded deposit of magnesite 10 to 20 
feet thick occurs on the east side of Cave Canyon (sec. 21(?), T. 11 
N., R. 6 E., S. B.), Hewett et al. (1) p. 117; and 2, another bedded 
deposit, interstratified with dolomite, occurs southwest of Needles 
(sees. 15, 22, T. 8 N., R. 21 E., 8. B.), Schlocker (1) p. 9, Tucker and 
Sampson (33) p. 138. For further description of several deposits near 
Needles, see Vitaliano (1) p. 363. 3, Massive 2 to 4 foot veins of mag- 
nesite in dolomitic limestone occur 10 miles northwest of Cima in the 
Ivanpah Mountains, Tucker and Sampson (16) p. 314 (sees. 15, 16, 
T. 15 N., R. 14 E., S. B.), L. A. AVright et al. (5) p. 184. 4, Thick beds 
of magnesite, interstratified with dolomitic clay and bentonite, occur 
4 miles southeast of Kramer Station (.sees. 3, 4, T. 9 N., R. 6 W., S. B.), 
Tucker and Sampson (32) p. 67, L. A. AVright et al. (5) p. 184. 5, 
Veins of magnesite up to several feet in thickness occur 12 miles east 
of Victorville near the Victor Cement Company properties (sec. 2, 
T. 6 N., R. 2 AV., S. B.), A^ale and Gale (4) p. 581, L. A. AVright et al 
(5) p. 184. 

San Francisco County: 1, A little magnesite occurs with xonotlite 
on Army Street, San Francisco, Pabst (p.e. '44), and 2, at Fort Point, 
as seams in serpentine, Eakle (1) p. 316. 

San Luis Ohispo County: 1, Small veins of magnesite occur in ser- 
pentine on the Kiser Ranch about 9 miles northwest of Cambria, AV. AV. 
Bradley (8) p. 76, and 2, a large deposit is reported on the Steele 
Ranch 7 miles east of Arroyo Grande, Franke (2) p. 426. 

Santa Barbara County: 1, Small stringers of magnesite in serpen- 
tine are found in Happy Canyon (sec. 15, T. 7 N., R. 29 AV., S. B.), 
AV. AV. Bradley (8) p. 77. 

Santa Clara County: 1, An extensive deposit of magnesite occurs at 
the Sherlock and other mines. Red Mountain area (T. 6 S., R. 5 E., 
M. D.), Hess (5) p. 33, Bodenlos (1) p. 238. 2, Many other deposits, 
all similarly veins in serpentine, are found in the county : near Eden- 
ville. Coyote Station, Madrone, AV. A\^ Bradley (8) pp. 78, 79, 87. 
3, A. F. Rogers (25) p. 138, has described euhedral crystals of mag- 
nesite from a narrow vein in the San Juan quicksilver mine, 5 miles 
south of San Jose. 4, Pods of magnesite occur with chromite in ser- 
pentine on the Smith property (sec. 35, T. 7 S., R. 1 E., M. D.), F. F. 
Davis and Jennings (6) p. 337. 

Sonoma County: Many deposits, all as veins in serpentine, occur in 
the county: 1, Rolling (Creon) deposit (sec. 32, T. 12 N., R. 10 AV., 



250 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

M. D.), 2 miles north of Cloverdale, W. W. Bradley (1) p. 325; 2, 
Yordi (Ekert) Kanch, 2 miles southeast of Cloverdale, Hess (5) p. 23; 
3, Gilliam Creek deposits (sec. 31, T. 9 N., R. 10 W, M. D.), ibid., 
p. 24; 4, Red Slide (sees. 16, 17, 21, T. 9 N., R. 11 W., M. D.), 6 miles 
north of Cazadero, W. W. Bradley (1) p. 327. 5, Small crystals of 
magnesite forming a crust with barite and dolomite are reported from 
the Great Eastern mine, Guerneville, Vonsen (p.c. '45). 

Stanislaus County: 1, The Bald Eagle and Quinto claims (sec. 32, T. 
8 S., R. 7 E., M. D.), Perry and Kirwan (1) p. 1, Boalich (4) p. 254, 
have produced much magnesite. 2, The Smith mine (T. 6 S., R. 6 E., 
M. D.), near Patterson, has produced some magnesite, Lowell (1) p. 
629. 3, Lenses of magnesite in serpentine occur at the Red Mountain 
mine (sec. 20, T. 6 S., R. 5 E., M. D.), W. W. Bradley (8) p. 98. 

Tulare County: Very many deposits occur in the general area 
covered by townships 18-22 S., "ranges 26-28 E., M. D., W. W. Bradlev 
(8) pp. 106-135. 

Tuolumne County: 1, The Gray Eagle, Monarch and other claims 
near Chinese Camp (T. 1 S., R. 14 E., M. D.) have shipped some mag- 
nesite, W. W. Bradley (8) p. 138. 

MAGNETITE 
Iron oxide, Fe304 

Lodestone is a variety possessing natural polarity. 

Magnetite is one of the most abundant of the iron minerals, and sev- 
eral good deposits of it occur in the State. It is a minor constituent of 
most igneous rocks, and occurs in this manner in nearly all the coun- 
ties. The black sands of streams and beaches have been derived from 
the weathering of igneous rocks and the subsequent concentration of 
magnetite grains, together with chromite, garnet, zircon and many other 
heavy, hard minerals. Only the more important or interesting occur- 
rences can be listed. 

Butte County: 1, Lodestone has been found in a deposit near Chap- 
arral Hill (T. 26 X., R. 5 E., M. D.), J. R. Browne (4) p. 224. 

Calaveras County: 1, Well-formed octahedrons of magnetite occur in 
talc schist at the Melones mine, Carson Hill, A. Knopf (11) p. 37. Mas- 
sive magnetite has come from the Iron Rock mine, Carson Hill, CDMG 
(13696). 

Del Norte Couyity: 1, Crystals of magnetite are reported from Gas- 
quet, CDMG (21545). 

El Dorado County: 1, Veins of magnetite u]) to 4^ feet in thickness 
have been reported from the Reliance mine (sec. 18, T. 10 N., R. 9 E., 
M. D.), Logan (9) p. 441, and 2, large boulders were found by W. P. 
Blake (3) p. 82, (5) p. 289, at Volcanoville. 3, Magnetite occurs with 
hematite at the Chaix prospect near Latrobe, in lenticular masses, W. 
B. Clark and Carlson (3) p. 437. 

Fresno County: 1, Magnetite is the principal vein mineral, with 
bornite, in the Uncle Sam mine opposite Tehipite dome, the Kings 
River, W. W. Bradley (2) p. 438. 2, Magnetite is abundant in parts of 
the "skarn" of a scheelite deposit at Twin Lakes, Chesterman (1) 
p. 276. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 251 

Inyo Connty: 1, Microscopic crystals of magnetite occur in litho- 
physae in obsidian, with tridymite, near Coso Hot Springs, Rutley (1) 
p. 426, A. F. Rogers (23) p. 215. 2, A considerable quantity of lode- 
stone was reported from the Slate Range, Hanks (12) p. 258. 

Kern County: 1, A mass of magnetite was reported 8 miles south of 
the San Emigdio mine, Angel (2) p. 226. 2, A 3-foot vein of magnetite 
was reported near the summit of "Canada de las Uvas" (Grapevine 
Canyon), W. P. Blake (3) p. 82, (5) p. 289. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Important masses of titaniferous magnetite 
(with intergrown ilmenite) have been found in the western San Gabriel 
Mountains, 1 mile southwest of the Monte Cristo mine (T. 3, 4 N., 
R. 12, 13, 14 W., S. B.), in anorthosite, Tucker (13) p. 296, W. J. 
Miller (5) p. 335, (7) p. 22. 2, Masses of magnetite (ilmenite?) associ- 
ated with cinnamon garnet, chlorite and hornblende were found in the 
New Pass (Soledad Canyon), W. P. Blake (3) p. 82, (5) p. 289. 

Madera County: 1, Large deposits of magnetite are found on the 
western slope of Iron Mountain, Minarets Mining District, Goldstone 
(1) p. 191, Erwin (1) p. 63. 2, Extensive deposits of magnetite, with 
pyrite, are reported at Iron Creek (T. 5 S., R. 22, 23 E., M. D.), R. P. 
McLaughlin and Bradle^' (3) p. 554. 3, Lodestone has been found at the 
Sparkling iron mine, Kings Creek, CDMG (12853). 

MoTio County: 1, Magnetite occurs as an important mineral in the 
veins of the Benton, Lundy, and other areas, Whiting (1) p. 389, 
Rhinehart and Ross (1) p. 17. 2, Magnetite was found coated with 
greenockite at the South 40 claim (T. 8 N., R. 22 E., M. D.), near the 
Golden Gate mine, West Walker River, Eakle and McLaughlin (17) 
p. 141. 

Nevada County: 1, Lodestone was found on Grouse Ridge, 14 miles 
north of Washington, J. R. Browne (4) p. 224, and 2, a large deposit 
occurs at the contact of granodiorite and diabase 4 miles south of 
Indian Springs, Lindgren and Turner (10) p. 6, E. MacBoyle (1) 
p. 59. 

Placer County: 1, A large deposit of magnetite, which was worked 
from 1881-86 bv blast furnace, occurs at Hotaling, 5 miles west of 
Clipper Gap, Lindgren (13) p. 3, C. A. Waring (4) p. 390. 

Plumas County: 1, A large deposit of magnetite occurs just west of 
Wades Lake, H. W. Turner (14) p. 8. 

Riverside County: 1, Magnetite is a very minor mineral at Cr^stmore, 
in the Lone Star quarry, Woodford et al. (10) p. 366. 2, A very large 
mass of iron ore at Eagle Mountain (T. 4 S., R. 14 E., S. B.) is com- 
posed partly of magnetite, Harder (6) p. 63, and 3, small crystals, 
separate or in clusters,. and sometimes badly weathered, are found in the 
Southern Pacific silica quarry at Nuevo, Fisher (1) p. 34. 

San Bernardino County: 1, A large mass of magnetite-hematite ore 
occurs at the Iron Age mine (sec. 29, T. 1 S., R. 13 E., S. B.), 6 miles 
east of Dale, Tucker and Sampson (17) p. 334, and 2, at Iron Mountain 
(sees. 27, 28, T. 6 N., R. 4 E., S. B.), in the Lava Beds Mining District, 
is a series of massive veins of magnetite and hematite, ibid., p. 335. 3, 
There are other deposits of magnetite in the Providence Mountains (T. 
10 N., R. 13 E., S. B.), Cave Canyon (T. 11 N., R. 7 E., S. B.), King- 
ston Mountains (T. 25 S., R. 11 E., M. D.), Grossman (1) p. 235, 



252 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Clouclman et al. (1) p. 820, Tucker and Sampson (17) p. 334, Lamey 
(5) p. 87. 4, Magnetite and hematite occur in the Ship Mountain de- 
posits (T. 5 N., R. 15 E., S. B.). Lamey (7) p. 113. 5, Magnetite is 
found with hematite at Iron Hat (T. 6 N., R. 14 E., S. B.), Lamey (6) 
p. 99. 6, Hematite and magnetite occur in the Old Dad Mountain de- 
posit (sees. 13, 14(?), T. 12 N., R. 10 E., S. B.), Lamey (3) p. 61. 7, 
Magnetite is found with hematite near the Silver Lake area Iron Moun- 
tain deposits (T. 15 X., R. 6, 7 E., S. B.), Lamey (2) p. 39. 

Santa Cruz County: 1, Layers of black sand up to 6 inches in thick- 
ness occur at Aptos ; they are composed largely of magnetite and 
ilmenite, Katz (1) p. 463, Laizure (4) p. 75. 

Shasta County: 1, A large deposit of magnetite at Heroult was 
M^orked by electric smelter, Logan (7) p. 12. 2, An extensive deposit 
occurs near the junction of McCloud and Pit Rivers, McGregor (1) 
p. 641. 3, Magnetite occurs in quantity at Iron Mountain, Hanks (7) 
p. 195, and 4, a large deposit, used mainly as heavy aggregate in naval 
construction, occurs at the Shasta Iron Company property (sec. 26, 
T. 34 N., R. 4 W., M. D.), J. C. O'Brien (1) p.' 82. 5, At the Black 
Diamond mine (sees. 2, 3, T. 33 N., R. 4 W., M. D.), magnetite occurs 
as a contact mineral with pyrrhotite and chaleopyrite, Tucker (11a) 
p. 146. 6, A small deposit of magnetite, with garnet and epidote, occurs 
at the Hirz Mountains deposit (T. 35 N., R. 3 W., M. D.), Lamey 
(8) p. 131. 

Sierra County: 1, A large body of magnetite, some of it lodestone, 
is found at the Sierra iron mine (sees. 11, 12, T. 21 N., R. 11 E., M. D.), 
Hanks (7) p. 195, Aubury (3) p. 304. 2, Perfect octahedral crystals in 
talcose slate have come from Forest City, CDMG (10443). 3, Massive 
magnetite is found southeast of Spencer Lakes (T. 22 N., R. 10 E., 
M. D.), H. W. Turner (14) p. 8. 

MALACHITE 
Basic copper carbonate, CuC03(OH)2 

Azurite, chrysocolla, malachite, and other blue, blue-green, and 
green minerals, mostly copper-bearing, are widespread in stringers, 
coatings, and alterations associated with other copper minerals refer- 
enced in this volume. No systematic effort to report all occurrences of 
these minerals is practical. However, many minor occurrences are 
reported, and others omitted, because early literature was often to 
minor localities, and they have been retained for clarity of the historic 
record. 

Amador County: 1, Fine reniform masses have come from Vol- 
cano (N.R.). 

Calaveras County: 1, Fine specimens of massive malachite with crys- 
tallized copper have been found in the Union mine, Irelan (3) p. 151, 
Reid (3) p. 398. 2, Fine specimens of malachite and azurite have been 
found in the Hughes mine, W. P. Blake (9) p. 17, Hanks (12) p. 259. 

Humholdt County: 1, Excellent specimens of malachite have come 
from the Horse Mountain mine, Laizure (3) p. 306. 

Inyo County: 1, Good drusy specimens of malachite have come from 
the Cerro Gordo mine, CDMG (18357). 2, Malachite occurs ^vith other 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 253 

copper carbonates in the Darwin Mining District, Hall and MacKevett 
(4) p. 64. 

Kern County: 1, A little malachite is present in the tin ores of 
a property near Gorman. Troxel and ^Morton (2) p. 294. 

Mariposa County: 1, Fine driisy coatings and excellent crystallized 
malachite occur at the White Rock Mine, CDMG (15741). 

Mono County: 1, Malachite is rather abundant in the Blind Spring 
Mining District, especially the Kerrick mine. Hanks (12) p. 259, A. L. 
Ransome (2) 190. 2, Malachite occurs with cuprite and chrysocolla at 
the Detroit mine, in the Jordan Mining District, Whiting (1) p. 364. 

Monterey County: 1, J. B. Trask reported malachite from the old 
silver mine at Alisal Rancho, Hanks (12) p. 259. 

Placer County: 1, Malachite was abundant at the Algol mine (sec. 
9, T. 13 N., R. 7 E., M. D.), Aubury (1) p. 173. 

Plumas County: 1, Alternating bands of malachite and chrysocolla 
were found at the Engels mine, Kunz (24) p. 102. 2, Large masses of 
malachite in limestone occur in tlie Genesee Vallev Mining District, 
Logan (4) p. 463. 

Riverside County: 1, Malachite occurs as an alteration product of 
copper sulphides at Crestmore, Eakle (17) p. 327, Woodford et al. (10) 
p. 368. 

San Diego County: 1, Excellent specimens of malachite have come 
from 3 miles south of Julian (perliaps from the Friday mine), CDMG 
(9980). 

Santa Clara County: 1, Mahichite occurs with crvstallized cinnabar 
in calcite from the Guadalupe mine. Kunz (24) p. 107, CDMG (4929). 

Shasta County: 1, IMalachite is a minor mineral in the East Shasta 
copper-zinc mining area, Albers and Robertson (3) p. 71. 

Tuolumne County: The reference to malachite, azurite, and other 
oxidation minerals at Whiskey Hill, in earlier editions of this bulletin, 
should be to Placer County, near Lincoln, see Silliman (7) p. 351. 

MANGANITE 
Basic manganese oxide, MnO(OH) 

There are numerous small deposits of manganese oxides in the state, 
and much of the ore may be manganite mixed with psilomelane or 
pyrolusite. Unless crystals are present, it is impossible to identify 
manganite without x-ray methods, P. D. Trask et al. (4) p. 54. 

In general, manganite may be present in any of these oxide deposits, 
so that its occurrences are possibly numerous. It has rarely been defi- 
nitely identified in the state. 

Imperial County: 1, Minor amounts of manganite are found with 
pyrolusite and psilomelane in the Paymaster area (sees. 16, 18, 19, T. 
11 S., R. 21 E., S. B.), Tucker (11) p. 266, Hadley (1) p. 465. 

Madera County: 1, Manganite, with rhodonite, rhodochrosite and 
psilomelane is reported by P. D. Trask et al (4) p. 130, from near 
Coarse Gold. 

Riverside County: 1, Manganite is tentatively reported as a rare 
oxide in the Crestmore quarries, Woodford et al. (1()) p. 368. 

San Diego County: 1, Manganite is found associated with manganese- 
bearing albite at the Catherina mine, Pala, Schaller (29) p. 145, Kraus 
and Hunt (2) p. 465. 



254 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA | Bull. 189 

Shasta County: 1, Minute crystals of manganite have been found in 
cavities and fractures in quartz at the Murrav mine (sec. 1, T. 32 N., 
R. 6 W., M. D.), Raymond (p. c. '36). 

MARCASITE 
Iron disulphide, FeSj 

Bornite, chalcoeite, chalcopyrite, cuprite, galena, marcasite, pyrite, 
pyrrhotite, stibnite, tenorite, tetrahedrite, and many other antimony, 
copper, iron, lead and zinc sulphides, and oxides are found in traces or 
in minor amounts in many localities. The entries listed reflect either 
mineralogical or historic interest, and the listings are not complete nor 
is all literature wliich mentions these minerals referenced. 

Amador County: 1, Marcasite is found with pyrrhotite and other 
sulphides at the Defender mine, 5 miles southeast of Volcano, Tucker 
(1) p. 27. 

Calaveras County: 1, Marcasite is reported from the West Point 
area, Franke and Logan (4) p. 239. 

Colusa County: 1, Marcasite occurs with stibnite, gold and cinnabar 
at the Manzanita mine, Becker (4) p. 367. 

Contra Costa County: 1, Marcasite is found with cinnabar and meta- 
cinnabar at the Mount Diablo (Ryne) mine (SE^ sec. 29, T. 1 N., R. 
1 E., M.D.), A. L. Ransome and Kellogg (1) p. 377, C. P. Ross (2) p. 
41, Pampeyan (1) p. 24. 

Del Norte County: 1, Marcasite is found at Patrick Creek (T. 18 N., 
R. 3 E., H.), Laizure (3) p. 287. 

Inyo County: 1, Marcasite has been identifi'ed microscopically in 
massive pyrrhotite at the Curran mine, half a mile north of Panamint 
City, Murphy (2) p. 314, (4) p. 367. 

Kern County: 1, Marcasite occurs with gold quartz at the Bowman 
mine (sec. 20, T. 28 S., R. 34 E., M.D.), Tucker and Sampson (21) p. 
293; 2, in the Big Blue group (T. 25 S., R. 33 E., M.D.), Prout (1) 
p. 413, Troxel and Morton (2) p. 99; 3, in the Green Mountain Mining 
District (T. 29 S., R. 34 E., M.D.), Tucker and Sampson (21) pp. 296, 
307, and 4, in small amounts in the gold veins of Soledad Mountain, 
Mojave Mining District, Tucker (23) p. 469. 

Lake County: 1, Marcasite occurs with cinnabar and metacinnabar 
at the Baker mine (sec. 16, T. 12 N., R. 6 W., M.D.), Becker (4) p. 
368. 2, Pseudomorphs of cinnabar and tiemannite after marcasite have 
been observed from the Abbott mine (sec. 32, T. 14 N., R. 5 W., M.D.), 
Watts (2) p. 240. 3, Marcasite is found in the Red Elephant mine, 
near Knoxville, Averitt (1) p. 88. 4, Considerable marcasite was found 
in some of the ores of the Helen mine (sec. 1, T. 10 N., R. 8 W., M.D.), 
Tucker (36) p. 276. 5, Marcasite has been found at Sulphur Bank, 
D. E. White and Roberson (2) p. 404. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Marcasite occurs at the head of Mill Creek, 
near the Monte Cristo mine, R. J. Sampson (10) p. 187. 

Mono County: 1, Marcasite is found in quartz veins with pyrite and 
galena at the King group (T. 3 S., R. 31 E., M.D.), W\ W.' Bradley 
(29) p. 144. 

Napa County: 1, Marcasite occurs with metacinnabar at the Red- 
ington mine, Knoxville (sees. 6, 7, T. 11 N., R. 4 W., M.D.), A. L. 



1966J DESCRIPTIONS 255 

Ransome and Kellogg (1) p. 410. 2, Botryoidal and stalactitic mar- 
casite has come from the Palisades mine about 2 miles north of Cali- 
stoga, CDMG (20376). 

Nevada County: 1, Mareasite was reported by Lindgren (7) p. 231, 
as one of the minor minerals at Grass Valley, and 2, it was found with 
copper sulphides in the Mineral Hill area (approximately T. 15 N., 
R. 8 E., M.D.), Forstner (4) p. 745. 

Riverside County: 1, Marcasite occurred at the Lucky Strike mine, 
between Perris and Elsinore, in a gold quartz vein, R. J. Sampson (9) 
p. 513. 

San Bernardino County: Marcasite occurs in a number of gold mines 
in the county, in minor amounts: 1, Colosseum (T. 17 N., R. 13 E., 
S.B.), 2, Paymaster (T. 13 N., R. 10 E., S.B.), and 3, Vanderbilt, 4 
miles east of Ivanpah, Tucker and Sampson (17) pp. 292, 217, 330; 
also at 4, Cumberland (sec. 25, T. 6 N., R. 2 E., S.B.), and 5, Coarse 
Gold, east slope of Providence Mountains, Tucker and Sampson 
(27) p. 63, (28) p. 234. 6. Cockscomb marcasite has been found at the 
Martha prospect, Ord mountains, Weber (3) p. 26. 

San Diego County: 1, Several mines in the Descanso region show a 
little marcasite, Tucker (8) p. 371. 

San Luis Ohispo County: 1, Marcasite occurs as sheaves of slender 
crystals in chalcedony vugs, and with occasional cinnabar crystals 
perched on millerite needles, from the Klau quicksilver mine (sec. 33, 
T. 26 S., R. 10 E., M. D.), Woodhouse and Norris (6) p. 114. 

Solano County: 1, A small amount of marcasite occurs in the cin- 
nabar ore at the St. John mine (NE^ sec. 33, T. 4 N., R. 3 W., M. D.), 
Weaver (1) p. 170. 

Tuolumne County: 1, Marcasite occurs sparingly 2 miles northwest 
of Columbia, Tucker (1) p. 138. 

Ventura County: 1, Marcasite is found with gold at the White Mule 
mine on the north slope of Frazier Mountain, Tucker and Sampson 
(20) p. 257. 

Yolo County: 1, Marcasite is reported from the Reed mine, Averitt 
(1) p. 76. 

MARGARITE 
Basic calcium aluminum silicate, CaAl4Si20,o(OH)2 

Margarite is prominent in glaucophane-bearing rocks and has been 
observed in several localities. 

Calaveras County: 1, Margarite has been found at the Gold Cliff 
mine, near Angels, CDMG (15483). 

Marin County: 1, The margarite mentioned by F. L. Ransome (3) 
p. 309, from Reed Station, Tiburon Peninsula, Eakle (22) p. 249, has 
been identified as muscovite, Eakle (7) p. 83. 

Plumas County: 1, Margarite occurs with corundum in the pluma- 
site li miles northwest of Meadow Valley post office, J. H. Pratt (6) 
p. 42. " 

Riverside County: 1, Margarite is reported in contact rock with min- 
eral "Z" at Crestmore, Ettinger (p.c. '59). 

Sa7i Mateo County: 1, Margarite is a microscopic constitutent of the 
schists at Belmont, Murgoci (1) p. 391. 



256 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [BuU. 189 

Santa Clara Coimty: 1, Margarite occurs with garnet and glauco- 
phane at Hilton Gulch, Oak Ridge, J. P. Smith (1) p. 203. 

Sonoma County: 1, Margarite is a microscopic constitutent of the 
glaucophane gneiss of Melitta, near Santa Rosa, Murgoci (1) p. 389. 

* MARIPOSITE, 1868 

Basic potassium aluminum chromium silicate, 
K(AI,Cr)2(AI,Si)40,o(OH)2; up to 1% Cr 

Mariposite is essentially muscovite, variety phengite characteristi- 
cally colored green by the presence of some chromium. It is abundantly 
distributed in the gold belt of the Sierra Nevada, and was described as 
a new mineral by Silliman (9) p. 380. It is considered by some miner- 
alogists to be identical with alurgite, Schaller (35) p. 139. A good gen- 
eral description of all Mother Lode occurrences is given by A. Knopf 
(11) p. 38. 

Calaveras Coiinty: 1, Mariposite occurs in schist at the Reserve and 
Golden Gate mines on Carson Hill, A. Knopf (11) p. 38. 

El Dorado County: 1, Green flakes of mariposite occur in the Pyra- 
mid mine, 4 miles north of Shingle Springs (N. R.). 

Imperial County: 1, Mariposite has been reported from this countv, 
W. W. Bradley (28) p. 343. 

Kern Connty: 1, Mariposite occurs in the Randsburg schists, Hulin 
(1) p. 25. Location is NW^ sec. 10, T. 30 S., R. 40 E., M. D., Troxel 
(p.c. '57). 

Los Angeles County: 1, Mariposite occurs as nests and lenses in talc- 
sericite schists of the Sierra Pelona series, in San Francisquito Canyon, 
upstream from the old San Francisquito Canyon dam site, Murdoch 
and Webb (6) p. 353. 

Mariposa County: 1, The original mariposite was described and 
named from the Josephine mine, Silliman (9) p. 380, Hanks (12) 
p. 260; analysis, H. W. Turner (12) p. 679. It is common in the schists 
of this county. 

Nevada County: 1, Mariposite is found in the Idaho-Maryland mine 
at Grass Valley, Lindgren (12) p. 115. 2, Mariposite is reported from 
the Red Ledge mine, Washington, with quartz and calcite in veins 
(N.R.). 

Placer County: 1, Mariposite was found at the Marguerite mine 
(N.R.). 

Riverside County: 1, Mariposite was reported on the west side of 
San Jacinto Mountain (N. R.). 

San Diego County: 1, Mariposite was reported near Oak Grove 

(N.R.). 

Sierra County: 1, Mariposite was found at the Rainbow mine, CDMG 
(10442) ; 2, it occurs at the Alhambra mine, Poker Flats (sec. 10, T. 
21 N., R. 10 E., M. D.), E. MacBoyle (3) p. 75, and 3, in the Forest 
and other areas, ibid., Lindgren (20) p. 105. 

Tuoluni7ie County: 1, Mariposite is common in quartz gangue of gold 
ores in the Rawhide and other mines near Tuttletown, H. W. Turner 
and Ransome (15) p. 6. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 257 

MASCAGNITE 
Ammonium sulphate, (NH4)2S04 

Sonoma County: 1, Mascagnite has been found with boussingaultite 
and epsomite near The Geysers, Goldsmith (7) p. 265, Vonsen (6) 
p. 288. The mineral forms as incrustations and nodules during the 
early summer months, in the upper part of Geyser Creek Canyon. 

MASSICOT 
Lead monoxide, PbO 

El Dorado County: 1, Massicot was found at the Rescue mine, W. W. 
Bradley (26) p. 194, CDMG (20836). 

Inyo County: 1, Massicot was reported 9 miles southeast of Big Pine, 
W. W. Bradley (29) p. 106; 2, it was found in the Darwin Mining 
District, Loew (2) p. 186, and 3, it occurred abundantly in the first 
discovered ore bodies with minium, wulfenite and pyromorphite at 
Cerro Gordo, R. W. Raymond (9) pp. 29, 31, Loew (2) p. 186. 

Kern County: 1, Fine scales of massicot have been found near Fort 
Tejon, E. S. Larsen (11) p. 106. A specimen of this is in the University 
of California Collections, Berkeley. 2, Another specimen of massicot 
occurring as borders on litharge has been recorded by E. S. Larsen 
(4) p. 18, from an unknown locality. 

Mono County: 1, Massicot has been found in the Blind Spring Mining 
District, probably mixed with minium, bindheimite and mimetite, A. L. 
Ransome (2) p. 189. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Massicot has been found near Cucamonga 
Peak in scales up to 1 mm across, and as borders on plates of litharge, 
E. S. Larsen (4) p. 18. 

Trinity County: 1, Massicot has been reported from the northern 
part of the county, CDMG (20193). 

MATILDITE 
Silver bismuth sulphide, AgBiS2 

Inyo County: 1, Tiny lamellar, oriented inclusions found in polished 
surfaces of steel gray galena from the Essex mine, Darwin Mining Dis- 
trict, are probably matildite, Hall and MacKevett (1) p. 17, ibid. 
(4)p.6L 

MELANTERITE— Copperas 
Hydrous iron sulphate, FeS04-7H20 

Melanterite is a common alteration product in mines containing 
pyrite or marcasite. 

Alameda County: 1, Melanterite is abundant as crystals or fibrous 
masses on the walls of the mine workings at the Alma pyrite mine, 
Leona Heights. Complex crystals from this occurrence have been meas- 
ured and described, Schaller (1) p. 195. 

Alpine County: 1, White brittle crusts and greenish stalactitic masses 
of melanterite have been found in the Leviathan sulphur mine, 7 miles 
east of Markleeville, Gary (1) p. 489, Nichols (1) p. 172. 

Amador County: 1, Melanterite occurred with mendozite on the walls 
of an old tunnel 1| miles north of Volcano (N. R.). 



258 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Contra Costa County: 1, Melanterite was found in the Mount Diablo 
mine (SEi sec. 29, T. 1 N., R. 1 E., M. D.), C. P. Ross (2) p. 42, 
Pampeyan (1) p. 24. 

Inyo County: 1, Melanterite was identified as a component of silver- 
lead ores from the oxidized zone in the Darwin Mining District, Hall 
and MacKevett (1) p. 18, ibid. (4) p. 64. 

Kern County: 1, Melanterite has been noted in the oxidized portion 
of veins of the Gold Peak and Cowboy mines, Mojave Mining District, 
Troxel and Morton (2) p. 281. 2, Melanterite is common in the oxi- 
dized zones of silver ore bodies in the Loraine area, Troxel and Morton 
(2) p. 41. 

Lake County: 1, Melanterite is abundant as stalactites in the Sul- 
phur Bank mine, near Clear Lake, Hanks (15) p. 104. 2, Brilliant 
green stalactites have been found in the Bradford quicksilver mine, 
Friedrich (1) p. 22. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Colorless crusts of melanterite associated 
with halotrichite and gypsum occur in pyritiferous boulders in con- 
glomerate on Cahuenga Peak, in a road-cut below the television station 
(sec. 25, T. 1 N., R. 14 W., S. B.), Neuerburg (1) p. 159, locality 10. 

Napa County: 1, Long pale-green stalactites of melanterite were 
abundant in the old Redington mine, Knoxville, Kramm (1) p. 345. 
2, Hulin (p.c. '36) has reported melanterite from the Palisades mine, 
2 miles north of Calistoga. 

Orange County: 1, Fibrous crusts of melanterite up to 5 inches 
thick occur on the walls of old workings at the Santiago coal mine, 
Santiago Canyon, Van Amringe (p.c. '36). 

8an Benito County: 1, Botryoidal masses and silky fibers of melan- 
terite are found in the old tunnels of the New Idria mine, Wilkie 
(p. c. '36). 

San Bernardino County: 1, Melanterite was found in old drifts of 
the California Rand and other mines of the area, Hulin (1) p. 99. 

San Diego County: 1, Small green and white crystals of melanterite 
were reported 6 miles south of Escondido, W. W. Bradley (28) p. 207. 

Santa Cruz County: 1, Abundant white or greenish efflorescences of 
melanterite covered the sides and bottom of a ravine running to the 
sea northwest of Santa Cruz, J. B. Trask (2) p. 56, (4) p. 388. 

Shasta County: 1, Melanterite is fairly common in the copper mines 
of the county, Graton (3) p. 100. 

Sonoma County: 1, Drusy green melanterite has been found near 
Petaluma, CDMG (11832), and 2, melanterite has been observed as 
occurring sparingly at The Geysers, Vonsen (6) p. 291, Irelan (3) 
p. 633. 

Trinity County: 1, Melanterite occurred with other sulphates at the 
Island Mountain mine, Vonsen (p.c. '17). 

MELILITE 

Melilite is a solid solution of three end- members: gehlenite, Ca2Al2Si07, 

akermanite, MgCajSijO^, and ferro-akermanite Ca2FeSi207. 

Its formula may be written (Ca.Na^) (Mg,Fe2%Fe3%AI) (Si.AOjO; 

Velardcnitc is a granular variety of gehlenite described from Du- 
rango, Mexico. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 259 

Inyo County: 1, A specimen of gehlenite, CDMG (21332), came 
from the Ubehebe Mining District, 2 miles east of Lost Burro Spring. 

Riverside County: 1, Gehlenite occurs in granular masses intimately 
intergrown with mer-winite, spurrite and diopside, at the Crestmore 
limestone quarry, E. S. Larsen and Foshag (10) p. 144, Woodford 
(11) p. 358. The gehlenite at Crestmore is considered by C. Wayne 
Burnham (1), p. 880, to be about 607c. gehlenite 40% akermanite. 

Tulare County: 1, Dull-green gehlenite, variety velardefiite, occurs in 
this county. Shannon (4) p. 1. 

♦MELONITE, 1867 
Nickel telluride, NiTej 

Calaveras County: 1, Melonite was discovered on Carson Hill in 

1867 and described as a new mineral by Genth (4) p. 86, (5) p. 313. 

2, The mineral was also found in the Stanislaus mine associated with 

hessite (?) and native tellurium (?), Genth (5) p. 313; analysis by 

Hillebrand (3) p. 60. 

MENDOZITE 

Hydrous aluminum sodium sulphate, NaAI(S04)2-11H20 

Amador County: 1, Crusts of mendozite and melanterite occur on 
the walls of an old tunnel 1^ miles north of Volcano (N. R.). 

Napa County: 1, Mendozite occurs on the Pritchard Ranch 9 miles 
southeast of St. Helena (N. R.). 

San Bernardino County: 1, Platy and fibrous white mendozite 
occurs 5 miles north of Hidden Springs, CDMG (18698). 

MENEGHINITE 
Sulfide of lead and antimony, CuPb,3Sb7S24 

Santa Cruz County: 1, This rare mineral has been found with 
franckeite and stannite in the contact rock of the Pacific Limestone 
Products (Kalkar) quarry, 2 miles west of Santa Cruz, Milton and 
Chesterman (p. c. '54). — 

(^ERCURY— Quicksilvei 
-fclative mercury, Hi® 

Liquid globules of mercury are common in most of the cinnabar 
mines, formed either by reduction of the sulphide or by sublimation 
of mercuric vapors. The mineral occurs in deep workings and in those 
parts of poorly ventilated mines where intense heat is developed by 
the decomposition of iron sulphides; it is also frequently found near 
the walls of cinnabar veins. 

Del Norte County: 1, Mercury was found in sec. 18, T. 18 N., R. 3 
E.. H., J. C. O'Brien (1) p. 78, and 2, it was reported from the Rock- 
land area (sec. 11, T. 18 N., R. 2 E., H.), Mining and Scientific ?ress 
(16). 3, Plentiful mercurv was found with cinnabar in the veins of the 
Webb mine (SE \ sec. 20, T. 18 N., R. 3 E., H.), J. C. O'Brien (9) 
p. 281. 

Kings County: 1, Mercury occurred in the Kings mine with cinnabar 
in serpentine, W. W. Bradley (2) p. 529. 

Lake County: 1, Mercury is abundant in the Wall Street mine, 
CDMG (63) ; 2, in the Bradford mine, Friedrich (1) p. 22; 3, at the 



260 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Great Western, Mirabel, and other mines west of Middletown, Craw- 
ford (1) p. 360, and 4, at the Chicago mine (sec. 1, T. 10 N., R. 8 W., 
M.D.), Anbury (2) p. 51. 

Mariposa County: 1, Mercury was found with gold amalgam at an 
unspecified locality, Schmitz (1) p. 713. 

Mendocino County: 1, Mercury is found 5 miles west of Orr Springs, 
Watts (2) p. 256. 

Mono County: 1, Mercury was found with cinnabar in limonite in a 
canyon 4 miles north of Hammil Station (T. 2 S., R. 33 E., M. D.), 
Woodhouse (p.c. '45). 

Napa County: 1, Mercurv occurs in La Jova and other mines in the 
vicinity of sec. 24, T. 7 X., R. 6 W., M. D., W. W. Bradley (5) p. 85, 
A. L. Ransome and Kellogg (1) p. 410, and 2, it has been found in 
considerable amount in the mud of the hot springs on the east side of 
Napa Creek, near Calistoga, W. W. Bradley (5) p. 81. 

Orange County: 1, Small amounts of mercury have been reported at 
Red Hill, near Tustin, Fairbanks (4) p. 118. It seems probable from 
the description that this is not metallic mercury, but metacinnabar, 
which occurs at this locality with cinnabar. 

San Benito County: 1, Mercury occurred in very considerable amount 
in certain parts of the New Idria mine. In one instance as much as 
one pint of mercury was collected at a single spot, W. W. Bradley (5) 
p. 97 ; 2, it is found in the Alpine and other mines, Stayton Mining 
District, ibid., and 3, mercury globules have been found on cinnabar 
half a mile above the junction of Clear Creek and San Benito River, 
Watters (p.c. '51). 

San Francisco County: 1, Globules of mercury with cinnabar have 
been found in siliceous rock near Twin Peaks, San Francisco, J. D. 
Whitney (7) p. 78, W. W. Bradley (5) p. 124. 

San Luis Obispo County: 1, Mercury has been found with metacinna- 
bar at La Libertad mine, Adelaide Mining District, Mining and Scien- 
tific Press (31) p. 323, and 2, at the Oceanic mine. Von Leicht (1) p. 
482. 

San Mateo County: 1, Mercury was found with montroydite and cin- 
nabar on the McGarvey Ranch about 3 miles from Redwood City on the 
Searsville road, Woodhouse (3) p. 603, Mining and Scientific Press 
(10) p. 357. 2, The mineral occurs on the Corte de Madera Rancho ( ?) 
5 miles west of Palo Alto with cinnabar and calomel, W. AV. Bradley 
(5) p. 149. 3, Mercury came from the Emerald Lake mine near Red- 
wood City, with cinnabar, metacinnabar and terlinguaite (?), (CDMG 

2 igaa^^- 

r^Santa Clara Coutrhf^l, Small amounts of mercury have been found 
in-tbe New A^mrrffen mine, Huguenin and Castello (4) p. 222, E. H. 
Bailey and Everhart (12) p. 96. 2, The mineral occurs in the Vaughn 
mine (sec. 14, T. 11 S.. R. 6 E., M. D.), with cinnabar, Crawford (1) 
p. 358. 

Siskiyou County: 1, Mercury is found sparingly at the Great North- 
ern mine, A. L. Ransome and Kellogg (1) p. 459. 

So7ioma County: 1, Metallic mercury was the only ore mineral at the 
Rattlesnake mine (sec. 31, T. 11 N., R. 8 W., M. D.). The metal was 
so abundant that it would spurt out of the ore when a pick was sunk 
in, Egleston (1) p. 273, W. W. Bradley (5) p. 192. 2, The main values 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 261 

were in metallic mercury in the Socrates (Pioneer) mine (sec. 32, T. 
11 N., R. 8 W., M. D.), Anbury (2) p. 115, W. W. Bradley (5) p. 193. 
3, Considerable mercury occurred in the New Sonoma mine (sees. 4, 5, 
T. 10 N., R. 8 W., M. D.), W. W. Bradley (5) p. 191, and in other 
mines in the Pine Flat area, ibid. p. 187 ; 4, at the Esperanza mine on 
Sulphur Creek, ibid., p. 186; 5, at the Clear Quill mine, Greenville area, 
CDMG (61), and 6, with metacinnabar at the Culver-Baer mine (sec. 
23, T. 11 N., R. 9 W., M. D.), W. W. Bradley (5) p. 185. 7, Aubury 
(1) p. 141, (4) p. 166, reported mercury from a 10-foot shaft on the 
Wall tract (sec. 30, T. 8 N., R. 9 W., M. D.), 5 miles southwest of 
Santa Rosa. 

Trinity County: 1, Mercury was found with stibnite and cinnabar 
at the Altoona mine (T. 38 N., R. 6 W., M. D.), W. P. Miller (1) p. 
716. 2, The mineral was reported with cinnabar and magnesite at the 
Integral mine (sec. 14, etc., T. 38 N., R. 6 W., M. D.), Mining and 
Scientific Press (25) p. 323. 

* MERWINITE, 1921 
Calcium magnesium silicate, Ca3Mg (8104)2 

Riverside County: 1, Merwinite occurs as granular masses associated 
with gehlenite, spurrite and wollastonite in the limestone quarries at 
Crestmore. This new mineral was described and named by E. S. Larsen 
and Foshag (10) p. 143, in 1921. It alters to thaumasite and foshagite, 
Murdoch (p.c. '64). 

MESOLITE 
Hydrous sodium calcium aluminum silicate, Na2Ca2[Al2Si30,o]3-8H20 

Mesolite is a zeolite generally occurring as silky fibrous crusts in 
cavities of basaltic rock. 

Kern County: 1, Silky, fibrous aggregates of mesolite occur with 
other zeolites on fractures in basalt at Red Rock Canyon, Murdoch 
(p.c. '57). 

Lassen County: 1, Mesolite was observed in the lava of Lassen Peak, 
CDMG (10325). 

Los Angeles County: 1, The presence of mesolite in amygdules of 
lava on Frazier Mountain has been confirmed by H. E. Pemberton 
(p.c. '64). 

Shasta County: 1, Mesolite was found near Redding (N. R.). 

Ventura County: 1, Tufts of hair-like snow-white mesolite occur lin- 
ing the hollow amygdules of the lavas of Lockwood Valley, H. E. Pem- 
berton (p.c. '64). 

* METACINNABAR, 1870 
Mercuric sulphide, HgS 

Colusa County: 1, Metacinnabar was found with cinnabar and gold 
at the Manzanita mine near Sulphur Creek, Becker (4) p. 367. 

Contra Costa County: 1, Metacinnabar is the principal ore mineral 
mined, with subordinate cinnabar and stibnite at the Mount Diablo 
(Ryne) mine (sec. 29, T. 1 N., R. 1 E., M. D.), C. P. Ross (2) p. 41, 
Pampeyan (1) p. 24. 



262 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Inyo County: 1, Metacinnabar has been found at Coso Hot Springs, 
T. Warner (2) p. 59. 2, The mineral occurred in a small vein in lime- 
stone, with cinnabar, Chloride Cliff mine, C. A. Waring and Huguenin 

(2) p. 121. 3, Metacinnabar occurs with stibnite at the Rocket claim, 
Argus Mountains (sec. 29, T. 22 S., R. 43 E., M. D.), Norman and 
Stewart (2) p. 84. 

Lake County: 1, Metacinnabar was prominent on the Great Western 
property, Hanks (84) p. 261; 2, in the Baker mine, Becker (4) p. 286, 
and 3, at the Abbott mine, Aubury (2) p. 47. 4, The mineral occurs 
with mercury at the Mirabel mine'(T. 10 N., R. 7 W., M. D.), A. L. 
Ransome and Kellogg (1) p. 392. 5, Metacinnabar is reported from the 
northeast corner of the main dump, Sulphur Bank mine, CDMG 
(21744), D. E. White and Roberson (2) p. 405. 

Lassen County: 1, Metacinnabar occurs as thin coatings on calcareous 
tufa and lake sediments at Amedee Hot Springs, Dickson and Tunell 
(1) p. 484. 

Monterey County: 1, Metacinnabar occurs with cinnabar in the Park- 
field area (sec. 35, T. 22 S., R. 14 E., M. D.), Aubury (2) p. 124. 

Napa County : 1, Metacinnabar was discovered in the Redington (Bos- 
ton) mine, Knoxville. Durand (3) p. 220, Hanks (12) p. 261, and 2, 
in the Aetna mine (T. 9 X., R. 6 W., M. D.), Melville and Lindgren 
(1) p. 22. It occurred there in black seemingly amorphous masses and 
was described as a new mineral by G. E. Moore (1) p. 319, (2) p. 380, 

(3) p. 36. Good crystals were later found in the same mine. Study 
showed the mineral to be isometric instead of amorphous, Penfield 
(1) p. 453. Analyses of metacinnabar from this mine were made by 
G. E. Moore (1) p. 319, and by Melville and Lindgren (1) p. 22. Meta- 
cinnabar formed a large part of the ore in the upper levels. 3, Meta- 
cinnabar was found coated with white calomel in the Oat Hill mine, 
CDMG (16284). 

Orange County: 1, Metacinnabar was found at Red Hill on the San 
Joaquin Ranch, disseminated through a ferruginous barite, Genth and 
Penfield (10) p. 383. This occurrence was erroneouslv recorded as 
mercury in CDMG Bulletin 91, Eakle (22) p. 30. 

San Benito County : 1, Large pieces of metacinnabar have been found 
in the New Hope vein of the New Idria mine, Becker (4) p. 302, and 2, 
it is found in black masses at the Picachos mine, A. P. Rogers (7) p. 
373. 3, Small amounts were found with cinnabar in the Bradford 
(Cerro Gordo) mine (see. 3, T. 15 S., R. 8 E., M. D.), 11 miles west 
of Panoche, Becker (4) p. 380, Melville and Lindgren (1) p. 23, W. W. 
Bradley (5) p. 46. This occurrence has been mistakenly listed in Inyo 
County because of the identity in name of the mine with the Cerro 
Gordo mine of the latter county. 4, Metacinnabar occurs on the Andy 
Johnsen claim, near Hernandez (Stanford -University Collections); 5, 
with cinnabar in sandstone at Valley View (T. 15 S..R. 10 E., M. D.), 
near Llanada, A. L. Ransome and Kellogg (1) p. 430, and 6, at the 
Butts mine (sec. 4, T. 16 S., R. 8 E., M. D.), W. W. Bradley (5) p. 101. 

San Luis Obispo County: 1, Metacinnabar has been found in the 
Adelaide (Klau) Mining District, Aubury (2) p. 160, CDMG (15860). 

San Mateo County: 1, Metacinnabar has been collected from the 
Emerald Lake mine near Redwood Citv, with mercury, cinnabar and 
terlinguaite ( ?), CDMG (21669). 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 263 

Santa Clara County: 1, Considerable amounts of metacinnabar have 
been found in the New Almaden and Guadalupe mines. Melville (3) 
p. 80, (1) p. 292, analyzed metacinnabar from the New Almaden mine 
and described the crystals as hexagonal, with some complex and doubt- 
ful forms. The occurrence has also been studied by G. E. Moore (3) 
p. 36. It is suggested by Wherry (3) p. 37, that at this occurrence the 
mineral is guadalcazarite (zincian metacinnabar) but the percentage 
of zinc appears too low; see also E. H. Bailey and Everhart (12) p. 
97. 

Solano County: 1, Metacinnabar occurred with cinnabar in the Hast- 
ings mine near Benicia, (sec. 11, T. 3 N., R. 3 W., M. D.), W. W. Brad- 
ley (5) p. 172. 

Sonoma County : 1, Metacinnabar was found in the Culver-Baer mine 
(sec. 23, T. 11 N., R. 9 W., M. D.), east of Cloverdale, W. W. Bradley 
(5) p. 185. 2, Metacinnabar occurs abundantly as small equant im- 
perfect crystals, with cinnabar, curtisite and realgar in sandstone at 
Skaggs Springs, F. E. Wright and Allen (3) p. 169, Everhart (4) p. 
390, and 3, at the Commonwealth Consolidated mine, 2 miles from The 
Geysers, Crawford (1) p. 371. 4, Metacinnabar was found in the 
Eureka mine (sec. 32, T. 11 N., R. 8 W., M. D.), Aubury (2) p. 106. 

Yolo County: 1, The ore of the California (Reed) mine was prin- 
cipally metacinnabar. Both crystals and massive metacinnabar occurred, 
Hanks (12) p. 261, (15) p. 122. 

*METAHAIWEEITE, 1959 
Hydrous calcium uranium silicate, CaO-2U03-6Si02-?H20 

Inyo County: 1, Spherulites of the new mineral haiweeite described 
by McBurney and Murdoch (1) p. 840, have inner cores of material 
with a higher index of refraction. Thus a similar relation is suggested 
to that of torbernite— metatorbernite, where difference in water con- 
tent exists. The inner spheres are tentatively identified as the new 
mineral metahaiweeite, CDMG (21739). 

METASTIBNITE 
Antimony trisulphide, Sb2S3 

Inyo County: 1, Metastibnite has been reported with stibnite and 
oxides of antimony at the Bishop antimony mine, 4^ miles south of 
Bishop, Woodhouse (p.c. '45). 

Lake County: 1, A little purple metastibnite has been observed in 
the boulder zone, Sulphur Bank, D. E. White and Roberson (2) p. 409. 

Sonoma County: 1, Metastibnite is reported to occur sparingly in sili- 
ceous sinter at The Geysers, Anon. (30) p. 426. 

METASTRENGITE 
Hydrous iron phosphate, FeP04-2H20 

San Diego County: 1, A violet-colored material from the Stewart 
mine, Pala, probably the one called strengite by Schaller (29) p. 145, 
has been identified by x-ray study as metastrengite, E. S. Dana (6) p. 
771, confirming Mrose (p.c. '49) and Frondel (p.c. '48). The name 
metastrengite has replaced phosphosiderite, E. S. Dana (6) p. 769. 



264 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Metastrengite is associated here with yellow stewartite and oxides of 

manganese. 

METATORBERNITE 

Hydrous copper uranyl phosphate, Cu(U02)2(P04)2-8H20 

Imperial County: 1, Metatorbernite has been tentatively identified 
from the Lucky Katy claims on the southwest flank of the Chocolate 
Mountains (see. 7, T.'9 S., R. 14 E., S. B.). The mineral fills fractures, 
and is disseminated in country rock with quartz and iron oxides, G. W. 
Walker et al. (5) pp. 10, 26. 

Inyo County: 1, Metatorbernite is reported from an unspecified lo- 
cality, CDMG (21619). 

Kern County: 1, Metatorbernite is tentatively identified from shear 
zones in volcanic and granitic rocks as coatings, with ferrimolybdite 
and molvbdenite, from the Silver Ladv claims in Jawbone Canyon, 20 
miles north of Mojave (sec. 10, T. 30 S., R. 36 E., M. D.), G. W. 
Walker etal. (5) p. 32. 

San Bernardino County: 1, The mineral is reported from an un- 
certain locality, CDMG (21629). 

Tuolumne County: 1, Metatorbernite is reported from east of Yo- 
semite Valley, CDMG (21620). 

METAVOLTINE 
Hydrous potassium sodium iron sulphate, K^Na3Fe2*Fe53*(S04),2"16H20 

San Bernardino County: 1, Foshag (19) p. 352, has found metalvol- 
tine with krausite, coquimbite, alunite and other sulphates at the "sul- 
phur hole" east of the borate mines near Borate, in the Calico Moun- 
tains. 

METAZEUNERITE 
Hydrous copper uranium arsenate, Cu(U02)2(As04)2-8H20 

Kern County: 1, MacKevett (2) p. 205, suggests that arsenic and 
copper in the analyses of the uranium ores of the Kern River uranium 
area may be from metazeunerite. 2, Metazeunerite is reported from the 
Little Sparkler prospect, Kern River uranium area, MacKevett (2) p. 
214. 3, Metazeunerite has been identified in the ore of the Kergon 
mine, Kern River Canyon, Troxel and Morton (2) p. 332. 

Nevada County: 1, A primary uranium mineral tentatively identified 
as metazeunerite occurs in the Truckee Canyon group of claims 13 
miles E. of Truckee, near Highway 40 (sec. 13, T. 18 N., R. 17 E., 
M. D.), as minute cavity fillings in a shear zone in granodiorite, G. 
W. Walker et al. (5) p. 28. 

Plumas County: 1, Metazeunerite is reported from the Chilcoot area, 
CDMG (21608). G. W. Walker et al. (5) p. 28, describes the Perry 
Jones group of 61 claims (sec. 13, T. 24 N., 16 E.) and (sec. 18, T. 24 
N., R. 17 E., ^I. D.), where "metazeunerite or torbernite" occurs in 
quartz vein material. The property is reached by road 4.6 miles north 
from Chilcoot. 

*MEYERHOFFERITE, 1914 
Hydrous calcium borate, 032640,, -yH,© 

Inyo County: 1, Meyerhofferite occurs as an alteration of the glassy 
inyoite crystals in the colemanite deposit of Mount Blanco on Furnace 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 265 

Creek. It was described, analyzed, and named by Sehaller (33) p. 
35; Foshag (7) p. 200, (10) p. 10. 

Kern County: 1, Meyerhofferite, pseudomorphous after inyoite, is 
found in the deposits at Boron, H. E. Pemberton et al. (1) p. 27. 

MIARGYRITE 
Silver antimony sulphide, AgSbSj 

San Bernardino County: 1, Miargyrite is probably the most abund- 
ant silver mineral in the deposits from the Randsburg Mining District. 
Well-formed crystals are found in open drusy cavities in the veins, 
Hulin (1) p. 97. Shannon (7) pp. 1-10, has described and analyzed 
crystals from the California Rand silver mine. Murdoch (9) p. 773, 
has also studied complex cr.ystals from this occurrence. 

MICROLITE 

Basic calcium sodium tantalum niobium oxide with fluorine, 
(Ca,Na)2(Ta,Nb)2(0,OH,F)7Ta>Nb 

Riverside County: 1, The rare mineral microlite occurs on Queen 
Mountain, Pala, Jahns and Wright (5) p. 31. This may be the same 
locality referred to by A. F. Rogers (7) p. 375. 2, Microlite is reported 
from the Fano mine, with lepidolite and quartz, Palache et al. (10) p. 
753. 

San Diego County : 1, Microlite has been found, exact locality un- 
known, as a honey-yellow mineral associated with albite, lepidolite, 
tourmaline and colorless apatite. A few crystals are octahedral with 
narrow modifying faces, A. F. Rogers (7) p. 375. 

MILLERITE 
Nickel sulphide, NiS 

Calaveras County: 1, Crystals of millerite intergrown with albite 
are reported from the Stanislaus mine, A. W. Jackson (3) p. 365. 

Hnmholdt County: 1, Specimens of serpentine from this county oc- 
casionally contain needles of millerite (N. R.). 

Lake Co^mty: 1, Millerite occurs in the Great Western mine, in very 
small amount, R. G. Yates and Hilpert (4) p. 246. 

Napa County: 1, Small coatings of microscopic crystals of millerite 
were found with cinnabar at the Andalusia mine near Knoxville, Becker 
(4) p. 284. 2, Minute millerite crystals were found at the Aetna mine 
(sec. 2, T. 9 N., R. 6 W., M. D.), Becker (4) p. 372, (6) p. 148. 3, 
Millerite was found at the Oat Hill mine in Pope Valley (N. R.). 4, 
Specimens of serpentine containing needles of millerite have come 
from Berryessa Valley (N. R.). 5, Slender needle-like crystals which 
may be millerite found in microscopic sections from the Redington 
mine, Becker (4) p. 286, A. F. Rogers (35) p. 396. 6, Millerite is found 
in the Twin Peaks mine, R. G. Yates and Hilpert (4) p. 246. 

Placer County: 1, Millerite was found with arsenopyrite near Cisco, 
Hanks (12) p. 264. 

Plumas County: 1, Millerite occurred as coatings in the Pocahontas 
mines at Mountain Meadow, Crawford (1) p. 69. 

San Luis Ohispo County: 1, Bronze needle-like crystals of. millerite 
up to i inch, occur in tlie ore of La Libertad mine, Adelaide Mining 



266 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

District (sec. 21, T. 27 S., R. 10 E., M. D.), F. F. Davis (p.c. '53). 2, 
Millerite is reported with small euhedral cinnabar crystals in vugs in 
gouge and breccia in serpentine from the Klau quicksilver mine (sec. 
33, T. 26 S., R. 10 E., M. D.), in the Santa Lucia Range. Linnaeite, 
marcasite (previously reported as pyrite), and alterations morenosite, 
bieberite, epsomite, and several iron sulphates are associated. The 
millerite occurs as sheaves of slender crystals, Woodhouse and Norris 
(6) pp. 113-115. 

Santa Clara County: 1, Millerite in fine needles is found occasionally 
in the mercurj^ ores of the New Almaden mine, E. H. Bailey and Ever- 
hart (12) p. 99. 

Ventura County: 1, Millerite has been found with pyrrhotite and 
pentlandite at the Ventura mine (T. 1 N., R. 18 W., S. B.), Tucker and 
Sampson (20) p. 258. 

MIMETITE 
Lead chioro-arsenate, Pb5(As04)3CI 

Inyo County: 1, Mimetite is one of the numerous minerals occurring 
in the Cerro Gordo mines, Irelan (4) p. 47. This is probably an invalid 
entry. Specimen no. CDMG (8585), presented to CDMG about the 
time of Irelan 's report, and alleged to be from Cerro Gordo, is not 
mimetite, and does not appear to be like other Cerro Gordo material, 
H. E. Pemberton (p.c. '64). 2, The mineral is found in the Blind 
Spring Mining District, Loew (1) p. 657. 3, Well-crystallized speci- 
mens of mimetite have come from the Anaconda mine at Darwin, Noren 
(p.c. '54). 4, Mimetite occurs sparingly in small greenish crystals in 
the ores of the Minietta mines, Argus Range, Woodhouse (p.c. '64). 5, 
Mimetite occurs occasionally in the lead-silver ores at the Big Four 
mine. Northern Panamint range. Hall and Stephens (3) p. 35. 6, The 
mineral is also found in the Surprise and Defense mine. Lookout 
(Modoc) Mining District, ibid., p. 26. 7, A specimen of mimetite, as- 
sociated with shattuckite and plancheite, has been found in the Pana- 
mint Mountains, Freitag (p.c. '57). 

Kern County: 1, Mimetite was found with galena near Randsburg 

(N.R.). 

Riverside County: 1, Minute yellow needles of mimetite are found on 
fracture surfaces of pegmatite. Commercial quarry, 910' level. Crest- 
more, Murdoch (p.c. '59). 

San Bernardino County: 1, Small amounts of mimetite were found 
in the Morning Star mine, Lava Beds Mining District, near Lavic, 
CDMG (11394). 2, A specimen of very pale mimetite, associated with 
pale wulfenite, in the University of California Collections at Berkeley, 
is probably from the Vanadium King mine near Goffs. 

MINIUM— Red Lead 
Lead oxide, PbjO^ 

The red oxide of lead is rarely found native. It is an oxidation prod- 
uct of galena and other lead minerals, occurring as a powder. 

Inyo County: 1, Abundant minium was reported from Cerro Gordo, 
with massicot, wulfenite and pyromorphite, R. W. Raymond (9) pp. 
29, 31. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 267 

Kern County: 1, Minium has been found near Fort Tejon (N. R.). 

Los Angeles County: 1, Minium occurs as vivid red coatings on 
galena, with barite and fluorite in the Felix fluorite mine near Azusa, 
Clarke (p.c. '36). 

Mono County: 1, Minium has been recorded from the Rockingham 
mine, Blind Spring Mining District, W. J. Hoffman (1) p. 737. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Minium has been reported from the Bul- 
lion mine, probably in this countv (T. 10 N., R. 1 E., or T. 14 N., R. 
15 E., S. B.). The location is doubtful. 

Tulare County: 1, Minium is reported from the northern part of 
the county, Irelan (4) p. 47, CDMG (11420). 

MIRABILITE— Glauber Salt 
Hydrous sodium sulphate, Na2SO4-10H2O 

Mirabilite is sometimes found on the walls of mines where sulphide 
ores are decomposing. It is also found as crusts about dry alkali lakes. 

Imperial County: 1, Mirabilite occurs with thenardite at Pope Siding 
(sec. 19, T. 9 S., R. 12 E., S. B.), Tucker (8) p. 87. 

Kern County: 1, Mirabilite is deposited as white coatings where 
moisture seeped through mine walls at the California borate property, 
Kramer borate area, G. T. Smith et al. (1) p. 1074, H. E. Pemberton 
etal. (1) p. 38. 

Napa County: 1, Mirabilite occurred on the walls of the tunnels in 
the old Redington cinnabar mine, Knoxville (N. R.). 

San Bernardi7io County: 1, Mirabilite occurs with gypsum and halite 
in the Chemahuevis Valley about 32 miles south of Needles, Graeff (1) 
p. 173. It is found here only by analysis of the soluble constituents of 
the clay. 2, Mirabilite is abundant at Searles Lake, H. S. Gale (13) 
p. 297, but is found only in a zone 10 to 30 feet below the top of the 
Bottom mud, G. I. Smith and Haines (3) p. P30. 

San Luis Obispo County: 1, Mirabilite occurs with blodite in the 

white crystalline salts of Soda Lake (T. 31 S., R. 20, 21 E., M. D.), 

which receives the drainage of Carrizo Plain, H. S. Gale (10) p. 430, 

Franke (2) p. 455. 

MIXITE 

Basic hydrous copper bismuth arsenate, Cu,]Bi(As04)5(OH),Q-6H20(?) 

Inyo County: 1, Pale-blue needles in radiating clusters in specimens 

from the Cerro Gordo mine have been identified as mixite, Murdoch 

(p.c. '62). 

MOLYBDENITE 

Molybdenum disulphide, M0S2 

Molybdenite is the principal ore of molybdenum. The mineral is 
widely distributed in the State, occurring in small flakes and leaves in 
quartz veins and granites. It strongly resembles graphite but can gen- 
erally be distinguished from that mineral by its lighter bluish lead- 
gray color and its occurrence with granitic rocks. It is of very common 
occurrence in contact metamorphic tungsten ores. 

No attempt has been made to report all of the occurrences of molyb- 
denite found in the State that are referenced in the literature. The 
mineral is widespread and is so common that only occurrences of min- 



268 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

eralogical interest should be included. However, some localities of minor 
importance and of little mineralogical interest are noted for the his- 
torical record because they have been reported in early editions of 
Minerals in California. 

Amador County: 1, Molybdenite occurs in the p:old ores of the Zeila 
mine near Jackson, F. L. Ransome (9) p. 8, A. Knopf (11) p. 39; 2, 
in the Argonaut mine, Josephson (1) p. 475; 3, in the Badger mine 
near Sutter, and 4, in the Midian mine near Herbertville, J. B. Trask 
(7) pp. 35, 36. 

Calaveras County: 1, Molybdenite is common in the ores of the 
Melones mine, Carson Hill, A. Knopf fll) p. 39; 2, it occurs at Garnet 
Hill, at the junction of Moore Creek and Mokelumne River, Melhase 
(6) p. 7, and 3, it is found in sulphide-rich gold ore at the Hale mine 
near Angels Camp. J. A. Brown (1) p. 147. 4, Molybdenite in coarse 
flakes is associated with scheelite at the Moore Creek mine (sec. 1, T. 
7 N., R. 16 E., M. D.), W. B. Clark and Lydon (4) p. 123. 

El Dorado County: 1, Broad foliated plates of molybdenite occur 
in a pegmatite with axinite and copper sulphides at the old Cosumnes 
mine near Fairplav, Hanks (12) p. 274. 2, Plates of molybdenite are 
found at Grizzly Flat, Mining and Scientific Press (37) p.' 420, CDMG 
(15183). 3, J. B. Trask (7) p. 28, reported molybdenite from the Pacific 
mine at Placerville. 

Fresno County: 1, Molybdenite is found at the Kings River Canyon 
copper mine, CDMG (16296). 2, Good broad plates of molybdenite oc- 
cur at Green Mountain on the South Fork, San Joaquin River, CDMG 
(14832). 3, The mineral is reported with ferrimolybdite near Palisade 
Creek (approx. T. 10 S., R. 31, 32 E., M. D.), W. W. Bradley (24) 
p. 345. 4, Small amounts of molybdenite occur with the tungsten ores 
in the Mt. Morrison quadrangle, Rinehart and Ross (2) p. 93. 5, Some 
rich molybdenite specimens were found in the Hard Point prospect, 
Lee Lake, ibid., p. 96. 

Inyo County: 1, Large masses of molybdenite occur in the Pine Creek 
tungsten mine, south slope of Mount Morgan. Tucker (4) p. 296. 2, The 
mineral is found in a 15-inch vein with quartz at the Lucky Boy pros- 
pect, 7 miles east of Kearsarge. (N.R.) 3, A considerable deposit of 
molybdenite is reported south of Lida, in the west arm of Death Valley, 
Engineering and Mining Journal (9) p. 205. 4, Molybdenite occurs 
disseminated in granite at the Coso molybdenite claim (T. 20 S., R. 38 
E., M. D.), Tucker and Sampson (25) p. 459. 5, Foliated molybdenite 
came from the Beveridge mine, Hanks (12) p. 274. Many other minor 
occurrences of molybdenite are found in the county : 6, Panyo tungsten 
(T. 20 S., R. 40 E., M. D.), W. W. Bradley (30) p. 671;"?, Wilshire 
gold mine, A. Knopf (6) p. 236; 8, Deep Creek west of Bishop, Hess 
and Larsen (17) p. 269; 9, Breakneck Canyon, The Mineralogist (5) 
p. 10, and 10, 2i miles east of Willow (Wilson?). Funeral Range. 
CDMG (21022). 

Kern County: 1, Molybdenite is a minor mineral in the scheelite 
deposits around Hobo Hot Springs and Cedar Creek, Prout (1) p. 413, 
Hess and Larsen (17) p. 266; 2, it occurs near Gorman with cassiterite 
and powellite, L. R. Page and Wiese (1) p. 36, Troxel and Morton 



1966} DESCRIPTIONS 269 

(2) p. 294; 3, it is largely altered to powellite at Black Mountain, 15 
to 20 miles northwest of Randsburj]:, Hess (14) p. 48, and 4, it is abun- 
dant in the Amalie Mining District, Mining and Scientific Press (35) 
p. 868. 5, Disseminated grains of molybdenite occur in granite between 
Hoffman and Butterbread Canyons, Murdoch (p.c. '50). 6, 6. W. 
Walker et al. (5) p. 32, report molybdenite from the Silver Lady 
claims, probably confirming (5), Murdoch (p.c. '50). 7, Molybdenite 
appears in the ores of the Big Blue group, near (new) Kernville, Troxel 
and Morton (2) p. 99. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Minor amounts of molybdenite have been 
found in the Winter Creek group. Santa Anita canyon, R. J. Sampson 
(10) p. 176; 2, Lang Canyon, 6 miles north of Altadena, Tucker (13) 
p. 318, and 3, at the junction of Coldwater and Franklin Canyon roads, 
Santa Monica Mountains, Neuerberg (p.c. '46). 4, Coarse flakes of mo- 
lybdenite occur in quartz and feldspar on the north side of Big 
Tujunga Canyon, 2 or 3 miles above its mouth, Murphy (p.c. '49). 

Madera County: 1, Molybdenite occurs at Speckerman's mine, 6 miles 
above Fresno Flat, Hanks (12) p. 274; 2, a small deposit is found at 
Sugar Pine, R. P. McLaughlin and Bradley (3) p. 559, and 3, it occurs 
in cavities in quartz with ferrimolybdite, on the west slope of Red Top 
Mountain on the Minaret-Kings Creek trail, Erwin (1) p. 71. 

Mariposa County: 1, A little molybdenite occurs in a lens of garnet, 
epidote and quartz on the southeast slope of Mount Hoffman, H. W. 
Turner (19) p. 426. 2, The mineral is found with ferrimolj^bdite in the 
Kinsley Mining District, 7 miles from El Portal (N.R.). 

Mono County: 1, Molybdenite is found in a number of localities in 
the Sweetwater Range, north of Bridgeport, Whiting (1) p. 362, J. H. 
Pratt (4) pp. 199, 265, Boalich (4) p. 154; 2, it also occurs on Bloody 
Mountain, above Laurel Lakes, Mayo (4) p. 83, and 3, in the Benton 
and Payote areas, Loew (2) p. 186. 

Monterey County: 1, Abundant molybdenite was found in a series of 
quartz veins on the Westcott Ranch, 8 miles east of Soledad, Boalich 
(4) p. 157. 

Nevada County: 1, Molybdenite occurs sparingly in the (xrass Valley 
and Nevada City areas, Lindgren (12) p. 119, W. D. Johnston (4) 
p. 39. 

Placer County: 1, Molybdenite is abundant in some of the mines of 
the Ophir Mining District, Lindgren (7) p. 273. 

Plumas County: 1, Some high-grade molybdenite ore was produced 
near Chilcoot, E. MacBoyle (2) p. 180. 

Riverside County: 1, Molybdenite occurs with other sulphides in shear 
zones of quartz, at the southeast base of Mt. Hole (sec. 10 ?, T. 3 S., 
R. 6 W., S. B.), E. S. Larsen (17) p 96. 2, Molybdenite occurs in the 
sheeting planes of an aplitic granite 3^ miles NE of Corona, east of 
the small gulch that heads east of Mt. Hole, E. S. Larsen et al. (18) 
p. 49. 3, Molvbdenite is found in garnet rock at Crestmore, Woodford 
et al. (10) p^ 368. 

San Bernardino County: 1, There are several small occurrences of 
molybdenite on the South Fork of Lytle Creek, Tucker (4) p. 356, 
Tucker and Sampson (16) p. 266. 2, Molybdenite occurs with wolfra- 
mite and hiibnerite in the New York Mountains (sec. 35, T. 14 N., 
R. 15 E., S. B.), Tucker and Sampson (30) p. 584, (34) p. 497. 3, 



270 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Strongly fluorescing molybdenite is found in garnet-epidote contact 
zones (NEi sec. 32, T. 3 N., R. 2 E., S. B.), Guillou (1) p. 16. 4, Mo- 
lybdenite is an important constituent of the quartz veins in the Red 
Hill area, Ord Mountains, Weber (3) p. 26. 

San Diego County: 1, A large deposit of molybdenite in granite oc- 
curs near Campo (sec. 8, T. 18 S., R. 5 E., S. B.), Orcutt (1) p. 71, 
Tucker (4) p. 379. 2, Molybdenite occurs in quartz veins 4 miles south- 
east of Dulzura, on the north side of Cottonwood Creek. Engineering 
and Mining Journal (22) p 1017, Tucker (4) p. 380; 3, it occurs as 
masses and flakes in aplite (sees. 3, 11, T. 13 S., R. 1 W., S. B.), 6 miles 
west of Ramona, Calkins (1) p. 73, and 4, it occurs with pvrrhotite at 
the Echo mine near Lakeside, W. W. Bradley (28) p. 495, CDMG 
(20948). 

Shasta County: 1, A considerable deposit of molybdenite in aplite 
or alaskite, is found on Boulder Creek (sec. 33, T. 37 N., R. 5 W., 
M. D.), F. M. Hamilton and Root (5) p. 126, Averill (9) p. 168, J. B. 
Trask (7) p. 50. 

Sierra County: 1, Molybdenite was found with molybdite in copper 
ore at the Sierra Buttes mine, Burkart (2) p 21, J. R. Browne (4) 
p. 210. 

Siskiyou County: 1, Molybdenite and chalcopyrite have been recorded 
from the Yellow Butte mine (sec. 25, T. 43 N., R. 4 W., M. D.), Averill 
(5) p. 273. 2, The mineral was found in a quartz vein with gold and 
tetradymite at the Quartz Hill mine (sec. 16, T. 45 N., R. 10 W.^ M. D.), 
Averill (p.c. '45). 

Trinity County: 1, IMolvbdenite was found with ferrimolvbdite near 
Lewiston, CDMG (19433). 

Tulare County: 1, Molybdenite occurs with ferrimolybdite in the Min- 
eral King Mining District (approx. T. 16 N., R. 31 E., M. D.), Laizure 
(2) p. 47. 2] Fine large foliated plates of molybdenite occur in grano- 
diorite at the head of Kaweah River, F. M. Hamilton and Root (5) 
p. 126, and 3, it has been reported from Cow Mountain, Hot Springs 
area. Engineering and Mining Journal (16) p. 228. 

Tuolumne County: 1, Molybdenite with pyrite in a quartz vein occurs 
on the south side of Knights Creek, near Big Trees, H. W. Turner (12) 
p. 707, H. W. Turner and Ransome (18) p. 8, and 2, in quartz veins 
with epidote and garnet, 3 miles west of Tower Peak (sees. 16, 17, 
T. 3 N., R. 15 E., M. D.), Logan (23) p. 81, H. W. Turner (19) p. 
427. 3, A good specimen of molybdenite has come from the Norwegian 
mine, CDMG (19525). 

Ventura County: 1, Small kidney-like deposits of molybdenite, -with 
copper minerals, occur on Frazier Mountain (sec. 11, T. 6 N., R. 19 W., 
S. B.), Tucker and Sampson (20) p. 257, and 2, on McDonald Peak 
(Alamo Mountain), J. H. Pratt (4) p. 266, Tucker and Sampson (20) 
p. 257. 

Yuha County: 1, Plates of molybdenite with yellow ferrimolybdite 
have been reported near Camptonville (N. R.). 

MONAZITE 
Phosphate of rare earth elements, (Ce,La,Pr,Nd)P04 

Minute grains of monazite are not uncommon in small amounts in 
beach and river sands of the State. Other occurrences are in pegma- 



1966 J DESCRIPTIONS 271 

tites. Small amounts have been found in the sands of Butte, El Dorado, 
Humboldt, Nevada, Placer, Plumas and Yuba Counties, D. T. Day and 
Richards (7) pp. 1185, 1186, 1187, Lindgren (20) p. 74. 

Del Norte County: 1, Monazite was observed in the black sands at 
Crescent City in amounts up to 56 pounds per ton of concentrates, 
D. T. Day and Richards (7) p. 74. 

Riverside County: 1, Monazite in small crystals associated with 
xenotime and cyrtolite is a conspicuous constituent of a pegmatite in 
the Southern Pacific silica quarry near Nuevo, Dykes (1) p. 161, 
Melhase (7) p. 11, Patchick (3), p. 323. 2, Monazite is also found in 
pegmatites, about 2 miles north of Winchester, W. W. Bradley (23) 
p. 117, and 3, east of Riverside, at the foot of the Box Springs Moun- 
tains, Dykes (1) p. 161. 4, Crystals of monazite have been found with 
albite in a pegmatite, about 200 yards west of the Jensen limestone 
quarry in the Jurupa Mountains, J. W. Clark (p.c. '36). It seems 
probable that the monazite crystals reported from west of the Jensen 
quarry are sphene instead, as this mineral is abundant there, Murdoch 
(p.c. '47). 5, Rosettes of monazite ( ?) have been found with rose quartz 
in the Williamson silica mine (sec. 20, T. 7 S., R. 2 E., S. B.), Fisher 
(1) p. 54. 6, Monazite has been reported from fine-grained granite, 
on the west side of Mt. Rubidoux, E. S. Larsen (p.c. '46). 7, Monazite 
has been reported as a minor constituent of tonalite, together with 
anatase and zircon, from a tunnel south of Val Verde, R. W. Wilson 
(1) p. 124. 8, The Mountain View pegmatite has yielded small crystals 
of monazite, Murdoch (p.c. '54). 9, Monazite is reported from a peg- 
matite in the magnesite mine near Winchester, Chesterman (5) p. 362. 
10, An unidentified mineral, probably monazite, is sparsely distributed 
in biotite gneiss at the Desert View claim (sees. 31, 32, T. 5 S., R. 10 E., 
S. B.), about 2 miles N. 25° W. of Cactus City, G. W. Walker et al. 
(5) p. 26. 11, Monazite is found in sands near Live Oak Tank in the 
Joshua Tree National Monument, 12 miles south of Twenty-Nine Palms, 
G. W. AValker et al. (5) p. 25. 12, Well-formed crystals of monazite 
occur with cyrtolite and xenotime in pegmatite, 4 miles east of Nuevo, 
Charles Sewart (p.c. '60). 13, Monazite occurs with xenotime in a 
northwest-trending belt of Precambrian gneiss, southern Music Valley 
area, J. R. Evans (1) p. 38. 14, Minor amounts of the mineral have 
been identified in the area at the Ajax, Uranus No. 4, and U-Thor 
prospects, ibid., pp. 10-15. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Monazite occurs in crystals and grains in 
the bastnaesite deposit at Mountain Pass, Olson (2), quoted in L. A. 
Wright et al. (5) p. 125. 2, Monazite, with ilmenite, allanite and 
euxenite, is found in the borders of the quartz nucleus of the pegmatite 
in the Pomona tile quarry, on the road between Old Woman Spring 
and Yucca Valley, Hewett and Glass (3) p. 1048. 3, Monazite is sug- 
gested as the mineral which causes radioactivity in the Uranus claims 
SW of Pinto Basin (sec. 6, T. 2 S., R. 10 E., S. B.), occurring in bio- 
tite-rich portions of the Pinto gneiss, G. W. Walker et al. (5) p. 25. 
4, Thorium-bearing monazite is tentatively identified as occurring in 
the Homestretch group of claims near Copper Mt. (sees. 19, 30, T. 1 N., 
R. 8 E., S. B.), in granitic rocks, ibid. 5, Anamalous radioactivity in 
the Lucky Seven claim (sec. 18, T. 2 N., R. 4 E., S. B.), is attributed 



272 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

to thorium-bearing allanite and monazite in biotite pods in granitic 
rocks, ibid., p. 24. 6, Abnormally high radioactivity in the Mountain 
Pass area is largely due to thorium in thorite and monazite in the bed- 
rock of the area, ibid., p. 22. 7, Monazite is tentatively identified from 
the Original and Pack Saddle claims in granitic rocks (T. 6 N., 
R. 13 E., S. B.), ibid., p. 13. 8, Irregular crystals of iron-stained 
monazite occur in a pegmatite at the Rainbow group of claims in the 
Solo area, 12 miles S. 69° E. of Baker, with thorite crystals, ibid., p. 22. 
9, Monazite is suggested by G. W. Walker et al. (5) p. 24, as the source 
of radioactivity in the Steiner claims (sec. 31, T. 2 N., R. 7 E., S. B.). 
San Diego County: 1, Occasional well-developed monazite crystals, 
often enclosed in garnet, occur in the old Garnet Ledge (center sec. 
19, T. 11 S., R. 2 E., S. B.) at Mesa Grande, Fisher (1). 2, Monazite 
has been reported from the A. B. C. mine, Ramona, Dawson (p.c. '50). 

3, Crystals as much as half an inch in size have been found in the 
Caterina mine, Heriart Mountain, Pala, Jahns and Wright (5) p. 31. 

4, Age determinations have been made on monazite from Woodson 
Mountain and Descanso, Bushee (1) p. 29. 

MONTICELLITE 
Calcium magnesium silicate, CaMgSi04 

Monticellite is a rare mineral formed by contact metamorphism in 
magnesian limestone. 

Riverside County: 1, Monticellite is one of the many minerals occur- 
ring in the crystalline limestone at Crestmore. It was found massive, 
A. F. Rogers (46) p. 192, and in isolated grains in blue calcite, as- 
sociated with xanthophyllite, Eakle (14) p. 335, (15) p. 342. Wood- 
ford et al. (10) p. 365, report prisms up to 8 em in length. Moehlman 
and Gonyer (1) p. 474, describe the occurrence of monticellite with 
garnet and diopside at Crestmore. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Monticellite occurs as very pure, round 
greenish granular masses in metamorphosed dolomite at the Dewey 
mine in the Clark Mountain Mining District, 6 miles east of Valley 
Wells, Schaller (50) p. 815. 

MONTMORILLONITE— Saponite, Hectorite 
Basic magnesium aluminum silicate, (Si7.47,Alo.33)'^(Al3 „MgQ.33)^'02o(OH)4 

The clay known as hentonite which has been derived from the alter- 
ation of volcanic ash or tuff, is usually composed of montmorillonite. 
Griffithite, described as a new mineral from California in 1917, E. S. 
Larsen and Steiger (6) p. 11, is a member of the montmorillonite series, 
Faust (1) p. 66. 

Clay and clay-like minerals such as bauxite, gibbsite, halloysite, mont- 
morillonite, and others are widespread in many localities. Often, identi- 
fication has been by field examination. This is especially true in early 
reported occurrences. Accordingly, few occurrences are included in the 
listings, some chosen for historic reasons, and some for mineralogic rea- 
sons. It is impractical to include all localities, especially since many 
important areas produce mineral commodities, and are not strictly min- 
eral occurrences. Many reports may also in fact be in error as far as 
specific mineral identification is concerned. X-ray and optical examina- 
tion is required for certain identification of most clay minerals. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 273 

Inyo County: 1, Montmorillonite is mined under the name of "am- 
argosite" along' the Amargosa River, near Tecopa, Shoshone and Ash 
Meadows, Melhase (2) p. 838. Montmorillonite from Amargosa Valley 
was analyzed by Fairehild, R. C. Wells (3) p. 101. 

Kern County: 1, A fullers earth deposit, largely bentonite, has been 
developed 5 miles southeast of Tehaehapi Pass, Kerr and Cameron (4) 
p. 231. 2, The mineral has been reported from Bissell, W. W. Bradley 
(30) p. 602. 

Lake County: 1, Minor amounts of montmorillonite occur with other 
clay minerals at Sulphur Bank, D. E. White and Roberson (2) p. 408. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Waxy montmorillonite, apparently formed by 
the alteration of feldspar, occurs in an abandoned quarry in pegmatite, 
2 miles north of Claremont, Tjaudermilk and Woodford (3) p. 260. 

Riverside County: 1, Soft, white clay-like montmorillonite occurs with 
prehnite on the 700' level below the Chino quarry, Crestmore, Wood- 
ford et al. (10) p. 372. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Large deposits of montmorillonite are re- 
ported about 7 miles east of Barstow on the north side of the Mojave 
River, Melhase (2) p. 837, C. W. Davis and Vacher (1) p. 6. 2, Mag- 
nesium-rich bentonite (probably saponite), locally called hectorite, is 
found between Barstow and Ludlow beyond Newberry Springs, Foshag 
and Woodford (22) p. 238. This mav he the same locality as (1). The 
quarry is 3^ miles south of Hector (sees. 26, 27, T. 8 N., R. 6 E., S. B.). 
Saponite from Hector has been analyzed by Fairehild and by Stevens, 
R. C. Wells (3) p. 110. A comprehensive review of the occurrence of 
hectorite is provided in Ames et al. (1) pp. 22-37. Infra-red spectra of 
this mineral from the type locality show isomorphous substitution of 
lithium for magnesium, and fluorine for hydroxyl. Farmer (1) p. 858. 

San Diego County: 1, Fairehild analyzed: (a) montmorillonite from 
this county; (b) pink montmorillonite from pegmatite from this county, 
R. C. Wells (3) p. 107 (probably from Pala or Mesa Grande). 2,_Under 
the local name of "otaylite". commercial shipments of montmorillonite 
have been made from a deposit 3 miles southeast of Otay, Trelan (4) 
p. 139, Hertlein and Grant (1) p. 57. Kerr (7) p. 51. 

Ventura County: 1, Montmorillonite is the essential constituent of 
the bentonite clay beds along Los Sauces Creek, 2 miles south of the 
Ventura Avenue oil field and 2 miles north of the Rincon oil field, Kerr 
(1) p. 157; 2, at the mouth of Rincon Creek, and 3, near Oakview, ibid. 

MONTROYDITE 
Mercuric oxide, HgO 

Lake County: 1, Montroydite has been found at the Red Elephant 
mine, near Lower Lake, W. W. Bradley (26) p. 608. 

Sam Benito County: 1, Bladed crystals of montroydite on mercury 
globules in cavities are reported from Clear Creek, Oyler (p.c. '59). 
2, Montroydite is associated with calomel, mercury, cinnabar and egles- 
tonite in a silicate-carbonate rock 3 miles south of the New Idria mine, 
Oyler (p.c. '62). 

San Mateo County: 1, Montroydite has been found in long prismatic 
and bent crystals with eglestonite, calomel, native mercury and cinna- 
bar in joints and fissures in a siliceous rock replacing serpentine, about 
2 miles west of Redwood City, Woodhouse (3) p. 603. 



274 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Sonoma County: 1, Montroydite, with mercury and cinnabar, has 
come from the Esperanza mine, Sulphur Creek, W. W. Bradley (26) 
p. 608. 2, Montroydite crystals occur on globules of native mercury at 
the Socrates mine, Cureton (p.c. '63). 

MORDENITE— Ptilolite 
A calcium/potassium/sodium silicate, (Na2,K2,Ca) (Al2Si,o024) ^HjO 

Los Angeles County: 1, Mordenite (described as ptilolite) occurs in 
clusters of capillary crystals, with heulandite, locality 9, Cahuenga 
Pass, Neuerberg (1) p. 158. 

Riverside County: 1, Mordenite (described as ptilolite) occurs as 
radiating clusters of slender needles and thin blades, coating calcite on 
fracture surfaces of diopside-wollastonite contact rock in the 910' level 
at Crestmore, Murdoch (p.c. '51). Another occurrence in lath-like crys- 
tals, also on broad fracture surfaces in the contact rock of the 910' level 
at Crestmore, was reported by Murdoch (p.c. '53). 

MORENOSITE 
Hydrous nickel sulphate, NiS04-7H20 

Napa County: 1, Morenosite was reported by Becker (4) p. 389, as 
a coating on a specimen of millerite from the Phoenix cinnabar mine. 

San Diego County: 1, Morenosite occurs with limonite and erythrite 
in the oxidized part of the ore in the Fridav copper mine, near Julian, 
Hudson (1) p. 214. 

San Luis Ohispo County: 1, Morenosite is reported with marcasite 
from the Klau quicksilver mine, Woodhouse and Norris (6) p. 114. 

Trinity County: 1, Morenosite has been found with associated second- 
ary minerals at the Island Mountain copper mine, Landon (1) p. 279. 

MOTTRAMITE 
Basic copper/zinc/lead vanadate, (Cu,Zn)Pb(V04) (OH) 

Riverside County: 1, The yellow-green coatings (probably mineral 
"N" of Woodford) at Crestmore (Lone Star and other locations) are 
mottramite, Murdoch (p.c. '61). 

*IVIUIRITE, 19651 
Basic barium calcium titanium chlorosilicate, Ba,oCa2MnTiSi,o03Q(OH,CI)io 

Fresno County: 1, The new mineral muirite, named for John Muir, 
the famous Sierran naturalist, is found in association with several other 
new minerals in the eastern Fresno County sanbornite deposits. The 
mineral occurs disseminated in sanbornite-quartz rock. Muirite is an 
orange mineral, generally anhedral but occasionally in minute crystals, 
Alfors and Stinson (6). This entry, first appearing in February 1965 
after the cut-off date for this bulletin, is included because the article 
in which the preliminary description occurred is part II of a report 
describing three new minerals in the same locality, Stinson and Alfors 
(6). 

1 This new mineral described in a paper which appeared in April, 1965, after the 

cutoff date (Dec. 31, 1964) for entries in this volume. "Seven new barium 

minerals from eastern Fresno County, California", by John T. Alfors, Melvin C. 

Stinson, Robert A. Matthews and Adolf Pabst : Am. Mineralogist, vol. 50, pp. 

314-340, 1965. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 275 

MUSCOVITE— Potash Mica 
Basic potassium aluminum silicate, KA3Si30,o(OH)2 

Sericite, margarodite, damourite, are fine-grained, greasy-feeling 
types of miiscovite forming sericitic schists. Sericite is common in the 
Mother Lode mines, and a good general description of its occurrence 
is given by A. Knopf (11) p. 40. Fuchsite is an emerald-green chrome- 
muscovite. 

Muscovite is a common constituent of granites, pegmatites, gneisses, 
and schists. It is generally called mica or isinglass, and is of special 
economic value when in large transparent sheets. Extensive areas of 
mica schists occur in the state, in which muscovite is a principal con- 
stituent and gives the rock its schistose structure. Muscovite is so wide- 
spread that only the most interesting occurrences can be listed. 

Imperial County: 1, A very large deposit of nearly pure sericite has 
been worked by the Western Non-Metallic Company in the Cargo Mu- 
chacho Mountains, 4 miles northeast of Ogilby. It is associated with 
kyanite, R. J. Sampson and Tucker (18) p. 139. 

Kern County: 1, Muscovite, variety fuchsite, occurs as scaly masses 
of brilliant green plates, two miles south of Randsburg, M. F. Strong 
(1) p. 21. This may be the same as mariposite locality (1) of Kern 
County, this bulletin. 

Marin County: 1, Much of the material called margarite in the schists 
near Reed Station has been shown to be muscovite, Eakle (7) p. 83. 

Orange County: 1, The variety fuchsite has been found at Arch 
Beach. 2, A specimen of chrome mica (fuchsite) was found among the 
beach pebbles at San Juan Capistrano, Irelan (4) p. 46, Preston (1) 
p. 210. 

Riverside County: 1, Muscovite and the variety sericite are common 
in the Crestmore quarries, Woodford et al. (10) p. 368. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Fuchsite occurs in the schist at Cascade 
Canyon, near the lapis lazuli locality, R. H. Merriam and Laudermilk 
(1) p. 716. 2, The "alurgite" described by Webb (6) p. 124, from 
boulders and pebbles of quartz-mica schist, with piemontite, from the 
alluvial gravels north of Cajon Pass, and west of the highway is shown 
to be ferrian muscovite by Heinrich and Levinson (3) p. 41. 

San Diego County: 1, Well-formed crystals of muscovite from the 
Mack mine, Rincon, have been measured by A. F. Rogers (4) p. 214. 
2, Muscovite, carrying small amounts of cesium and rubidium, has been 
analyzed from Pala, Stevens and Schaller (3) p. 526. 3, A. F. Rogers 
(3) p. 19, has observed pseudomorphs of muscovite after tourmaline at 
Pala. 4, Muscovite pseudomorphs after radiating clusters of dumortier- 
ite have been found near Alpine, Murdoch (p.c. '45). 5, Pink musco- 
vite was collected from the lithia pegmatites at Mesa Grande, Heinrich 
(3) p. 34; the mineral wks analyzed by-F. W. Clarke (10) p. 330. 

Sierra County: 1, Margarodite has been found at Table Rock, CDMG 
(16290). 

Trinity County: 1, A large deposit of muscovite has been reported 
from the Salmon Mountains, F. W. Clarke (3) p. 911. 

Ventura County: 1, Sheets of muscovite up to 10 inches across have 
been shipped from a pegmatite on Mount Alamo (sec. 12, T. 7 N., R. 
20 W., S. B.), Sterett (3) p. 743, (11) p. 48. 



276 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

NAGYAGITE 
Sulpho-telluride of lead and gold, Pb5Au(Te,Sb)4S5-8 

Calaveras Coiinty: 1, Nagyagite has been tentatively reported from 
the Stanislaus mine, J. D. Whitney (7) p. 263. 

Shasta County: 1, A sulpho-telluride of lead has been doubtfully re- 
ported from Sugar Loaf, 3 miles south of Mount Pleasant, C. J. O'Brien 
(1) p. 349. 

Trinity County: 1, Nagyagite was observed with hessite at the Dor- 
leska mine (sec. 16 ( ?), T. 38 N., R. 9 W., M. D.), Coffee Mining Dis- 
trict, Hershey (2) p. 689, Osborne (1) p. 252, Stines (1) p. 25. 

NAHCOLITE 
Sodium hydrogen carbonate, NaHCOj 

Inyo County: 1, Nahcolite was identified from the muds of Deep 
Spring Lake, B. P. Jones (1) p. B200, ibid. (2) p. 88A. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Large amounts of nahcolite have been 
found at various horizons in the lake beds in Searles Lake. It is rela- 
tively uncommon, but may form beds up to two feet in thickness. The 
mineral was discovered by Foshag (26) p. 769. A detailed description 
of its occurrence and associated minerals is contained in G. L Smith 
and Haines (3) p. 18, G. I. Smith and Pratt (2) p. 38. 

*NAPALITE, 1888 
A hydrocarbon, C3H4 

Napa County: 1, Napalite occurred with pyrite and millerite at the 
old Phoenix cinnabar mine. Pope Valley, and was described as a new 
mineral by Becker (4) p. 372, with analyses by Melville. 2, The mineral 
was found also at the Silver Bar mine/CDMG (13935). 3, Napalite is 
reported from the Aetna mine, R. G. Yates and Hilpert (4) p. 247. 

Sonoma Coimty: 1, Napalite has been found at Skaggs Springs, 
W. W. Bradley (24) p. 345, CDMG (20814). 

NASONITE 

A lead calcium chlorine silicate, Ca4Pb4Si402iCl2 

Riverside County: 1, Thin coatings of massive nasonite, with a few 
recognizable crystals, appear on fracture surfaces in compact garnet- 
wollastonite rock in the contact zone, on the 910' level of the Commer- 
cial quarry, Crestmore, Murdoch (28) p. 1341. The color varies, prob- 
ably due to minor differences in composition, and is sometimes yellow, 
sometimes blue-green. 

NATROLITE 
Hydrous sodium aluminum silicate, Na2Al2Si30,Q-2H20 

Natrolite is a zeolite formed as a secondary mineral in cavities of 
igneous rock and sometimes as veins in such rock. It usually occurs 
in fibrous or aeicular form, associated with stilbite and other zeolites. 

Alameda County: 1, Needles of natrolite occur with analcime in the 
amygdules of the andesitic rock in the Berkeley Hills, A. C. Lawson 
and Palache (4) p. 417. 

Fresno County: 1, Natrolite occurs as an alteration product of soda- 
nepheline at the head of White Creek, Arnold and Anderson (8) p. 158. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 277 

Inyo County: 1, Foshay (lU) p. 10, reports the occurrence of natro- 
lite in radiatinfj fjroups with analcime in cavities in lava near the 
Russell borax mine, Mount Blanco, in Death Valley. 

Kern County: 1, Fibrous bunches of natrolite occur with analcime 
in small cavities in a lava flow at Red Rock Canyon, Baker (2) p. 125, 
Murdoch and Webb (14) p. 330. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Natrolite was found in vesicular basalts at 
the Pacific Electric quarry. Brush Canyon (sec. 35, T. 1 N.. R. 14 W., 
S. B.), Neuerberg (1) p. 158; 2, west of Cahuenga Pass with heulan- 
dite, Schiirmann Tl) p. 12, Funk (1) p. 34, and 3, as compact nodules 
with analcime at Lake Malibu, Schwartz (1) p, 414. 4, The mineral 
occurs as hair-like radiating: crystals in amygdaloidal cavities in lava 
at the head of Tick Canyon, near Lang, Anon. (20) p. 382, Armstrong 
and Van Amringe (1). 5, Amygdules of natrolite, up to the size of a 
hen's egg, are found west of Laurel Canyon, locality 8. Neiierburg 
(1) p. 158. 6, Radiating needles of the mineral in vesicles in basalt of 
Brush Canj'on (locality 5) have pink bases, changing to white out from 
the center, Neuerburg (1) p. 156. 

Modoc County: 1, Slender needles of natrolite occur with stilbite in 
the lava of this county, CDMG (10258). 

PJnmas County: 1, Natrolite occurs in druses of pegmatite at Engels, 
Graton and McLaughlin (4) p. 18. 

San Benito County: 1, A large vein of white natrolite in which crys- 
tals of benitoite and neptunite are included occurs near the headwaters 
of the San Benito River. The locality is on the west side of the Diablo 
Range about 25 miles north of Coalinga. The natrolite is mostly granu- 
lar, although some crystals occur. The occurrence has been described 
by Louderback and Blasdale (2) p. 153, (5) p. 357, with analysis by 
Blasdale. 2, Unusually large and complex crystals of natrolite were 
found in veins in serpentine near the headwaters of San Benito River 
' (sec. 29, T. 18 S., R. 12 E., M. D.), Murdoch (15) p. 504. 3, Well-crys- 
tallized natrolite has come from Clear Creek (sec. 12, T. 18 S., R. 11 E., 
M. D.), W. W. Bradley (p.c. '44). 

San Luis Obispo: 1, Natrolite has been found in an analcime diabase 
on the north side of the Cuyama Valley, Fairbanks (12) p. 277. 

Santa Clara County: 1, Natrolite in serpentine has been found west 
of the Cochrane Ranch, Kartchner (1) p. 22. 

Shasta County: 1, Natrolite occurs with chabazite and tridymite in 
basalt near Round Mountain, Melhase (3) No. 6, p. 1. 

Sierra County: 1, Natrolite was found on Herkin's Ranch, north of 
Sierra (N. R.). 

Sonoma County: 1, Natrolite occurs in the rocks of the Sonoma Moun- 
tains, near Petaluma (N. R.). 

Ventura County: 1, Natrolite occurs with analcime in cavities of an 
amvgdaloidal lava at the Frazier Mountain borax deposit (T. 8 N., 
R. 21 W., S. B.), Bowers (2) p. 680, H. S. Gale (11) p. 439. 

NATRON 
Hydrous sodium carbonate, Na2CO3-10H2O 

Inyo County: 1, Crystals of natron mixed with sodium bicarbonate 
are obtained by evaporating the water of Owens Lake, and other soda 



278 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [BuU. 189 

lakes. The waters of Owens Lake have been analyzed by Chatard (4) 
p. 75. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Natron has been found at Searles Lake, 
H. S. Gale (13) p. 297. 

NAUMANNITE 
Silver selenide, AgjSe 

Nevada County: 1, Microscopic specks af naumannite have been 
found wdth petzite and hessite at the Idaho-Marvland mine, Grass Val- 
ley, Tolman (p.e. '37). 

* NEKOITE, 1956 
Hydrous calcium silicate, Ca3Si50,5-8H20 

Riverside County: 1, A white fibrous mineral from Crestmore, deter- 
mined by Eakle and Rogers (13) p. 266, as okenite, has been shown 
by Gard and Taylor (1) p. 5, to be a new mineral, which was named 
nekoite. 

t* NEOCOLEMANITE, 1911 
See colemanite 

Los Angeles County: Neoeolemanite was described from Tick Canyon, 
near Lang:, as a variety of colemanite or as a new mineral by Eakle 
(10) p. 179. Hutchinson (1) p. 16, showed neoeolemanite to be iden- 
tical with colemanite. 

NEOTOCITE 
Hydrous manganese iron silicate, near Mn2Fe2Si40,3-6H20(?) 

What is called neotocite is in general a manganiferous opal, from 
which the manganese may sometimes be removed by solution, leaving 
a spongy framework of opal. Taliaferro and Hudson (3) p. 257, men- 
tion the appearance of veins of neotocite in the Sierra, but give no 
specific locality. The mineral has apparently been found at a few 
widely scattered places in the Coast Ranges, P. D. Trask et al. (4) p. 70. 

Humboldt County: 1, Neotocite has been found in the Charles Moun- 
tain deposit (see. 2, T. 1 S., R. 4 E., H.), P. D. Trask et al. (4) p. 59. 

Mendocino County: 1, Neotocite is supposed to occur with bementite 
at the Thomas mine, 6 miles northeast of Redwood (N. R.), and 2, 
with inesite at the Mount Sanhedrin deposits (N. R.). 

Riverside County: 1, Some neotocite is present in the Elsinore area, 
P. D. Trask et al. (4) p. 83. 

San Luis Obispo: 1, The principal ore mineral at the Johe Ranch 
mine (sec. 35, T. 30 S., R. 11 E., M. D.) is neotocite, P. D. Trask et al. 
(4:1 P- 59. 

NEPHELINE— Nephelite 
Sodium/potassium/aluminum silicate, (Na,K)AISi04 

Inyo County: 1, Nepheline is a con.stituent of syenite at a contact 
with dolomite, at Tin Mountain in the Panamint Range, McAllister (1) 
p. 1961, (3). 

NEPOUITE 
A basic nickel magnesium silicate, near (Ni,Mg)3Si205(OH)4 

Humboldt County: 1, Montoya and Baur (1) p. 1228, report the 
presence of nepouite with garnierite, clinoehrysotile and antigorite in 
lateritic ores from the countv. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 279 

NEPTUNITE 

Sodium /potassium/iron/manganese tita no -silicate, 

(Na,K)(Fe2%Mn,Ti)Si204,with Fe>Mn 

San Benito County: 1, Black crystals of neptunite occur with beni- 
toite in a natrolite vein in schist about 4 miles south of New Idria 
near the headwaters of the San Benito River. The crystals were first 
described by Louderback and Blasdale (2) p. 150, (5) p. 354; analyses 
by Blasdale and later by W. M. Bradley (1) p. 16. Further notes on 
neptunite are in Arnold (4) p. 312, ^Y. E. Ford (5) p. 235, Schaller 
(20) p. 55, Buttgenbach (2) p. 325. Neptunite was originally errone- 
ously identified and named earlosite. 

NESQUEHONITE 
Hydrous magnesium carbonate, MgC03-3H20 

San Benito County: 1, Nesquehonite is reported as occurring with 
hvdromagnesite near the Florence Mack quicksilver mine, south of New 
Idria (N. R.). 

NICCOLITE 
Nickel arsenide, NiAs 

Calaveras County: 1, Niccolite was reported with tellurides, tel- 
lurium, and native gold in specimens from the Stanislaus mine, Kiistel 
(2) p. 128. 

Inyo County: 1, Niccolite is reported from Long Lake, on the head 
of Bishop Creek, Woodhouse (p.c. '60). 

NITER— Saltpeter 
Potassium nitrate, KNO3 

Niter is even less common in nature than soda niter. Its occurrences 
in California are' closely associated with the latter, but it has been 
reported from only a few places. In none of these occurrences is the 
mineral visible as such, but its presence is revealed by analysis. 

Imperial County: 1, A trace of niter has been observed near Volcano 
Station, F. J. H. Merrill (1) p. 741. The occurrence along the former 
high levels of the Salton Sea is soda niter. 

Inyo Comity: 1, Crusts of niter and soda niter along the Amargosa 
River and the old shorelines of Death Valley are reported by G. E. 
Bailey (2) p. 69. 2, The mineral has been reported with soda niter 
near Shoshone, Noble (4) p. 71, but the occurrence has been shown to 
be sodium nitrate. 

Kern County: 1, A sample of potassium nitrate is said to have come 
from sec. 16, T. 32 S., R. 34 E., M. D., Mansfield and Boardman (4) 
p. 25. 

Modoc County : 1, Incrustations of niter have been found near Cedar- 
ville (N. R.). 

Riverside County: 1, G. E. Bailey (2) p. 169, mentions saltpeter as 
occurring in the desert northeast of Salton. 2, Small amounts of potas- 
sium nitrate are found in salts from Mud Hill, Twentynine Palms, 
Noble (4) p. 31. 3, A very little niter has been found with soda niter 
in the Vivet Eye area, in the extreme northeast corner of the county, 
H. W. Turner (28) p. 636. 



280 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

San Bernardino County: 1, G. E. Bailey (2) p. 181, Phalen (2) p. 
894, report niter in the Upper Canyon beds. All other nitrate occur- 
rences in the county are apparently sodium nitrate. 

*NOBLEITE, 1961 
Hydrous calcium borate, CaB^OjQ^HjO 

Inyo County: 1, Nobleite occurs in seven places in Death Valley. 
It is found at Corkscrew Canyon, Ryan, and other well known areas 
associated with the other borates of the region, Erd et al. (2) p. 560. 
It is described as another of the several newly validated minerals of the 
borate group. 

NONTRONITE— Chloropal 
Basic hydrous iron aluminum silicate, (Fe3*,AI)9(Si,AI),40^(,(OH)gnH20 

Alpine County: 1, Nontronite is reported from this county, CDMG 
(18857). 

El Dorado County: 1, Nontronite altering to limonite occurs near 
Georgetown, CDMG (1613). 

Inyo County: 1, A yellowish-green mineral identified as a ferric 
silicate, doubtfully classed as nontronite, is reported from the Green 
Monster mine, 1^ miles north of Citrus (Kearsarge), A. Knopf (5) 
p. 120. 

Kern County: 1, Nontronite occurring as veinlets in garnet-pyroxene 
rock near Woody has been analvzed by Steiger, E. S. Larsen and Stei- 
ger (6) p. 4, R. C. Wells (3) p. 108, Storms (13) p. 635. 2, The mineral 
is briefly described from Kelso Creek near Weldon, in a contact zone 
with scheelite, Hess and Larsen (17) p. 266. 

Mariposa County: 1, Nontronite is reported from Hites Cove, Hanks 
(15) p. 100. 

Modoc County: 1, A specimen CDMG (19569) from near Alturas 
is recorded, F. M. Hamilton (4) p. 129. 

Mono County: 1, Nontronite has been tentatively identified from 
oxidized scheelite ore bodies from the Black Rock mine in the Benton 
Range, Lemmon (6) p. 590. 

Nevada County: 1, CDMG (8215) is nontronite from the Blue Gravel 
lead. 

Placer County: 1, Nontronite is reported from Bath, Hanks (15) 
p. 100. 

Riverside County: 1, Nontronite from the new City quarry, 2 miles 
south of Riverside, occurs as an alteration product of pyroxene in a 
labradorite-hedenbergite rock. The material is greenish-yellow, earthy, 
fibrous and micaceous, G. M. Richmond (1) p. 726; 2, also at Crest- 
more, Woodford et al. (10) p. 368. 

* NORTHUPITE, 1895 
Sodium magnesium carbonate chloride, Na3Mg(C03)2CI 

Lake County: 1, Northupite occurs with gay-lussite and pirssonite 
in trona at Borax Lake, Vonsen (3) p. 22, Vonsen and Hanna (4) 
p. 103. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Northupite, first discovered as small octo- 
hedral crystals at Searles Lake and named by Foote (1) p. 480, in 1895, 
is perhaps the most abundant magnesium-bearing mineral in the lake 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 281 

beds. It is associated with galeite, tychite and trona, Pabst et al. (21) 
p. 487. It is relatively common in the Lower Salt, Bottom Mud, and 
Mixed Layer. The mineral occurs as nodules of microscopic octahedral 
crystals, and layers or veins of aggregates of fine crystals, G. I. Smith 
and Haines (3) p. P30. It has been analyzed by J. H. Pratt (1) p. 123. 
Other references are H. S. Gale (13) p^. 291, Foshag (21) p 51, G. I. 
Smith and Pratt (2) p. 31. 

t*NUEVITE, 1946 
See samarskite 

Riverside County: Nuevite was described as a new mineral, Murdoch 
(19) p. 1219, from Riverside County. The mineral was shown, also by 
Murdoch (26) p. 358, to have been erroneously identified, and to be 
samarskite. 

OLIVENITE 
Basic copper arsenate, Cu2(As04) (OH) 

A specimen of olivenite, submitted from California (locality uncited), 
was identified by CDMG in 1957, 0. P. Jenkins (4) p. 50. 

OLIVINE— Chrysolite— Peridot 
Magnesium iron silicate, (Mg,Fe)2Si04 

See also fayalite and forsterite. 

Olivine is a rock-forming mineral which is practically limited to basic 
rocks like diabase, basalt, andesite, gabbro, and peridotite. It occurs 
occasionally in clear crystals large enough to cut into gems. It is so 
common in the basic igneous rocks, and stream sands derived from 
them, that only the following occurrences seem worthy of mention. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Massive granular olivine forms the core 
of manv of the bombs found at Siberia (Dish Hill) crater, near Amboy, 
Brady and Webb (1) p. 406. C. S. Ross et al. (3) p. 700, report olivine 
bombs from Ludlow (U. S. Nat. Mus. specimen #94430) collected by 
W. F. Foshag. Correspondence with Foshag established the identity of 
the Siberia crater and the "Ludlow" locality. 

Shasta County: 1, Massive coarse-grained peridotite showing very 
good cleavage on the olivine grains, has been observed near the Little 
Creek chromite mine, Hawkes (3) p. 277. 

OPAL 

Silicon dioxide, with a varying amount of water, Si02nH20 

Common opal occurs in white, yellow, brown, bluish or greenish 
masses having a prominent conchoidal fracture. Fire opal is opal with 
fire-like reflections. Hyalite is transparent glassy opal found in the 
cavities of volcanic rock. Chrysopal or prase opal is a greenish opal 
found with chrysoprase. Moss opal is common opal with moss-like in- 
clusions of pyrolusite or chlorite. Wood opal is petrified wood. Geyserite 
is a hydrous silica formed about the vents of geysers and hot springs. 
Diatomaceous earth and infusorial earth are deposits of opaline silica 
formed by diatoms. 

Opal is colloidal silica containing from 2 to 10 percent water. It 
occurs as veins, nodules and coatings. 



282 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

The occurrences of opal are too numerous to list in detail, except in 
cases where the deposit is of particular interest. Petrified wood has 
been found in a few important localities, and in small amounts in the 
following counties : Alpine, Amador, Butte, Calaveras, Lassen, Nevada, 
Plumas, Riverside, Sierra, Sonoma, Tulare and Tuolumne. 

Diatomaceous earth has been found in Fresno, Inyo, Lake, Lassen, 
Los Angeles, Merced, Mono, Napa, Orange, Placer, San Luis Obispo, 
San Mateo, Santa Barbara, Shasta, Sonoma and Tulare counties. 

Calaveras County: 1, Considerable amounts of rich white opal, none 
of gem character, were found in a buried gravel in Chile Gulch, near 
Mokelumne Hill, J. R. Browne (4) p. 56, Kunz (24) p. 76, Lewis (1) 
p. 37. 

Fresno County: 1, Moss opal has come from the mountains east of 
Fresno, Woodhouse (p.c. '45). 

Kern County: 1, Canary-colored moss opal has been found 18 miles 
southwest of Johannesburg, Stoddard (2) p. 217. 2, ''Milk" or "resin" 
opal occurs near Rosamond, Lewis (1) p. 37. 3, Some precious opal has 
been mined east of Red Rock Canyon, Lewis (4) p. 116. 4, Wood opal 
occurs in the petrified forest, Last Chance Canyon, Murdoch (p.c. '45). 

Lake Coimty: 1, Pale-blue opal occurs as irregular masses in hydro- 
thermally altered andesite at the Sulphur Bank mine, Brice (1) p. 62, 
D. E. White and Roberson (2) p. 403. 

Los Angeles County: 1, An extensive deposit of diatomaceous earth 
has been mined near Lomita, F. J. H. Merrill (2) p. 507. 

Mono County: 1, Fluorescent hyalite occurs as thin coatings on joint 
surfaces in the Morris claims, Blind Spring Mining District, Lemmon 
(6) p. 591. 

Napa County: 1, Gem quality "prase" has been found in a 10-inch 
vein at the Lone Pine ehromite mine, 3|^ miles from Knoxville, CDMG 
(20676). 

Riverside County: 1, Common opal and the variety hyalite occur at 
Crestmore, Woodford et al. (10) p. 368. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Semi-precious opal, amber and pink in 
color, occurs in an eastern branch of Black Canyon about 25 miles 
northwest of Barstow (T. 32 S., R. 44 E., M. D.), Kunz (21) p. 76, 
Sterrett (7) p. 1050, Baker (1) p. 347. 

1 Santa Barbara County: 1, A very large and pure deposit of diatoma- 
ceous earth has been mined near Lompoc, Huguenin (1) p. 737, Mul- 
ryan (1) p. 133. 2, Opalized termite pellets have been found near Santa 
Maria, A. F. Rogers (45) p. 389. 

Siskiyou County: 1, Fire opal has been found near Dunsmuir, Kunz 
(21) p. 76. 2, Greenish stalactitic and coralloidal opal has been found 
in "the Catacombs," Lava Beds National Monument (sees. 28, 33, T. 
45 N., R. 4 E., M. D.), Swartzlow and Keller (1) p. 101. 

Sonoma County: 1, Fire opal has been found in kaolin on the Weise 
Ranch, between Glen Ellen and Kenwood, W. W. Bradley (2) p. 321. 
2, Large trees of petrified wood are found in the petrified forest west 
of Calistoga, Kunz (24) p. 78. 3, Crusts of delicate capillary fibers of 
opal have been found at The Geysers, Vonsen (6) p. 291. 

Tehama County: 1, Stalactites and stalagmites of opal are found in 
a lava tunnel on the north side of Inskip Hill (T. 29 N., R. 1 W., M. 
D.), C. A. Anderson (3) p. 22, (6) p. 310. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 283 

Tulare County: 1, Green "ehrysopal" comes from the ehrysoprase 
mine near Lindsay, Kunz (24) p. 76. 

ORPIMENT 
Arsenic sulphide, AS2S3 

Kern County: 1, A foliated massive specimen of orpiment has come 
from this county, W. W. Bradley (31) p. 97. 2, Orpiment occurs with 
realgar at Boron in borate minerals, H. E. Pemberton et al. (1) p. 33. 

Lake County: 1, Orpiment, with realgar, is said to have been found 
on the Eel River, about 15 miles northwest of Bartlett Springs (N. R.). 

Siskiyou County: 1, Foliated orpiment has come from this county, 
W. W. Bradley (31) p. 97. 

Sonoma County: 1, Orpiment occurs with curtisite and realgar at 
Skaggs Springs (T. 10 N., R. 11 W., M. D.), W. W. Bradley (28) 
p. 469, Everhart (4) p. 390. 

Trinity County: 1, Yellow orpiment occurs in the decomposition of 

the iron sulphides at the Island Mountain copper mine, Vonsen (p.c. 

'45). 

*PABSTITE, 1965 

Barium tin titanium silicate, Ba (Sn().77Tifl.23)Si309 

Santa Cruz County: 1, Gross and Wainwright (1) p. 36, reported an 
unnamed new silicate mineral associated with taramellite in the con- 
tact zone of the limestones at the Kalkar quarry near Santa Cruz. After 
the cut-off date for this volume, the name pahstite was assigned and 
the mineral identified as the tin analogue of benitoite. (E. B. Gross, 
John E. N. Wainwright and Bernard W. Evans: Pabstite, the tin 
analogue of benitoite: Am. Mineralogist, vol. 50, pp. 1164-1169, 1965). 
The mineral occurs as disseminated grains with stannite, franckeite and 
cassiterite. Each is found in small amounts. 

PAIGEITE 

Hydrous iron magnesium tin borate, 30FeO-5Fe2O3- Sn02-6B203-5H20 

Kern County: 1, Ludwigite is reported from the Gorman tin prop- 
erty by Wiese and Page (1) p. 50. They comment that, based on work 
of Miss Jewell Glass of the U.S. Geological Survey, ". ... the lud- 
wigite may contain some of the tin reported. . . ." in the cassiterite 
deposit at Gorman. This supports the view of Sehaller (p.c. '46) who 
considers paigeite and ludwigite to be identical. This view, if sup- 
ported, will invalidate ludwigite as a mineral species; see Riverside 
County (1). 

Riverside County: 1, Vonsenite was described as a new mineral from 
the old City quarry at Riverside, in 1920. Since vonsenite is a member 
of the same group of minerals as paigeite, with paigeite tin-bearing, 
Sehaller (p.c. '46) considers the Riverside material to be paigeite 
because tin was overlooked in the first analysis of vonsenite. The mat- 
ter has not been finally settled. Accordingly, see vonsenite, this bulletin. 

t*PALACHEITE, 1908 
See botryogen 

Napa County: Palacheite was described by Eakle (3) p. 231, in 1903, 
as a new mineral. Eakle (4), p. 379 later showed it to be a misidentifi- 
cation of botryogen. 



284 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

t*PALAITE, 1912 
See hureaulite 

San Diego County: Schaller (29) p. 145, 1912, described a manganese 
phosphate as the new mineral, palaite. Murdoch (16) p. 19, studied 
crystals of hureaulite from the San Diego County area, and it is con- 
cluded that palaite was misidentified as a new mineral, and is hureau- 
lite, Schaller (p.c. '46), letter to R. C. Crippen, 4/21/58 (unpub- 
lished). 

PARAVEATCHITE 

Hydrous strontium calcium borate, (Sr,Ca)3B,4027-5H20 

Los Angeles County: 1, Paraveatchite occurs at the Sterling borax 
mine. Crystals of veatchite originally described by Murdoch (7) have 
been shown by J. R. Clark and Mrose (4) p. 1221, to be identical with 
the paraveatchite described by Braitsch (1) p. 352, and with differ- 
ent crystallography from the original veatchite from Lang, Switzer (2) 
p. 409. Thus, both forms, veatchite and paraveatchite occur at Lang, 

PARISITE 
A fluocarbonate of calcium and rare earth elements, Ca(Ce,La)2(C03)3F2 

San Bernardino County: 1, Parisite in small amounts has been iden- 
tified in the ores of the bastnaesite deposite at Mountain Pass, Olson 
(2), quoted in L. A. Wright et al. (5) p. 125. 

* PARTZITE, 1867 

Hydrous oxide of antimony, copper and other bases, 

[Cu2-vSb2-.(0,OH,H2Q)6-7](?) a— Oto 1, y to J 

Stetefeldite is similar to partzite but with more silver. According to 
Palache et al. (10) p. 599, partzite is a mixture of oxides, and does 
not warant species rank. 

Mono County: 1, Partzite has been reported from various mines in 
the Blind Spring Mining District, W. P. Blake (13) p. 119, Arents (1) 
p. 362, Loew (2) p. 185, A. L. Ransome (2) p. 192. Partzite from 
Blind Spring has been shown to be possibly a hydrated copper anti- 
monate, with the pyrochlore structure, Mason and Vitaliano (1) p. 
106. Its formula is probably CuySb2-x (0,OH,H20)6-7- 

PECTOLITE 
Basic Sodium calcium silicate, NaCa2Si303(OH) 

Colusa County : 1, Pectolite occurs with calcite and zeolites in serpen- 
tine near Wilbur Springs, Vonsen (p.c. '33). 

Lake County: 1, Extensive veins of fibrous pectolite occur with 
calcite in serpentine 1| miles east of Middletown in a cut on the high- 
way to Lower Lake, Vonsen (p.c. '34). 

Mono County: 1, Pectolite was doubtfully reported by Aaron in a 
boulder near Montgomery, at the foot of the White Mountains, Hanks 
(12) p. 277. 

San Benito County: 1, Radiating masses of compact pectolite occur 
in veins in basalt (sec. 32, T. 18 S., R. 12 E., M. D.), along the trail 
to the benitoite gem mine, Murdoch (p.c. '45). 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 285 

San Francisco County: 1, Fibrous pectolite occurs as veins in an 
altered dike which intersects the serpentine at Fort Point. It was de- 
scribed and analyzed by Eakle (1) p. 316, Kunz (24) p. 96. 

Santa Barbara County: 1, A lar^re quantity of fibrous crystalline ma- 
terial called pectolite, which phosphoresces when broken in the dark, 
was found on the J. C. Keyes claim, 7 miles north of Santa Ynez, 
Hanks (16) p. 44, Irelan (4) p. 47. Woodhouse (p.c. '63) suggests that 
perhaps this is the same material that was labelled " wollastonite " [see 
Murdoch and Webb (39) p. 348, wollastonite, Santa Barbara County 
(1)], which was studied by E. S. Larsen (8) p. 465, and thought to be 
a new mineral, which he named eakleite. Subsequently E. S. Larsen 
(13) p. 181, showed the material to be xonotlite. 2, Pectolite has been 
reported from the Santa Barbara Islands, E. S. Dana (5) p. 1097. 

Sonoma County: 1, Narrow veins of pectolite are widely distributed 
at The Geysers, Vonsen (p.c. '45). 

Tehama County: 1, A large vein of pectolite occurred in serpentine 
on Elder Creek (sec. 16, T. 25 N., R. 7 W., M. D.), Kunz (3) p. 561. 
It was analyzed by Eitel, in Preston (2) p. 693. 

PENTAHYDRITE 
Hydrous magnesium sulphate, MgS04-5HjO 

Sonoma County: 1, An unnamed substance, which upon analysis 
proved to be hydrated magnesium sulphate, was described as a consti- 
tuent of efflorescent salts at The Geysers, E. T. Allen and Day (2) 
p. 45. It was called pentahydrite by Frondel, Palache et al. (11) p. 492. 

PENTLANDITE 
Nickel iron sulphide, (FeNi),S8 

San Diego County: 1, Hudson (1) p. 219, has reported the probable 
occurrence of pentlandite with pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite in the nickel 
ore of the Friday mine near Julian; see also Donnelly (1) p. 370. 
Residual cores of pentlandite altering to violarite are common in the 
massive pyrrhotite ore of this mine, Murdoch (p.c. '45). 

Ventura County: 1, Pentlandite has been found with millerite and 
pyrrhotite at the Ventura mine (T. 1 N., R. 18 W., S. B.), Tucker and 
Sampson (20) p. 258. 

PERICLASE 
Magnesium oxide, MgO 

Riverside County: 1, Periclase was found altering to brucite, in the 
old City quarry at Riverside, A. F. Rogers (19) p. 581. 2, The mineral 
was reported by A. F. Rogers (19) p. 583, (31) p. 462, from the Wet 
Weather quarry at Crestmore. 3, Periclase occurs in the contact zone 
at the new City quarry south of Riverside, G. M. Richmond (1) p. 725. 
4, Good residual cores of periclase, up to 1 mm in diameter, have been 
found in the brucite pseudomorphs of the Jensen quarry, MacKevett 
(1) p. 6, confirming Murdoch (p.c. '51). 

PEROVSKITE 

Calcium titanium oxide, with rare earth metals, CaTiOj 

Riverside County: 1, Small bright amber crystals, octahedral in habit, 
have been found in the contact zone at Crestmore, on the 910' level, 



286 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [BuU. 189 

Murdoch (25) p. 573. An additional variety of perovskite, in dead 
black cubes and cubo-octahedra, has been found in the 910' level of the 
Commercial quarry, Crestmore, associated with brown octahedra of 
spinel, and colorless diopside, in calcite, Murdoch (p.c. '57). 2, Minute 
deep-red grains of perovskite, associated with chondrodite and spinel 
occur in contact zone at the new City quarry, Morton (p.c. '59). 

San Benito Coicnty: 1, Shiny black crystals of perovskite as much as 
a quarter of an inch in size, with the cubic form dominant, occur in 
chloritic schist with black spinel and melanite garnet near the benitoite 
locality. This locality was reported by Grigsby (p.c. '49), and published 
validation appeared later, Bolander (1) p. 65, Murdoch f25) p. 573. 
Colorless and honey-colored octahedral crystals of perovskite associated 
with melanite garnet occur one mile from Dallas Gem mine, Murdoch 
(p.c. '61). This is the same locality as the black cubic crystals. 

PETALITE 

Lithium aluminum silicate, LiAISi40^g 

Petalite is a rare mineral occurring occasionally in lithia pegmatites. 

San Diego County: 1, Petalite occurs in quartz-spodumene masses, as 
groups of radiating and divergent needle-like grains, in the Clark vein 
at Rincon, Murdoch (18) p. 198. 2, Rare petalite, in white cleavage 
masses up to 1 inch maximum size, has been found on Queen and 
Heriart Mountains, Pala, Jahns and Wright (5) p. 42. 

PETZITE 

Silver gold telluride, (Ag,Au)2Te 

Petzite is usually associated with hessite, sylvanite and calaverite. 
It is the commonest gold telluride found in the State. 

Calaveras County: 1, Petzite was found with hessite in the Stanislaus 
and Melones mines on Carson Hill, W. P. Blake (18) p. 178. Specimens 
from the Stanislaus mine have been analyzed by Genth (5) p. 310, 
Kiistel (1) p. 306. 2, The mineral occurs in the Ford mine, half a mile 
east of San Andreas, F. L. Ransome (9) p. 9, Storms (7) p. 108, A. 
Knopf (11) p. 39. 3, Petzite occurs with altaite at the Frenchwood 
mine, Robinsons Ferry (sec. 25, T. 2 N., R. 13 E., M. D.), Hanks (12) 
p. 68, and 4, at the Morgan mine with calaverite and svlvanite on the 
north slope of Carson Hill, Hanks (12) pp. 309, 388." 

El Dorado County: 1, Petzite was found with calaverite at the 
Darling mine, about 3 miles northeast of American Flat (N. R. ). 

Nevada County: 1, Petzite occurs in the Idaho-Maryland mine, Far- 
min (2) p. 173. 

San Diego County: 1, Petzite has been doubtfully reported in micro- 
scopic grains from the Jidian Mining District, Donnelly (1) p. 359. 

Siskiyou County: 1, Petzite is recorded with gold at the Porphyry 
Dike mine, near Callahan, F. M. Hamilton (4) p. 246, CDMG (19621), 
and 2, it has been found in the northern part of the county near the 
State line, with calaverite and free gold. (N. R.). 

Trinity County: 1, Petzite occurs in some of the gold ores of the 
Dorleska mine (sec. 16 (?), T. 38 N., R. 9 W., M. D.), Coffee Mining 
District, Osborne (1) p. 252, Stines (1) p. 25. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 287 

Tuolumne County: 1, Petzite is one of the tellurides that occurred 
in the Golden Rule mine, analysis by Genth (5) p. 309, Stines (1) 
p. 25; 2, at Rawhide Ranch, and 3, at Norwegian mines near Tuttle- 
town, Silliraan (9) p. 379, analysis by Hillebrand (2) p. 297. 4, Pet- 
zite was found in the Bonanza mine, Sonora, CDM6 (10019). 5, Petzite, 
with sylvanite and beautifully crystallized gold, was reported in the 
early days from Sugarman and Nigger mines (sec. 30, T. 2 N., R. 15 E., 
M. D.), Logan (23) p. 72. 

PHARMACOLITE 
Acid hydrous calcium arsenate, HCaAs04-2H20 

A product of surface alteration of mineral deposits carrying arseno- 
pyrite or similar minerals. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Pharmacolite is reported with erythrite and 
smaltite, at the O.K. mine, San Gabriel Canyon, Irelan (4) p. 47. 

PHENAKITE 
Beryllium silicate, Be2Si04 

San Diego County: 1, Flat, colorless crystals of phenakite, none over 

half an inch, occur in the Vandenberg Catherina mine on Heriart Hill, 

Pala, associated with blue topaz on cleavelandite, Jahns and Wright 

(5) p. 31. 

PHILLIPSITE 

Hydrous sodium potassium calcium aluminum silicate, 
(^Ca,Na,K)3(Al3SisO,4) -GHjO 

Inyo County: 1, The beds of Owens Lake have been found to carry 
phillipsite and other zeolites. Hay and Moiola (2) p. 76 A. 

Kern County: 1, Occasional cavities in basalt at Red Rock Canyon 
have been found to contain pale salmon-pink phillipsite in poor crystals, 
Murdoch (p.c. '47). 2, Phillipsite, with gay-lussite and other zeolites, 
has been found in tuffaceous layers in China Lake, Hay and Moiola 
(2) p. 76 A, Moiola and Hay (ij p. 215. 

Plumas County: 1, Phillipsite is probably one of the zeolites occur- 
ring in very minor amount at the Engels mine, Graton and McLaughlin 

(1) p. 18. 

Riverside County: 1, Phillipsite occurs as secondary radial aggre- 
gates in garnet rock, at the Crestmore limestone quarry, Woodford 
et al. (10) p. 362. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Phillipsite is found as an authigenic 
mineral in the Pleistocene sediments of Searles Lake, Hay and Moiola 
(1) p. 323, G. I. Smith and Haines (3) p. P31. 

PHLOGOPITE 
Basic potassium/magnesium/aluminum silicate, KMg3AISi30^o(OH)2 

Phlogopite is a mica similar to biotite, but containing little or no 
iron. 

Fresno County: 1, Phlogopite is found as isolated crystals or aggre- 
gates in contact limestones of the Twin Lakes area, Chesterman (1) 
p. 271. 

Inyo County: 1, Phlogopite occurs with scheelite in calc-hornfels at^ 
Round VaUey and Deep Canyon, west of Bishop, A. Knopf (6) p. 247, 
Hess and Larsen (17) p. 273, Lemmon (5) p. 504. , 



288 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Madera County: 1, Phlogopite occurs in minor amounts with the 
magnetite deposit at Iron Mountain, Erwin (1) p. 65. 

Riverside County: 1, A few flakes of phlogopite have been observed 
in the white limestone of Chino Hill, at Crestmore, Eakle (15) p. 334, 
and 2, in crystals up to 5 mm in calcite of the Lone Star quarry, Crest- 
more, Woodford et al. (10) p. 366. 3, Abundant crystals of phlogopite, 
up to one inch, have been found in the contact zone at the Jensen 
quarry, Murdoch (p.,c. '47). 

PHOSGENITE 
Chlorocarbonate of lead, (PbCOjCOj 

Inyo County: 1, Phosgenite as acicular, straw-yellow crystals in 
quartz came from the Silver Sprout mine. Hanks (12) p. 309. 

PICKERINGITE— Magnesia Alum 
Hydrous aluminum magnesium sulphate, MgAl2(S04)4-22H20 

Inyo County: 1, Pickeringite was reported as an efflorescence in the 
mountains west of Bishop (N. R.). 

San Bernardino County: 1, Pickeringite occurs as a coating on quartz- 
ite along the South Fork of Barrett Canyon, a tributary of San An- 
tonio Canvon (sec. 31, T. 2 N., R. 7 W., "S. B.), R. H. Merriam (p.c. 
'36). 

Shasta County: 1, Pickeringite (?) has been found as incrustations 
around the hot springs of the Mount Lassen area, A. L. Day and Allen 
(1) p. 118. ^ 

Sonoma County: 1, The name "sonomaite", no longer recognized as 
a species, E. S. Dana (6) p. 523, was given by Goldsmith (6) p. 263, 
to a mineral from near The Geysers having a composition similar to 
pickeringite. E. T. Allen and Day (2) p. 45, have reported pickeringite 

from this locality. 

PIEMONTITE— Piedmontite 
Basic calcium/aluminum/manganese/iron silicate, Ca2(AI,Fe,Mn3*)3(Si04)3(OH) 

Kern County: 1, Piemontite, with benitoite and other heavy minerals, 
has been identified in sediments penetrated by drill holes in the Lazard 
area, west of Lost Hills, R. D. Reed and Bailey (4) p. 363. 

Lassen County: See Sierra County (1). 

Los Angeles County: 1, Piemontite has been found in quartz-sericite 
schist near the junction of Bouquet and Texas Canyons, Simonson (1) 
p. 737, and 2, in a ravine entering the Prairie Fork of San Gabriel 
River from the south, about 3 miles above the mouth of the fork 
(approx. sec. 22, T. 3 N., R. 8 W., S. B.), AVoodford (p.c. '36). 3, Pie- 
montite occurs in quartz schist with crossite and lawsonite on Santa 
Catalina Island, E. H. Bailey (1) p. 1955. 4, The mineral occurs in 
the Pelona schist derived from calcareous manganiferous chert, Ehlig 

(1) p. 170. 

Madera County: 1, Piemontite occurs in minute needles in a sericite 
schist 100 yards downstream from the outlet of Shadow Lake, Mayo 

(2) p. 240, (3) p. 239, Alfors (3) p. 210, and 2, as small tablets in a 
metamorphosed extrusive rock at the summit of the east end of Volcanic 
Ridge, Mayo (2) p. 244, (3) p. 239. A. M. Short (1) p. 495, has 
published an analysis by T. Kameda of the piemontite from Shadow 
Lake. 3, Needles and crystals up to half an inch are found in meta- 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 289 

rhyolite at Garnet Lake in the Minarets Mining District, Chesterman 
(p.c. '51). 

Monterey County: 1, Piemontite grains have been found in the sedi- 
ments of Monterey Bay, W. W. Bradley (18) p. 243. 

Orange County: 1, Woodford (2) p. 192, has reported the occurrence 
of piemontite in a boulder of San Onofre breccia near San Juan 
Capistrano Point. 

Plumas County: 1, Piemontite in considerable quantity is associated 
with braunite in the Braito (Iron Dike) mine (sec. 37, T. 26 N., R. 9 
E., M. D.), Taliaferro and Hudson (3) p. 62. 

Riverside County: 1, Boulders and pebbles of quartz-piemontite schist 
occur in sedimentary rocks on the south side of the Painted Hills about 
3 miles north of Whitewater, W. W. Bradley (31) p. 276. 2, Piemontite 
occurs abundantly in meta-tuff of the Palen Mountains, Alfors (3) 
p. 210. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Quartz-piemontite schist is found in a 
ravine entering Lytle Creek from the northeast upstream from the 
mouth of Coldwater Canyon, Mayo (3) p. 243, confirming Woodford 
(p.c. '36). 2, Piemontite-schist pebbles occur in the alluvial fans imme- 
diately north of the Cajon Pass summit, Webb (6) p. 124. 3, Crystals 
to 5 mm long occur in groups in vugs in metavolcanic rocks 12 miles 
east of Victorville, 0. E. Bowen (1) pp. 51, 52. 

San Diego County: 1, Piemontite has been found in a boulder of 
quartz porphyry from the gravels at Pacific Beach, A. F. Rogers (7) 
p. 378. 

Sierra County: 1, Piemontite in slender crystals up to one inch has 
been found in quartz veins in quartz-latite country rock that also con- 
tains some piemontite. along the state border, between Lassen and 
Sierra Counties, Gianella (p.c. '45), Frey (p.c. '53). 

Tulare County: 1, Piemontite occurs in a quartz-sericite schist 2^ 
miles east of Lindsay, and 2, in a metachert 2 miles east of Lindsay. At 
both localities the piemontite is a minor constituent and the piemontite- 
bearing rock is of limited extent, Alfors (3) p. 210. 

PILINITE 
Hydrous calcium aluminum silicate, near Ca2Ai2Si50i5-l2H20 

Santa Clara County : 1, Pilinite is reported from near New Almaden, 
CDMG (11956), (18243), E. H. Bailey and Everhart (12) p. 102. 

Yul)a County: 1, Pilinite is represented from Smartsville by CDMG 
(11525). 

*PIRSSONITE, 1896 
Hydrous double carbonate of calcium and sodium, Na2Ca(C03)2"2H20 

Inyo County: 1, Pirssonite occurs with other saline minerals as efflo- 
rescences from Deep Spring Lake, B. F. Jones (1) p. B200. 

Lake County: 1, Pirssonite occurs with gay-lussite and northupite in 
trona at Borax Lake, Vonsen and Hanna (4) p. 104. 

San Bernardino Couiity : 1, Pirssonite was discovered at Searles Lake 
as good crystals in the New Well. It was named by J. H. Pratt (1) 
p. 126. Crystals were described by H. S. Gale (13) p. 305, Foshag (21) 
p. 51, G. I. Smith and Pratt (2) p. 28. Pirssonite is perhaps the next 
mineral in abundance after gay-lussite at Searles Lake, and occurs in 



290 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

most of the mud layers. Details of its occurrence are given in G. I. 
Smith and Haines (3) pp. P31-2. 

PISANITE 
Hydrous iron and copper sulphate, (Fe,Cu)S04-7H20 

Pisanite is thoug:ht to be a variety of melanterite. 

Alameda County: 1, Pisanite was one of the secondary sulphates 
formed with melanterite and chalcanthite on the walls of the Alma 
pyrite mine at Leona Heights. The mineral was described and analvzed 
by Schaller (1) p. 199. 

Monterey County: 1, Pale-blue crystals of pisanite from near Gon- 
zales were analyzed by Schaller (8) p. 123. 

Trinity Cou7\ty: 1, The mineral was found with goslarite in the 
pyrrhotite mass at Island Mountain, Vonsen (p.c. '17). 

PITTICITE 

Basic hydrous arsenate and sulphate of ferric iron, formula variable, 

Fej3*As04S040H nH20 

Mariposa County: 1, Dark-brown amorphous pitticite, resembling 
limonite was found with scorodite as an alteration product of arseno- 
pvrite, on the South Fork of Merced River near the mouth of Devils 
Gulch, A. F. Rogers (7) p. 375. 

Tuolumne County: 1, Brown colloidal material from the Carlin mine, 
near Jamestown, has been referred to this species, Goucley (3) p. 12. 

PLANCHtlTE 
Basic copper silicate, Cu8(Si40,,)2(OH )4- HjO 

Inyo County: 1, Plancheite has been identified, with mimetite and 
shattuckite, in a specimen from the Panamint Mountains, Freitag 
(p.c. '57). 

PLATINIRIDIUM 
Native alloy of platinum and iridium, (Pt,lr) 

Much of the so-called platinum of the State is really this alloy; 
several nuggets of a few ounces have been found along the Trinity 
River. 

Trinity County: 1, Nuggets from the Enright claim, 3 miles above 
Trinity Center, are in the CDMG Exhibit, CDMG (1892). 

PLATINUM 
Native platinum, Pt 

Native platinum has been found most fre(|uenth^ in gold-bearing 
sands, and in this State has not been found otherwise. On account of 
its weight it remains in the sluices with gold and other heavy material. 
The native platinum is usually very impure. Occasionally it contains 
so much iron and other impurities as to be dark in color and not easily 
distinguished from grains of chromite with which it is very frequently 
associated. Platinum is often accompanied by iridosmine, which occurs 
as flat angular scales, while platinum grains are usually rounded like 
gold dust. Analyses of California platinum show the presence of all 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 291 

other members of the platinum group, Genth (2) p. 209, Deville and 
Debray (1) p. 496, Weil (1) p. 354. Many of the black sands have 
been investigated by D. T. Day and Richards (6) p. 152. 

Gray metallic grains and small nuggets of platinum were early ob- 
served in some of the gold-bearing black sands of the streams and 
beaches, and in the concentrates from the gold washings. R. B. Mason 
(1) p. 536, in a letter from Monterey dated August 7, 1848, records 
the presence of a small piece of "platina" mixed with gold. Tesche- 
macher (2) p. 121, notes 50 granules of platinum in an ounce of gold 
dust. R. M. Patterson (1) p. 61, comments on the presence of platinum 
in California gold sands. J. B. Trask (1) p. 23, gives a number of 
occurrences of platinum from gold sands. 

Generally, platinum grains are smaller than gold grains, and large 
nuggets are unknown. Some of the largest nuggets have come from 
the Junction City Mining District, along the Trinity and lower courses 
of its tributaries from Weaverville to North Fork, Logan (1) p. 82. 

References to platinum occurrences not specifically mentioned in the 
countv descriptions below are: D. T. Day (5) p. 410, Hanks (12) 
p. 310, Kunz (24) p. 42, Silliman (12) p. 132, F. M. Hamilton (4) 
p. 759, Angel (2) p. 598, Laizure (1) p. 497, Logan (1) p. 50. 

The occurrence of platinum in the gold sands of the State is wide- 
spread, and has been described in detail by Logan (1). The principal 
production of platinum has come from Butte, Del Norte, Humboldt, 
Placer, Siskiyou, Stanislaus and Trinity counties. It has also been 
found in the gold sands of the following counties: Calaveras, El Do- 
rado, Liyo (?), Kern, Mendocino, Merced, Nevada, Plumas, Santa 
Barbara, Santa Cruz, Shasta, Tehama, Ventura and Yuba. 

Mariposa Covnty: 1, A reported occurrence of platinum at Devils 
Gulch, Castello (5) p. 142, is highly doubtful. 

Mendocino County: 1, Platinum has been found associated with cin- 
nabar, zircon and gold in some of the sands of the Navarro River, 
Anderson Valley, Hanks (12) p. 310. 

Plumas County: 1, Platinum, almost always with grains of cinnabar, 
has been found in the North Fork, Feather River, at and below Rich 
Bar, Edman (2) p. 401. 2, Several pieces of platinum up to the size of 
a large bean have been found on Nelson Creek, Hanks (12) p. 310. 

Trinity County: 1, Nuggets of platinum up to 2^ ounces Troy weight 
have been found on Hay Fork branch of Trinity River, Hanks (1) 
p. 162, (12) p. 310. 2, Nuggets up to 1 ounce have come from Junction 
City, Bixby (1) p. 154. 3, A nugget weighing about f of an ounce (310 
grains) was found at the Old Eagle mine (sec. 9, T. 33 N., R. 11 W., 
M. D.), CDMG (11959), and 4, another just over 1 ounce (484.4 grains) 
came from sec 9, T. 33 N., R. 10 W., M. D., CDMG (11958). 

*PLAZOLITE, 1920 
Basic calcium aluminum silicate, Ca3Al2Si208(OH)4 

Riverside County: 1, Plazolite occurred as minute crystals with ido- 
crase in the limestone quarry at Crestmore. Only a few specimens were 
found. It was named, analyzed and described by Foshag (3) p. 183. 
Tetrahedral crystals up to f inch, with the forms 211, possibly also 
211 and 221, are reported by Schwartz and Murdoch (p.c. '54). Massive 



292 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

white plazolite with black gehlenite occurred in Commercial quarry, 
Crestmore, Woodford et al. (10) p. 367. 

PLOMBIERITE 
A hydrated calcium silicate, near Ca5Si40,5(OH)2H (?) HjO 

Riverside County : 1, Calcium silicate hydrate 14 A has been de- 
tected by x-ray methods in specimens from Crestmore, intero;rown with 
tobermorite and wilkeite. Heller and Taylor (1) p. 32, who consider 
the substance to be plombierite, although they state that the character 
of the original plombierite is uncertain. In any case, the x-ray powder 
pattern of the Crestmore mineral does not match that of plombierite 
from Scawt Hill, Ireland, which does physically agree well with the 
description of the original mineral. The identity of the Crestmore ma- 
terial with type plombierite must thus still be considered dubious. 

PLUMBOGUMMITE 
Basic hydrous lead aluminum phosphate, PbAl3(P04)2(OH)5- HjO 

Inyo County: 1, Plumbogummite has been reported from the Cerro 
Gordo mine (N. R. ). 

PLUMBOJAROSITE 
Basic lead iron sulphate, PbFe^COH), 2(804)4 

Inyo County: 1, Plumbojarosite is found as a secondary alteration 
product in the Darwin Mining District, Kelley (4) p. 545. 

Kern County: 1, Plumbojarosite occurs frequently in the oxidized 
zone of veins of the Cactus Queen mine, Mojave Mining District, Troxel 
and Morton (2) p. 104; see also jarosite. 

POLLUCITE 
Hydrous caesium sodium aluminum silicate, (Cs,Na) AISi204nH20 

San Diego County: 1, Massive pollucite occurs in small amounts in 
the gem-bearing pegmatites near Pala and Mesa Grande, W. T. Schaller 
(p.c. '35), CDMG (20623). 2, Massive pollucite occurs with lepidolite, 
albite, and tourmaline in a small pegmatite, southern part of Vulcan 
Mountain, Chesterman (p.c. '64). 

POLYBASITE 
Silver antimony sulphide, Ag,jSb2S,, 

Polybasite closely resembles stephanite (x\g5SbS4), and the two are 
often mixed and are seldom differentiated. When in good crystals they 
can be distinguished, but when massive, their separate identification is 
difficult. 

Alpine County: 1, Specimens of polybasite have come from the Penn- 
sylvania mine, Silver Mountain (N. R.). 2, Hanks (12) p. 311 and 
Eakle (16) p. 13, observed polybasite in microscopic crystals from the 
Morning Star and Monitor mines. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Polybasite has been found with pyrargy- 
rite and stephanite in the Carlyle mine, near Dale (sec. 11, T. 1 S., R. 
12 E., S. B.), Tucker and Sampson (27) p. 61. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 293 

*POSEPNYTE, 1877 
An oxygenated hydrocarbon 

Lake Coimty: 1, Posepnyte was found at the Great Western mine and 
was described and named by von Schrockinger (1) p. 129, with analyses 
by Dietrich. Part of the mineral was soluble in ether, and part insol- 
uble, the latter corresponding to ozocerite. Becker (4) p. 360, gives an 
analysis by Melville of similar material; see also AVagoner (2) p. 334. 

Napa County: 1, Posepnyte was found with aragotite at the Reding- 
ton (?) mine, Rolland (1) p. 101. 

POTASH ALUM 
Hydrous aluminum potassium sulphate, KAl(S04)2-12H20 

Alpine County: 1, Potash alum was found in the mines of Silver 
Mountain, A. Williams (1) p. 606, as an efflorescence on argillaceous 
rocks. 

Calaveras County: 1, Potash alum was observed at Quail Hill, Silli- 
man (7) p. 351. 

Contra Costa County: 1, Fine specimens of crystallized potash alum 
have come from the old coal mine at Nortonville (N. R.). 

Fresno County: 1, Potash alum was common with sulphur in the oil 
fields at Coalinga (N. R.). 

Inyo County: 1, Potash alum was found on the shores of Owens Lake 
(N. R.). 2, The mineral occurred as white crusts on the sides of a steam- 
ing vent 2 miles east of Coso Hot Springs, A. F. Rogers (7) p. 376. 

Lake County: 1, Potash alum occurs as thick in-crustations with other 
sulphates at the Sulphur Bank cinnabar mine, A. Williams (2) p. 949. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Potash alum was reported near Newhall by 
Hanks (12) p. 68. 

Mono County: 1, Potash alum occurred sparingly as coatings on rock 
about 5 miles NE from Bodie, Whiting (1) p. 356. 2, The mineral 
occurs with alunite and sulphur in the andalusite deposits of the White 
Mountains, Woodhouse (4) p. 37. 

Napa County: 1, Potash alum occurs on Howell Mountain, 5 miles 
north of St. Helena, A. Williams (1) p. 606. 

Placer County: 1, Potash alum was found in slates near Auburn, 
Hanks (12) p. 68. 2, The mineral accompanied by coquimbite occurs at 
Whiskey Hill, near Lincoln, Silliman (7) p. 351. 

San Bernardino County: 1, A specimen associated with pickeringite 
or halotrichite, in the U.S. National Museum, is labelled as coming from 
this county, E. S. Larsen (11) p. 94. 

San Diego County: 1, A specimen, CDMG (12066), of potash alum is 
from the Ready Relief mine, near Banner; it is reported as abundant 
at mine openings in the area, Donnelly (1) p. 362. 

Santa Barbara Coimty: 1, Potash alum was reported in 1792 as a 
coating with sulphur at the "Fire Volcano" between Santa Barbara 
Channel and La Purisima, Martinez (1) p. 39. 

Sonoma County: 1, Potash alum was abundant at The Geysers, Hanks 
(12) p. 68. 2, Massive, stony alum occurs on Hoods Mountain, 4 miles 
from Guilicos Ranch, between Sonoma and Santa Rosa, Mining and 
Scientific Press (11) p. 264. 



294 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA | Bull. 189 

POWELLITE 

Calcium molybdate, CaMoO^ 

El Dorado County: 1, Powellite is reported with molybdenite from 
the Cosumnes copper mine, W. B. Clark and Carlson (3) p. 437. 

Fresno County: Powellite is associated with scheelite in most of the 
tungsten occurrences in the Mt. Morrison quadrangle, Rinehart and 
Ross (2) p. 93. 

Inyo County: 1, Powellite occurs in the Pine Creek tungsten mine at 
the head of Pine Creek in the Sierra Nevada west of Bishop, Young (6) 
p. 605, Bateman (1) p. 236. 2, Powellite is found with scheelite at the 
Powell tungsten property (sec. 24, T. 19 S., R. 40 E., M. D.), and 3, at 
the Panyo tungsten mine with molybdenite (T. 20 S., R. 40 E., M. D.), 
Tucker and Sampson (30) p. 570. 4, Powellite is reported on scheelite 
as greenish-yellow crusts. Anon. (41) p. 304. 

Kern County: 1, Powellite occurs in veins in the El Paso Mountains, 
about 12 miles northwest of Randsburg, Hess (14) p. 48. The powellite 
is pseudomorphous after molybdenite, and occurs in dikes, Troxel and 
Morton (2) p. 31. 2, Powellite is found in minor amount in the tin ores 
at Gorman, Wiese and Page (1) p. 39, Troxel and Morton (2) p. 294. 
3, Powellite with scheelite, is locally abundant in a tactite zone in the 
Lake Isabella area, R. L. Engel (1) p. 24. 

Mono County 1, Powellite is found with molybdenite on the Morris 
claims, Benton Range (sec. 23, T. 35 S., R. 31 E., M. D.), Lemmon (6) 
p. 591. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Powellite occurs as an alteration product 
of molybdenite in the Red Hill region, Ord Mountains, Weber (3) p. 27. 

Tulare County: 1, Powellite has been found near Lemon Cove, pseudo- 
morphous after molybdenite, Stanford University Collections. This 
may be the same as Hill Bros, prospects (sec. 14, T. 15 S., R. 28 E., 
M. D.), W. 0. Jenkins (1) p. 175. 

PREHNITE 
Basic calcium aluminum silicate, Ca2Al2Si30,o(OH)2 

Prehnite is sometimes present as green drusy coatings and veins in 
altered diabase and lavas, but it is not common in the State. 

Colusa County: 1, Prehnite has been found in veins with caleite and 
pectolite in serpentine near Wilbur Springs, Vonsen (p.c. '33). 

El Dorado County: 1, Prehnite is found in veinlets with diopside at 
Traverse Creek, 2|- miles west of Georgetown, Pabst (2) p. 3. 

Inyo County: 1, Prehnite occurs in veinlets with epidote at the Pine 
Creek tungsten mine, Hess and Larsen (17) p. 276. 2, White prehnite 
in crystalline grains up to 2 mm occurs with contact metamorphic 
minerals in a contaminated border zone in the Nelson Range, Ubehebe 
quadrangle, McAllister (4) p. 59. 

Los Angeles County: 1, The mineral is found in botryoidal crusts on 
fracture surfaces in basalt at the Pacific Electric quarry. Brush Can- 
yon (sec. 35, T. 1 N., R. 14 W., S. B.), Neuerburg (1) p. 158, locality 
2. 2, Veins of caleite and prehnite occur in basalt at locality 3, south 
end of Cahuenga Pass, ibid., p. 158. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 295 

Marin County: 1, Prehnite occurs in crystals with crystallized ax- 
inite, in the hills around Stinson Beach, Vonsen (p.c. '45). 

Plumas County: 1, Prehnite occurs as a hydrothermal product at the 
Engels mine, Graton and McLaug'hlin (4) p. 18. 

Riverside County: 1, Green drusy and light-brown prehnite occur in 
cavities of white feldspar in the pegmatic veins of the limestone at 
Crestmore, Eakle (15) p. 351. Foshag (12) p. 88, also reports orange 
crystals associated here with wollastonite and datolite, in pegmatite. 

2, Prehnite occurs in bands of radiating prismatic clusters in massive 
contact rock at the Jensen quarry, Schwartz (p.c. '57). 3, Prehnite 
occurs in small vugs with quartz in a pegmatic dike in Bautista Can- 
yon, Filer (p.c. '61). 

San Diego County: 1, Prehnite from Smiths Mountain, near Oak 
Grove, has been analyzed b.y Schaller, F. W. Clarke (9) p. 273. 

San Luis Ohispo County: 1, Prehnite occurs in the analcite diabase 
of Cuyama Valley, Fairbanks (12) p. 289. 

PRICEITE— Pandermite 
Hydrous calcium borate, Ca5B,2023-9H20 

A general reference on priceite is Kramer and Allen (5). 

Inyo County: 1, Priceite was found as nodules and irregular masses 
in soft gray shale in the second wash to the west of the Russell mine, 
Mount Blanco area, Foshag (10) p. 10, (11) p. 11. 2, Priceite was 
found in extensive massive veins or narrow lenses in shale, filling cracks 
in altered basalt near the mouth of Corkscrew Canyon, and as amygdule 
fillings, sometimes large, Foshag (25) p. 728. In the veins it is partly 
altered to delicate radiating needles of ulexite, or crystals of colemanite. 

3, The mineral is doubtfully reported as incrustations at Bennetts Well 
and Furnace Creek, G. E. Bailey (2) pp. 45, 46. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Priceite is reported from Owl (Hole) 
Springs with colemanite in the niter beds (T. 18 N., R.. 3 E., S. B.), 
G. E. Bailey (2) p. 62, Cloudman et al. (1) p. 855. 2, Hanks (12) p. 
313, reports priceite from Calico. 

*PROBERTITE— Kramerite, 1929 
Hydrous sodium calcium borate, NaCaBjOj-SHjO 

Inyo County: 1, Probertite, locally known as "boydite", occurs 
with colemanite and ulexite as translucent satiny needles in the Widow 
and Upper Biddy McCarthy mines near Ryan, Foshag (18) p. 338. 
2, Probertite is abundant enough to be mined as ore in the Kern 
borate mine near Ryan, associated with colemanite and ulexite. Anon. 
(47) p. 9. 3, Probertite, ulexite and colemanite from the Resting 
Springs Range, near Shoshone, are reported by Nolan (3) p. A-11. 

Kern County: 1, Probertite was described by Eakle (26) p. 427, as 
a new mineral from the Kramer borate area where it occurs in clay 
with borax and kernite. Schaller (45) p. 139, described the crystals 
and occurrence under the name of "kramerite." Other references for 
the Kramer occurrences are Murdoch (17) p. 720, H. S. Gale (16) 
p. 362. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Probertite is abundant at the Sterling borax 
mine, Tick Canyon, as compacted rosettes of rather coarse needles, in 
the borax ore, Murdoch (17) p. 719. 



296 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

PROUSTITE— Ruby Silver Ore 
Silver arsenic sulphide, Ag3AsS3 

The term "ruby silver" is given indiscriminately to proustite and 
pyrargyrite. Both minerals usually contain arsenic and antimony. The 
metallic gray pyrargyrite is more common than the transparent red 
proustite, but tlie two are often associated. 

Alpine County: 1, Proustite has been reported from the Exchequer 
mine, Silver Mountain, R. W. Raymond (10) p. 23. 

Kern County: 1, Specimens of proustite with pyrargyrite have come 
from the Amalie Mining District, Dyke (1) p. 764, Troxel and Morton 
(2) p. 41. 2, Proustite is the principal silver mineral in the Cactus 
Queen and Blue Eagle (sec. 17, T. 10 N., R. 13 W., S. B.), Tucker et 
al. (37) p. 216, Troxel and Morton (2) p. 44. 3, Proustite occurs, but 
is rare, in the veins of the Elephant (Elephant Eagle, Lodestar) group 
of claims, Mojave Mining District, A. G. Nelson, cited by Troxel and 
Morton (2) p. 107. 

Mariposa County: 1, Proustite occurred with pyrargyrite and argen- 
tite in the Bryant silver mine, Laizure (6) p. 123, (8) p. 44. 

Mono County: 1, Proustite was found in the Oro and Bodie mines, 
Bodie Mining District, Hanks (12) p. 314. 

Napa County: 1, Proustite has been found in the Palisades mine, 
about 2 miles north of Calistoga, Crawford (2) p. 414. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Proustite is a minor constituent of the 
silver ores of the Randsburg silver mines, Hulin (12) p. 98. 

Shasta County: 1, Proustite occurred with galena, pyrite and quartz 
in the Chicago mine, near Igo, Hanks (12) p. 314. 

PSEUDOMALACHITE 
Basic hydrous copper phosphate, Cu,Q(P04)4(OH)g-2H20 

Inyo County: 1, Pseudomalachite is reported associated with the 
lead-silver ores in the oxidized zone of the Darwin lead mine. Wood- 
house (p.c. '51). 

PSl LOME LANE 
A basic barium manganese oxide, usually impure, (Ba,Mn2+)Mn^*403(OH)2 

The massive fine-grained oxides of manganese form a group whose 
members are impossible to separate by physical means of identification. 
They may be distinguished usually by x-ray determination. It is rec- 
ommended, Fleischer and Richmond (1) p. 271, that massive, hard, 
heavy jnaterial not specifically identified should be referred to as be- 
longing to the " psilomclane type." and massive, soft material of appar- 
ent low specific gravity should be referred to as "wad." Ashnlitc is a 
wad containing cobalt. In the following notation of occurrences, the 
word "psilomelane" must be considered ns meaning "psilomelane 
t3^pe," unless specific deterniitiatioii is indicated; see also cryptomelane, 
this volume, W. E. Richmond and Fleischer (2), p. 607. 

Most of the manganese deposits are compo??ed of the oxides at and 
near the surface, changing to the primary minerals with depth. 

Detailed reports on the manganese deposits of California have been 
issued bv CDMG as bulletin 76, W. M. Bradlev et al. (4), and bulletin 
125, P. b. Trask et al. (4). 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 297 

AlamecUi County: 1, Psilomelane is the chief mineral in the man- 
ganese deposits near Corral Hollow and the Arroyo Mocho, Watts (2) 
p. 121, Huoruenin and Castello (4) pp. 26-28, Laizure (9) p. 53. 

Amador County: 1, Deposits of psilomelane mixed with pyrolusite 
occur 1^ miles south of Volcano, W. W. Bradley et al. (4) p. 29, 
Laizure (9) p. 71 ; 2, 4 miles east of Pine Grove, W. W. Bradley et aJ. 
(4) p. 31, and 3, about half a mile southeast of Defender, ibid., p. 29. 

Bnttc County: 1, Psilomelane occurs in several localities near Clipper 
Mills (sec. 35, T. 20 N., R. 7 E., M. D.), C. A. Waring (4) p. 224, 
W. W. Bradley et al. (4) p. 30. 

Calaveras County: 1, Deposits of psilomelane occur 2 miles north- 
east of San Andreas, W. W. Bradley et al. (4) p. 31. 2, Asbolite is 
reported 6 miles southeast of Valley Springs, W. W. Bradley (23) 
p. 500. 3, Asbolite came from 1 mile east of Mokelumne Hill, F. M. 
Hamilton (4) p. 760, Logan (8) p. 142. 

Colusa County: 1, Psilomelane occurs in small amounts on the east- 
ern slope of St. Johns Mountain, east of Stonvford, Harder (1) p. 164, 
W. W. Bradley (1) p. 180. 

Contra Costa County: 1, Psilomelane was formerly mined on Red 
Rock in San Francisco Bay, A. C. Lawson (2) p. 423, (7) p. 23, W. W. 
Bradley et al. (4) p. 31, Huguenin and Castello (4) p. 55. 

Fresno County: 1, Psilomelane occurs on Pine Flat, near Piedra, 
W. W. Bradley et al. (4) p. 32. 

Glenn County: 1, The mineral occurred with pyrolusite at the Black 
Diamond and Rattlesnake mines (sec. 14, T. 18 N., R. 7 W., M. D.), 
about 30 miles southwest of Fruto. W. W. Bradley et al. (4) p. 32. 

Humholdt Coimty: 1, Psilomelane occurs with pyrolusite as massive 
ore on the Porter Ranch (sec. 32, T. 3 N., R. 4 E., H.), W. W. Bradley 
et al. (4) p. 33, and 2, on Charles Mountain (sec. 2, T. 1 S.. R. 4 E., 
H.), Averill (10) p. 519. 

Imperial County: 1, Psilomelane deposits have been reported in the 
Chocolate Mountains, W. W. Bradley et al. (4) pp. 34, 35, and 2, as 
filling of basalt breccia (T. 9, 10 S., R. 19, 20 E., S. B.), E. L. Jones 
(1) p. 201. 3, Psilomelane is found in the Pavmaster area (sees. 16, 
18, 19, T. 11 S., R. 21 E., S. B.), Hadley (1) p. 465, and 4, there are 
many other minor occurrences in the county, R. J. Sampson and Tucker 
(18) pp. 128-130. 

hiyo County: 1, Psilomelane is found at the southeast end of the 
Panamint Range, 25 miles south of Bennetts Wells on the Death Valley 
slope, W. W. Bradley et al. (4) p. 36. 

Kern County: 1, Wad has been found as a pseudomorph after calcite 
at the Echo mine near Mojave, A. F. Rogers (3) p. 18. 

Lake County: 1, Psilomelane occurs on the Phillips Ranch, about 1| 
miles south of Laurel Dell, Huguenin and Castello (4) p. 78; 2, on 
Dry Creek about 3 miles west of Middletown, W. W. Bradley et al. 
(4) p. 37, and 3, a large deposit occurs about 10 miles north of Upper 
Lake on the southwestern slope of the Horse Mountains (sec. 10, T. 
16 N., R. 10 W., M. D.), ibid., p. 37. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Asbolite occurred in the O.K. mine, San 
Gabriel Canyon, CDMG (11599). 2, Deposits of siliceous psilomelane 
occur about 5 miles west of Palmdale, W. W. Bradlev et al. (4) p. 38, 
F. J. H. Merrill (2) p. 479. 



298 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Marin County: 1, Psilomelane occurs near Sausalito and Fort Baker, 
A. C. Lawson (7) p. 23. 2, Psilomelane is found iii masses on the 
Mailliard Ranch, about 8 miles northwest of San Rafael, W. W. Brad- 
ley et al. (4) p. 39. 

Mendocino County: 1, Large deposits of psilomelane occur in Potter 
Valley (sec. 3, T. 17 N., R. 12 W., M. D.), W. W. Bradley et al. (4) 
p. 40. 2, Deposits of psilomelane occur at the Cleveland mine, 3 miles 
east of Calpella, W. W. Bradley et al. (4) pp. 42, 43; 3, at the Inde- 
pendent mine, 14 miles east of Willits, ibid., pp. 42, 43; 4, it occurs in 
the hills east of the Middle Fork of Eel River, ibid., p. 40, and 5, psilo- 
melane with rhodochrosite occurs on Mount Sanhedrin, ibid., p. 44. 
6, Psilomelane in jasper is found at the Thomas and Wild Devil mines, 
about 6 miles northeast of Redwood Station, ibid., p. 46. 

Merced County: 1, Mang'anese ore deposits occur about 26 miles east 
of Tres Pinos (sec. 13, T. 13 S., R. 9 E., M. D.), W. W. Bradlev et al. 
(4) p. 49. 

Monterey County: 1, Some small occurrences of psilomelane are found 
in the county, W. W. Bradley et al. (4) pp. 50, 51. 

Napa County: 1, Several small deposits of psilomelane occur near 
Oakville and Mount St. Helena, W. W. Bradley et al. (4) p. 51. 

Nevada County: 1, A large body of psilomelane occurs in the Lime- 
kiln area, E. MacBoyle (1) p. 262. 2, Psilomelane is widespread but not 
abundant in the Grass Valley mines, W. D. Johnston f4) p. 44. 

Placer County: 1, Deposits of psilomelane occur about 9 miles north 
of Colfax, near Yankee Jims, W W. Bradley et al. (4) p. 52. 

Plumas Co7inty: 1, Small amounts of psilomelane occur on Mumford 
Hill, W. W. Bradley et al. (4) pp. 53, 54. 2, Psilomelane, manganite 
and rhodonite occur in the Diadem and Penrose lodes, near Edmanton, 
in the Edmanton (Meadow Valley) Mining District, W. W. Bradley 
et al. (4) pp. 53, 54. 3, Deposits of psilomelane occur near Crescent 
Mills, ibid. For other localities, see J. C. O'Brien (1) pp. 80, 87. 

Riverside County: 1, Many small deposits of psilomelane occur in 
the McCoy Mountains, in the Palen Mountains, near Perris and Elsi- 
nore, Palo Verde, and Little Maria Mountains, W. W. Bradley et al. 
(4) pp. 54-59, E. L. Jones (1) pp. 195, 199. 2, Botryoidal psilomelane 
is reported from near Tadpole Tanks, Anon. (13) p. 15. 

San Benito County: 1, Minor stringers and coatings of psilomelane 
occur with benitoite near the headwaters of the San Benito River, 
Louderback and Blasdale (5) p. 363; 2, it occurs in cherts on the 
Fries and Lewis Ranches about 18 miles east of Tres Piiios, Crawford 
(1) pp. 644, 645, and 3, it is found at the McCreary Ranch (sec. 29, 
T. 14 S., R 9 E., M. D.), I. F. Wilson (2) p. 265. 

San Bernardino County-: 1, Massive asbolite has been found with 
gypsum in clay near Borate, 7 miles north of Yermo (N. R. ). Refer- 
ences to other localities are W. W. Bradley et al. (4) pp. 61-64, Cloud- 
man et al. (1) p. 822, E. L. Jones (1) pp^ 189. 190, Tucker and Samp- 
son (17) p. 337, (8) p. 241, (32) pp. 67, 132. 

San Diego County: 1, Fine specimens of psilomelane have come from 
Campo (N. R.). 

San Joaquin County: 1, Psilomelane is found in the manganese ore 
deposits of the Diablo Range, notably at the Ladd mine in Corral 
Hollow, Watts (1) p. 564, P. D. Trask et al. (4) p. 86. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 299 

San Luis Obispo County: 1, Psilomelane occurs on the Staneuch 
Ranch, 8 miles west of San Luis Obispo, W. W. Bradley et al. (4) p. 72. 

Santa Clara County: 1, The outer crust of the manganese ore boulder 
near Alum Rock Park, 5 miles east of San Jose, was psilomelane, A. F. 
Rogers (21) p. 447. Other occurrences are referenced in W. W. Bradley 
et al. (4) pp. 75-81. 

Shasta County: 1, A deposit of psilomelane occurs on the Pit River, 
1 mile south of Heroult, G. C. Brown (2) p. 807. 

Siskiyou County: 1, Manv small occurrences are listed by W. W. 
Bradley et al. (4) p. 82. 

Sonoma County: 1, A deposit of high-grade psilomelane occurs on 
the Shaw Ranch, 7 miles northwest of Cloverdale, Crawford (1) p. 330. 
Other small deposits are recorded in W. W. Bradley et al. (4) 
pp. 82, 83. 

Stanislaus County: 1, Psilomelane occurs on Arroyo del Puerto, west 
of Patterson, W. W. Bradley et al. (4) p. 84, and 2, in the manganese 
ore deposits of the Diablo Range, notablv at the Buckeye mine, west of 
Vernalis, L. A. Smith (1) p. 213. 

Trinity County: 1, A number of small prospects are listed by W. W. 
Bradley et al. (4) p. 89, Averill (10) pp. 67, 68, J. C. O'Brien (1) 
p. 84. 

Tulare County: 1, Melhase (3) no. 7, p. 23, has reported the occur- 
rence of asbolite from the King C. Gillette Farm, near Lindsay. 2, 
Asbolite has been reported from the chrysoprase workings near Deer 
Creek, F. M. Hamilton (4) p. 247. 

Tuolumne County: 1, Psilomelane occurs massive with pyrolusite 
near Columbia, D. T. Day (1) p. 554. 

PUCHERITE 
Bismuth vanadate, BiV04 

San Diego County: 1, Pucherite occurs at the Pala Chief mine, near 
Pala. It was analyzed by Schaller (25) p. 230. 2, The mineral occurred 
at the Victor mine, Rincon, with bismite and bismutite (?) Palache 
etal. (10) p. 600. 

PUMPELLYITE 

Basic hydrous calcium aluminum iron silicate, 
Ca4(AI,Fe,2-Fe,3-Mg)4Si4023(OH)3-2HjO 

Contra Costa County: 1, Pumpellyite is found in schists with law- 
sonite on the private estate of Mrs. Anson Blake, G. A. Davis and 
Pabst (1) p. 692. 

Marin County: 1, Crystalline pumpellyite has come from 2 miles 
east of Novato, Vonsen (p.c. '45). 

Merced County: 1, Pumpellyite is sometimes associated with browai 
stilpnomelane, lawsonite and aragonite in the Franciscan rocks of the 
Paeheco Pass region, McKee (2) p. 384; see also Santa Clara County 

San Benito County: 1, Pumpellyite occurs in association with jadeite 
and lawsonite on Clear Creek, Yoder and Chesterman (1) p. 3. 

San Mateo County: 1, Pumpellyite has been reported in quartzof eld- 
spathic rocks, Hutton (1) p. 1373. 

Santa Clara County: 1, Pumpellyite is sometimes associated with 
brown stilpnomelane, lawsonite and aragonite in the Franciscan rocks 



300 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

of the Pachaco Pass area, McKee (2) p. 384; see also Merced County 

Sonoma County: 1, Pumpellyite was reported as dull green material 
with lawsonite in veins in glaucophane schist at Porter Creek (not at 
Mill Creek), 2 miles northwest of River Road, 8^ miles southwest of 
Healdsburg, Irving et al (1) p. 338. 2, Brown fibrous pumpellyite 
occurs in tufts or radiating aggregates in glaucophane schist near 
Skaggs, ibid., p. 338. 3, Pumpellyite is reported from Mill Creek, Combs 
(1) p. 119. This may be the same locality as (1). 

Trinity County: 1, Pale-green veinlets of fibrous pumpellyite have 
been found in NWi sec. 21, T. 28 N., R. 11 W., M. D., Simons (p.c. '41). 

PURPURITE— Heterosite 
Manganese iron phosphate, (Mn**,Fe3+)P04 

San Diego County. 1, Purpurite was found with lithiophilite and 
triphylite in a pegmatite dike on Heriart Hill at Pala, Graton and 
Schaller (1) p. 146, Kunz (26) p. 1344, Schaller (22) p. 79. 2, A purple 
alteration product, either purpurite or heterosite (called heterosite by 
Jahns and Wright (5) p. 31), is the same occurrence reported by 
Schaller from Heriart Hill, Pala. Heterosite is considered to be the 
iron-rich end member of the purpurite-heterosite series. 3, Purpurite 
is doubtfully reported in pegmatites carrying beryl crystals, near Tule 
Mountain, Weber (1) p. 11. 

PYRARGYRITE— Dark Ruby Silver Ore 
Silver antimony sulphide, Ag3SbS3 

Pyrargyrite is found in silver veins with argentite, polybasite, steph- 
anite, tetrahedrite and other silver minerals. It is often embedded 
in quartz and good crystals of pyrargyrite may occur in cavities in 
quartz. 

Alpine County: 1, Pyrargyrite occurred in the old I X L and Ex- 
chequer mines of the Silver ]\Iountain area, R. AV. Raymond (6) p. 13, 
Wheeler (4) p. 184, Hanks (15) p. 129, Lindgren (20) p. 184, Eakle 
(16) p. 13. 2, The mineral was observed at the Morning Star mine, 
Eakle (16) p. 13. 

Kern County: 1, Pyrargyrite was found with argentite at the Amalie 
mine, CDMG (14831) ; 2, at the Reform mine (sec. 6, T. 29 S., R. 33 E., 
M. D.), Tucker and Sampson (21) p. 323, and 3, 1 mile north of (Old) 
Kernville, Wheeler (3) p. 65. 4, Pyrargyrite is found in small amounts 
in the Mojave Mining District, Troxel and Morton (2) p. 44. 

Mariposa County: 1, Pyrargyrite was found with argentite and 
proustite in the Bryant Silver and Silver Lane mines (sec. 15, T. 6 S., 
R. 19 E., M. D.), Laizure (6) p. 123. 2, The mineral is reported from 
the Washington and Georgia mines, Quartzburg, J. B. Trask (1) p. 24. 

Mono County: 1, Pyrargyrite and stephanite were abundant in the 
Oro, Addenda, Fortuna and other mines south of Bodie, Hanks (12) 
p. 315. Crystals of pyrargyrite were found in a vug in the Bodie mine, 
Whiting (1) p. 392. 2, The mineral also occurred in the Blind Spring 
Hill mines, in the Tower mine, and in other mines near Benton, Whit- 
ing (1) p. 392, R. J. Sampson (14) p. 140. 3, Pyrargyrite was found 
at the Dunderberg mine, Castle Peak, Conkling (1) p. 184. 



1966 J DESCRIPTIONS 301 

Napa County: 1, Pyrargryrite is a constituent of the gold and silver 
ore in the Palisades mine, 2 miles north of Calistoga, W. W. Bradley 
(26) p. 195, and 2, it occurs with cinnabar at the Elephant vein 1^ 
miles north of Calistoga, Becker (4) p. 370. 

Nevada County: 1, Pyrargyrite was found with pyrite, chalcopyrite 
and galena in the Allison Ranch mine, Lindgren (12) p. 119, W. D. 
Johnston (3) p. 27. 2, Pyrargyrite occurs in the Central mine of the 
Lava Cap Company, south of Banner Hill, and is probably present in 
other mines of the Grass Valley and Nevada City areas as indicated by 
the silver-rich concentrates, W. W. Bradlev (30) p. 364, W. D. John- 
ston (3) p. 216, CDMG (21054). 

Placer County: 1, Pyrargyrite occurs in gold quartz at the Three 
Stars mine, Ophir Mining District, CDMG (16416). 

San Bernardino County : 1, Pyrargyrite occurs with miargyrite in the 
silver ores of the Randsburg area, Hulin (1) p. 98; 2, with wolframite 
in Cliff Canyon, 2 miles southeast of Brant, New York Mountains, 
Tucker (4) p. 373 ; 3, at the Carlyle mine, near Dale, with polybasite 
and stephanite, Tucker and Sampson (27) p. 61, and 4, sparingly in 
the Calico Mining District, Weeks (4) p. 533. 

Shasta County: 1, Small amounts of pyrargyrite were occasionally 
found in the mines near Igo (N. R.). 

Tulare County: 1, Pyrargyrite occurred in minor amounts in the 
Empire mine, Mineral King Mining District, Engineering and Mining 
Journal (6) p. 8. 

PYRITE— Iron Pyrites 
Iron disulphide, FeS2 

Melnikovite is a cryptocrystalline variety of pyrite. 

Pyrite is the commonest of the sulphide minerals and is found in all 
kinds of rock. It is commonly found in distinct crystals and in granular 
masses. Cubes several inches in diameter are frequent in gold areas, 
but in general the smaller crystals and granular masses are more highly 
auriferous. All of the localities given for chalcopyrite and many more, 
might be cited for pyrite since the mineral is present in every county. 
The oxidation of pyrite produces limonite and hematite, and the gossan 
of mineral veins is mostly formed by its alteration. Limonite as pseudo- 
morphs after pyrite are exceedingly common. 

Alameda County: 1, Well-developed crystals from the Alma mine, 
Leona Heights, have been measured by Schaller (1) p. 191. C. W. Clark 
(1) p. 374, gives a list of minerals, including pyrite from the Alma 
mine. 

Alpine County: 1, Melnikovite occurs at the Leviathan mine, Pabst 
(6) p. 425. 

Calaveras County: 1, Cubes and pyritohedrons of pyrite occur with 
gold on Carson Hill, A. Knopf (11) p. 39, and 2, slender needles from 
the Stanislaus mine are described as distorted pyrite crystals by A. W. 
Jackson (3) p. 365. 

Colusa County: 1, Hexagonal plates of pyrite occur as pseudomorphs 
after pyrrhotite at the Sulphur Creek deposit, Genth (9) p. 40. 

El Dorado County: 1, Blake reported brilliant cubes of pyrite at the 
Mameluke mine near Georgetown, Hanks (12) p. 317. 



302 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Lake County: 1, Pyrite is sometimes abundant at Sulphur Bank, 

D. E. White and Roberson (2) p. 405. 

Madera County: 1, Large cubes of pyrite associated with wolframite 
occur in a quartz vein at the head of Iron Creek, Ritter Range, Mina- 
rets Mining District, Hess (18) p. 938, Erwin (1) p. 73, Krauskopf 
(1) p. 72. 

Mariposa County: 1, Large and perfect crystals of pyrite occur in 
the slates near Princeton Hill, Hanks (12) p. 317. 

Nevada County: 1, Pyrite forms the substance of fossilized trees at 
French Corral, J. A. Phillips (2) p. 408. 

Riverside County: 1, Pyrite is present in theCrestmore limestone as 
grains cubes and pyritohedra ; some of the crystals are large. Li- 
monite pseudomorphs after the pyrite are common, Eakle,(15) p. 352. 

San Diego County: 1, Veins of compact botryoidal pyrite occur cut- 
ting the pyrrhotite mass at the Friday mine, Creasey (1) p. 27. 

Santa Clara County: 1, Slender prismatic crystals from the New 
Almaden cinnabar mine were measured by A. W. Jackson (3) p. 371, 

E. H. Bailey and Everhart (12) p. 97. 

Shasta County: 1, Pyrite was found by A. L. Day and Allen (1) pp. 
121, 137, in the hot springs and mud pots of Lassen Volcanic National 
Park. 2, Pyrite used for sulphuric acid occurs in commercial quantities 
and is produced at the Hornet mine (NE| sec. 34, T. 33 N., R. 6 W., 
M. D.), Aubury (1) p. 68, Tucker (9) p. 441. 3, Pyrite is the most 
abundant sulphide in the ores of the Iron Mountain mine, associated 
with chalcopyrite and sphalerite, Kinkel and Albers (1) p. 9. 

Sonoma County: 1, Large octahedrons have been found on Austin 
Creek near Healdsburg (N. R.). 

Tuolumne County: 1, Fine crystals of pyrite were found in the Pat- 
terson mine, Tuttletown, Hanks (12) p. 318. 

PYROCHLORE 

Niobate of the cerium group elements, calcium and other bases, with 
titanium, thorium and fluorine, (Ca,Na,Ce) (Nb,Ti,Ta)2(0,OH,F)7 

Lassen County: 1, Tiny (1 mm or less) black grains of pyrochlore 
are found disseminated in metavolcanic rocks at the Madonna Mia 
claim (sec. 19, T. 22 N., R. 17 E.), (CDMG X-ray identification, 
1964). 

San Diego County: 1, A dark-brown isotropic mineral, presumably 
pyrochlore, surrounded by microlite, came from some locality in the 
county, A. F. Rogers (7) p. 375. 

PYROCHROITE 

Manganese hydroxide, IVIn(0H)2 

Santa Clara County: 1, Pyrochroite was a prominent constituent of 
a boulder of manganese ore near Alum Rock Park, 5 miles east of 
San Jose, A. F. Rogers (21) p. 445. 

PYROLUSITE 

Manganese dioxide, Mn02 

Pyrolusite is the commonest of the manganese minerals, but may 
readily be confused with "wad," or if in compact form, with other 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 303 

minerals of the " psilomelane type." Pyrolusite is common in the sur- 
face portions of manganese deposits, and very pervasive as coatings 
on fracture surfaces, and as an- associate with other oxides. Its occur- 
rences are practically the same as those of manganese ores or prospects, 
and are treated in considerable detail in Bulletins 76 [W. W. Bradley 
(4)] and 125 [P. D. Trask et al (4)] of the CDMG. Hanks (12) p. 
316, also gives an extensive list of localities. 

Manganese minerals like bementite, braunite, hausmannite, inesite, 
manganite, neotocite, psilomelane, pyrolusite, wad, and others are often 
not separable by field methods. It is apparent to the authors of this 
volume that many citations in the literature, especially those prior to 
1940, may be incorrect identifications. Abundance of manganese min- 
erals in the State in hundreds of localities makes systematic recording 
of all localities mentioned in the literature impractical. The following 
listings therefore may be incomplete, and many that are included are 
important only to reflect adequately the historic record. 

Alameda County: 1, Pyrolusite occurs with psilomelane in the Corral 
Hollow and Arroyo Moeho iianganese deposits, Huguenin and Cas- 
tello (4) pp. 26-28. 

Calaveras County: 1, Good specimens of pyrolusite have come from 
San Andreas (N. R.). 

Colusa County: 1, Pyrolusite is found with cinnabar at Stonyford, 
CDMG (9133). 

Contra Costa County: 1, Pyrolusite occurs with psilomelane on Red 
Rock in San Francisco Bay, J. D. Whitney (1) p. 79. 

Del Norte County: 1, Pyrolusite occurs with manganite on the North 
Fork, Smith River, Maxson (1) p. 160. 

El Dorado County: 1, Masses of pyrolusite occur in Greenwood, 
CDMG (12153). 

Glenn County: 1, Pyrolusite and psilomelane are associated at the 
Black Diamond and Rattlesnake mines about 30 miles southwest of 
Fruito, W. W. Bradley et al. (4) p. 32. 

Humboldt County: 1, Pyrolusite occurs on the Porter Ranch, Fort 
Baker, W. W. Bradley et al. (4) p. 33. 

Imperial County: 1, Pyrolusite is found with manganite at Tolbard 
(T. 11 S., R. 21 E., S. B.), Tucker (11) p. 226, Hadley (1) p. 465. 

Inyo County: 1, Some pyrolusite is present in the oxidized mineral 
zone of the Darwin Mining District, Hall and MacKevett (4) p. 64. 
2, Pyrolusite occurs in the Big Four mine, northern Panamint range. 
Hall and Stephens (3) p. 24. 3, The mineral occurs in the Minietta 
and Modoc mines, Argus Range, ibid., pp. 32, 34. 

Lake County: 1, Pyrolusite occurs with psilomelane at the Phillips 
mine near Laurel Dell, Huguenin and Castello (4) p. 79. 

Lassen County: 1, Pyrolusite is rather abundant in the gold ores of 
the Hayden Hill Mining District, Hill (2) p. 36. 

Madera County: 1, Pyrolusite occurs with limonite 14 miles from 
Fresno Flat, Laizure (9) p. 55, 2, near Coarse Gold with psilomelane, 
manganite, rhodochrosite, and rhodonite, P. D. Trask et al. (4) p. 130. 

Marin County: 1, Small amounts of pyrolusite were found in the 
rock at Sausalito, Hanks (12) p. 316. 



304 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Mariposa County: 1, Small masses of pyrolusite occur in Hunters 
Valley, CDMG (467). 

Mendocino County: 1, Pyrolusite is found at Red Mountain; 2, it 
occurred with psilomelane at the Independence manganese mine, Potter 
Valley; 3, near Covelo; 4, 4 miles west of Hopland with psilomelane; 
5, in Redwood Valley ; 6, near Willits ; 7, at the Long mine near Wood- 
man Station ; 8, in chert at Westport, and 9, at the Cleveland mine, 
Ukiah. For these localities and as a general reference for the county, 
see W. W. Bradley et al. (4) pp. 39-49. 

Napa County: 1, Pyrolusite occurred as radiating concentric masses 
with cinnabar at the old Redington and Manhattan mines, Knoxville 
(N. R.). 

Placer County: 1, Pyrolusite occurs with rhodonite 12 miles from 
Auburn on Wolf Creek road, CDMG (12152). 

Plumas County: 1, Pyrolusite is common near the Diadem lode, 
Meadow Valley Mining District, H. W. Turner (17) p. 6. 

Riverside County: 1, Pyrolusite occurs with manganite and psilome- 
lane in the McCoy Mountains, E. L. Jones (1) p. 197. 

San Benito County: 1, Pyrolusite replaces jasper at the Cleveland 
manganese mine, 20 miles east of Tres Pinos, Crawford (1) p. 330. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Pyrolusite occurs in the Calico and Bar- 
stow areas, Erwin and Gardner (3) p. 301, and 2, it occurred with 
psilomelane in the Emma and Owls Hole mines, in the Owl (Hole) 
Mountains, Cloudman et al. (1) p. 823. Other references to this county 
are E. L. Jones (1) p. 199, Tucker and Sampson (28) p. 241, (33) 
pp. 132, 135. 

San Joaquin County: 1, Pyrolusite is found in the manganese de- 
posits of the Diablo Range, Watts (1) p. 564. 

San Luis Obispo County: 1, Pyrolusite is found with psilomelane in 
the manganese deposits on the Staneuch Ranch, 8 miles west of San 
Luis Obispo, W. W. Bradley et al. (4) p. 72. 

Santa Clara County: 1, Pyrolusite was found at the Washington 
mine, and in the mines of the Diablo Range, W. W. Bradlev et al. (4) 
pp. 75-80. 

Sonoma. County: 1, Pyrolusite occurred at the Shaw mine, Crawford 
(1) p. 330. 

Stanislaus County: 1, Pyrolusite occurs with rhodochrosite at the 
Buckeye mine on Hospital Creek, Laizure (3) p. 213. 

PYROMORPHITE 
Lead chloro-phosphate, Pb5(P04)3CI 

Pyromorphite is found as an alteration product of galena and cerus- 
site. 

Calaveras County: 1, Green crystals of pyromorphite have been 
found in gold quartz at the Reliance mine (N. R.). 

El Dorado County: 1, Pyromorphite occurred as yellowish-green col- 
oring matter in botryoidal chalcedony and as a crystalline coating at 
Mosquito Gulch, 6 miles northeast of Placerville, H. W. Turner (22) 
p. 343. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 305 

Inyo County: 1, Pyromorphite was found in small amounts in the 
Cerro Gordo Minino- District, R. W. Raymond (10) p. 29. 2, Euhedral 
crystals of pyromorphite have been found at Darwin, in oxidized lead 
ore, in the Surprise mine (sec. 20, T. 19 S., R. 42 E., M. D.), confirm- 
ing Woodhouse (p.c. '47), Norman and Stewart (2) p. 81, Hall and 
Stephens (1) p. 35. 

Mariposa County: 1, A small amount of pyromorphite was found in 
the mines near Coulterville, and is represented by a specimen in the 
University of California Collections at Berkeley. 

Mono County: 1, Prisms of pyromorphite on quartzite have come 
from the property of the Log Cabin Mining Company, 3 miles west of 
Mono Lake, W. W. Bradley (29) p. 311. 2, Minute crystals lining a 
cavity have been found in the Blind Spring Mining District, W. W. 
Bradley (29) p. 191. 

Nevada County: 1, Pyromorphite occurs with galena in quartz at the 
Rocky Glen mine. Whiting (1) p. 450, Irelan (4) p. 47. 

Riverside County: 1, The mineral reported from the El Dorado mine 
as pyromorphite, Eakle (22), was proved to be vanadinite, Pabst (p.c. 
'45). 2, Minute yellow crystals of pyromorphite have been reported as 
collected at the old City quarry. Riverside, Jenni (p.c. '57). This ma- 
terial is now known to have been collected from the Wet Weather 
quarry dump at Crestmore. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Pyromorphite has been found with vana- 
dinite at the Vanadium King mine, near Kleinfeldter, Tucker (4) 
p. 375. 

Shasta County: 1, W. P. Blake (14) p. 125, reported the occurrence 
of pyromorphite with tetrahedrite, galena and cerussite on the Chi- 
cago claim, 3 miles west of Igo. 

Tulare County: 1, Pyromorphite was found in the White Chief mine. 
Mineral King Mining District, Goodvear (3) p. 646, Schrader et al. 

(I) p. 7L 

PYROPHYLLITE 

Hydrous aluminum silicate, Al2Si40,(|(OH)2 
Agalmatoiite is a varietal name for pyrophyllite 

Alameda County: 1, A specimen from Irvington is in the CDMG Ex- 
hibit, CDMG (16214). 

Amador County: 1, Pyrophyllite (or damourite?) is one of the 
gangue minerals of the Central Eureka and Kennedy mines, Logan 
(16) p. 78. 

El Dorado County: 1, Pyrophyllite is reported from the county, 
CDMG (1811). 

Imperial County: 1, Pyrophyllite occurs in veins with kyanite and 
andalusite at the mine of the Vitrefax Corporation, 10 miles west of 
Winterhaven, near the abandoned railroad station of Ogilby, Tucker 

(II) p. 280. 

Inyo County: 1, Pyrophyllite has been found near Sheephead Pass, 
7 miles west of Shoshone, W. W, Bradley (30) p. 194. 

Madera County: 1, Radiating and massive pyrophyllite occurs in 
schist near the junction of the North Fork of San Joaquin River and 
Bench Creek, Erwin (1) p. 29. 



306 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Mariposa County: 1, Pyrophyllite occurs in beautiful radiating tufts 
of golden yellow color with quartz at Tres Cerritos, Hanks (12) p. 318, 
H. W. Turner (12) p. 685, 0. E. Bowen and Gray (2) p. 219. 

Mono County: 1, Pyrophyllite occurs abundantly in radiating masses 
and veinlets in andalusite at the mine of Champion Sillimanite, on 
the western slope of the White Mountains, 7 miles east of Mocalno, 
north of Bishop, Peck (1) p. 151, Kerr (3) p. 627. 2, Pyrophyllite has 
been shipped from a deposit 17 miles north of Laws, CDMG Mineral 
Information Service, April 7, 1947. This is incorrectly reported as 
Inyo County (2), Murdoch and Webb (39) p. 269. 

Plumas County: 1, Massive pyrophyllite occurs in the Diadem Lode, 
Meadow Valley, Schrader et al. (1) p. 71. 

San Bernardino County: 1, A considerable deposit of pyrophyllite 
occurs in a hydrothermally altered zone in volcanic rock on the Vic- 
torite pyrophyllite property (sees. 24, 25, T. 7 N., R. 3 W., S. B.), 
near Victorville, L. A. Wright et al. (5) p. 243. 

San Diego County: 1, Agalmatolite occurs near Encinitas, A. F. 
Rogers (7) p. 381, Sanford and Stone (1) p. 24. 2, A large commercial 
deposit of massive pyrophyllite occurs near Escondido at the Pioneer 
mine, 7^ miles southwest of Escondido, Jahns and Lance (3) pp. 1-32, 
D. F. Palmer (1) p. 5. 

San Litis Obispo County: 1, Massive pyrophyllite from the county is 
represented by CDMG (4060). 

PYROSTILPNITE— Fireblende 
Silver antimony sulphide, Ag3SbS3 

San Bernardino County: 1, A few minute crystals of pyrostilpnite 
have been found in cavities of the rich silver ores at the California 
Rand mine, Murdoch (12) p. 130, W. W. Bradley (30) p. 194. 

PYROXENES 

In this group is a series of complex silicates of magnesium, iron, 
calcium and aluminum, or varying combinations of these elements 
with others. The pyroxenes are very common rock-forming minerals 
and are found both in igneous and metamorphic rocks. They are so 
common that only the most interesting occurrences can be mentioned. 

The validity of varietal names in this group are sometime subject to 
debate. 

The identification of the varieties of pyroxene in the older literature 
was often based on physical inspection. Confirmation of the identifi- 
cation requires optical, chemical, or crystallographic data. Validation 
of identification in locality reports has not been undertaken in the 
entries given below. 

ENSTATITE 
Magnesium silicate, MgSi03 

Bronzite is a variety in which part of the magnesium is replaced 
by iron. It occurs in bronze-brown reticulated masses. 

Enstatite is a rock-forming mineral which is characteristic of gab- 
bros, and rocks that have been derived from gabbros, like much of 
the serpentinized rocks of the Coast Ranges and Sierra Nevada. It is 
a common mineral, but has seldom been mentioned. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 307 

Alameda County: 1, Bronzite occurs in some of the rocks of the 
Berkeley Hills, Hanks (12) p. 178. 

Contra Costa County: 1, Massive enstatite is found in the Diablo 
Range in this and other counties to the south, Kunz (24) p. 81. 

Kern County: 1, Bronzite was one of the constituents of the San 
Emigdio meteorite, and Avas analyzed by Whitfield (3) p. 114. 

Nevada County: 1, Enstatite is an important constituent of the gab- 
bros of Nevada City, Lindgren (12) p. 53. 

San Francisco County: 1, Enstatite occurs abundantly in the ser- 
pentine of San Francisco, W. P. Blake (7) p. 307, Palache (2) p. 166, 
Eakle (1) p. 316, Kunz (24) p. 81. 

Santa Barbara County: 1, Enstatite in large crystals has been col- 
lected on the north slope of Figueroa Mountain, Woodhouse (p.c. '63). 

HYPERSTHENE 
Iron and magnesium silicate, (Fe,Mg)Si03 

Hypersthene is a constituent of basic eruptive rocks, especially gab- 
bros and andesites. 

Plumas County: 1, Hypersthene is a constituent of the hypersthene 
andesite at La Porte, H. W. Turner (4) p. 488. 

Riverside County: 1, Hypersthene is reported from Crestmore by 
J. W. Daly (1), but its presence in the quarries at Crestmore has not 
been confirmed, Woodford et al. (10) p. 368. 

San Diego County: 1, Hypersthene is one of the minerals in the 
orbicular gabbro at Dehesa, A. C. Lawson (6) p. 386. 

Siskiyou County: 1, Hypersthene is mentioned by J. D. Dana (3) p. 
254, as a constituent of the hypersthene andesite of Mount Shasta. 

Trinity County: 1, Hypersthene with magnetite is abundant on the 
northwest side of Chuachelulla Mountain, G. C. Brown (2) p. 920. 

CLINOENSTATITE 
Magnesium silicate, MgSiOs 

San Bernardino County: 1, Red-brown clinoenstatite occurs with 
green forsterite at Dish Hill (Siberia) crater near Amboy (CDMG 
identification 1964). 

CLINOFERROSILITE 
Iron silicate, FeSiOs 

Clinoferrosilite is characteristic of lithophysae in obsidians. 

Inyo County: 1, Clinoferrosilite is found as needles in lithophysae 
in obsidian from Coso Mountains, N. L. Bowen (1) p. 491, W. W. 
Bradley (29) p. 107. 

DIOPSIDE 
Calcium magnesium silicate, CaMg(Si03)2 

Omphacite is a variety 'commonly occurring in contact metamorphic 
rocks. Violan is purple diopside. 

Contra Costa County: 1, Diopside is common with albite in the 
schists near San Pablo, Blasdale (1) p. 343. 

El Dorado County: 1, Fine, dark-green crystals of diopside occur 
near Mud Springs, Hanks (12) p. 318, Kunz (4) p. 80. 2, Fine crystals 
of diopside have come from the old Cosumnes copper mine, near Fair- 



308 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

play, Hanks (12) p. 319, Kunz (24) p. 80. 3, Massive white diopside, 
resembling idocrase, and lath-like crystals up to 7 mm occur with 
prehnite on West Hill, Traverse Creek, 2^ miles southeast of George- 
town, Pabst (2) p. 3. 

Fresno County: 1, Pink, white and dull-gray crystals of diopside 
occur in limestone in the Twin Lakes area, Chesterman (1) p. 254. 

Inyo County: 1, Pale-green diopside is found in a contact zone at 
Round Valley, 6 miles west of Bishop, Chapman (1) p. 866. 2, Color- 
less diopside, with scapolite and idocrase, is found at the Pine Creek 
tungsten mine, Hess and Larsen (17) p. 276. 

Lake County: 1, Violan is reported from Big Canyon (N. R.). 

Madera County: 1, Diopside is common in contact zones in limestone 
on Shadow and Johnson Creeks, in the Minarets Mining District, 
Erwin (1) p. 30. 

Placer Couyity: 1, Diopside, showing crystals in cavities, is found 
associated with axinite and black tourmaline near the summit of 
Wards Peak, Wilkie (p.c. '36). 

Riverside County: 1, Diopside is abundant in the contact zones at 
Crestmore, Eakle (15) p. 340, R. H. Merriam and Laudermilk (1) p. 
715, Woodford (11) p. 359. Complex crystals were measured by Eakle 
(15) p. 340. 2, Large green crystals of diopside appear in the contact 
zone at the new City quarry, south of Riverside, E. S. Larsen (17) 
p. 34. 3, Coarse-grained diopside, with garnet, occurs at a limestone- 
gabbro contact 1^ miles northeast of Winchester, ibid., p. 35. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Snow-white, fine-grained diopside occurs 
near the mouth of Cascade Canyon (SEi sec. 36, T. 2 N., R. 8 W., 
S. B.), R. H. Merriam and Laudermilk (1) p. 716. 2, Granular pale- 
blue diopside is found in a contact zone above the main adit of the 
Ball magnesite mine 12 miles east of Victorville, 0. E. Bowen (p.c. 
'55). 

San Francisco County: 1, Lilac-colored diopside in fibrous and co- 
lumnar radial groups occurs in seams of serpentine near San Fran- 
cisco, Sterrett (6) p. 864. 

DIALLAGE 
Near diopside in composition, but usually with more or less aluminum 

Contra Costa County: 1, Gabbro, containing a high proportion of 
pure diallage, occurs on Bagley Creek about 1| miles due north of 
the summit of Mt. Diablo, H. W. Turner (1) p. 391. 

Nevada County: 1, Diallage is common at Grass Valley and Nevada 
City, Lindgren (12) p. 52. 

Riverside County: 1, A little diallage occurs in the garnet contact 
rock, and in the quartz monzonite, at Crestmore, J. W. Daly (1) 
p. 649. 

San Francisco County: 1, Grains of diallage occur in the serpentine 
one-half mile south of Port Point in the city of San Francisco, with 
residual olivine and enstatite, Palache (2) p. 166, A. C. Lawson (2) 
p. 447. 

Trinity County: 1, Diallage is reported from T. 40 N., R. 6 W., 
M. D., CDMG (21708). 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 309 

HEDENBERGITE 
Calcium iron silicate, CaFe^^SijOj 

Fresno County: 1, Hedenbergite is the principal skarn mineral with 
seheelite, magnetite and garnet, in a contact deposit near Twin Lakes, 
Chesterman (1) p. 277. 

Shasta County: 1, Green, fibrous hedenbergite, associated with 
ilvaite, occurs at Potters Creek, in an iron-ore deposit, Prescott (1) p. 
14, (2) p. 473. 

AUGITE 
Calcium, magnesium, aluminum, iron silicate, (Ca,Mg,Fe2\Fe3*,Ti,AI)2(Si,AI)204 

Augite is a dark-green to black aluminous pyroxene. It is the com- 
monest of all the pyroxenes, and is an important constituent of diorites, 
gabbros, diabases, basalts, andesites, and pyroxenites. It is mentioned 
in most petrographic descriptions of basic igneous rocks. 

No occurrences are of sufficient interest to warrant a separate entry. 

AEGIRINE— Acmite 
Sodium iron silicate, essentially NaFe3*(Si03)2 

Aegirine is a rock-forming mineral prominent in some syenites. 

Fresno County: 1, Aegirine occurs with analcime and barkevikite 
in cavities of a soda syenite, near the head of "White Creek (SE^ sec. 
4, T. 19 S., R. 13 E., M. D.), Arnold and Anderson (8) p. 158. 

San Benito County: 1, Aegirine occurs in stellate groups with beni- 
toite and natrolite in the albite at the benitoite locality near the head- 
waters of the San Benito River, Louderback and Blasdale (5) p. 363. 

San Diego County: 1, Aegirine occurs with quartz, crossite and 
garnet in schist boulders in the San Onofre breccia on the state 
highway due west of San Onofre Mountain, Woodford (2) p. 186. 

Sonoma County: 1, Black, stumpy crystals of aegirine occur with 
riebeckite rn cavities of soda rhyolite, near Glen Ellen on the east 
side of Sonoma Valley, Chesterman (p.c. '51). 

JADEITE 
Sodium aluminum silicate, NaAI(Si03)2 

General reference: The occurence of jadeite in Franciscan cherts 
and graywackes has been reported from Contra Costa, Sonoma, and 
San Benito counties. The conclusion is offered that jadeite-bearing 
rocks may be widespread in California in the Franciscan series, 
Bloxam (1) p. 488. 

Marin County: 1, Jadeite occurs as an important constituent of 
weakly metamorphosed graywacke at Massa Hill nephrite locality, 
Chesterman (p.c. '55). 

Mendocino County: 1, Jadeite occurs in stream boulders, with 
nephrite and with crocidolite, on the north fork. Eel River, near Mina, 
Yoder and Chesterman (1) p. 6, Anon. (12) p. 2. 2, Stream boulders 
of jadeite are found in Williams Creek, Yoder and Chesterman (1) 
p. 6. 3, Doubly terminated crystals of jadeite occur along Russian 
River near Cloverdale, Wolfe and Riska (1) p. 1491, Wolfe (3). 

San Benito County: 1, Boulders of jadeite, and nodules in serpen- 
tine associated with pumpellyite and lawsonite, have been found on 



310 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Clear Creek (NWi sec. 12, T. 18 S., R. 11 E., M. D.), Anon. (9) 
p. 2. The description of the original find, Bolander (2) p. 186, with 
comments, is found in Dake (1) p. 188; see also Yoder and Chester- 
man (1) p. 1, Coleman (1) p. 11. Prewitt and Burnham (1) p. 156, 
have described the crystal structure of jadeite from a single natural 
crystal from Santa Rita Peak from the locality as described by Yoder 
and Chesterman (1). op. eit. 

San Luis Ohispo County: 1, Stream boulders of jadeite have been 
found near Paso Robles, Yoder and Chesterman (1) p. 6. 

Sonoma County: 1, Jadeite occurs in schist at Valley Ford, Yoder 
and Chesterman (1) p. 6. 

Trinity County: 1, Stream boulders of jadeite with nephrite are re- 
ported from the north fork of the Eel River, Anon. (8) p. 16. 

PYROXMANGITE 
Iron manganese silicate, (FeMn)Si03 

Kern County: 1, Pyroxmangite occurs in the contact zone of manga- 
nese ores at the Big Indian deposit two miles south of Randsburg (sec. 
11, T. 30 S., R. 40 E., M. D.), as small yellowish grains in quartzite, 
Hewett et al. (6) p. 54. 

PYRRHOTITE— Magnetic Pyrites 
Iron sulphide, Fei-zS 

Pyrrhotite is often associated with pyrite, chalcopyrite and arsenopy- 
rite, and is sometimes found in large lenticular masses. It is common 
in gold and copper regions although usually in small amounts. Occa- 
sionally it is accompanied by nickel minerals. Many occurrences exist 
besides those listed below. 

Alpine County: 1, Pyrrhotite occurs with other sulphides in a quartz 
vein near Red Lake Peak, 13 miles west of Woodfords, W. W. Bradley 
(15) p. 488. 

Amador County: 1, Pyrrhotite was found in albite veinlets at the 
Treasure mine near Amador City, A. Knopf (11) p. 39; 2, it occurs 
at the Defender mine 5 miles southeast of Volcano, Tucker (1) p. 27, 
and 3, it is found at the Argonaut mine, L. L. Root (2) p. 67. 

Calaveras Comity: 1, Pyrrhotite occurs in the Westpoint and other 
areas, H. W. Turner (3)' p. 470, Franke and Logan (4) p. 239. 2, 
Pyrrhotite is disseminated in diorite at the Easy Bird mine, northeast 
of Mokelumne Hill, A. Knopf (11) p. 39; 3, it is found in the Lock- 
wood mine li miles northeast of Woodcocks Mill, H. W. Turner and 
Ransome (18) p. 6, and 4, is occurs with tetrahedrite at Carson Hill, 
Moss (1) p. 1011. 

Del Norte County: 1, Pyrrhotite is found in copper ores on Diamond 
Shelly and Copper Creeks, and at Low Divide and other localities, 
Anbury (1) p. 112, (4) pp. 136, 139, Maxson (1) p. 148. 

Fresno County: 1, A very large mass of sulphide ore, mainly pyrrho- 
tite, occurred on the 200-foot level of the Fresno conper mine (sec. 10, 
T. 12 S., R. 21 E., M. D.), Anbury (4) p. 281. 

Humboldt County: 1, Large masses of pyrrhotite occur at Elk Ridge, 
CDMG (12195). 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 311 

Inyo County: 1, Many small occurrences of pyrrhotite are found in 
the Panamint Range, R/J. Sampson (7) pp. 349,' 367, 371, 373, Murphy 
(2) pp. 313, 317. 2, West of Bishop, in Tungsten Hills and vicinity, 
pyrrhotite is associated with scheelite, Hess and Larsen (17) p. 269, 
Tucker and Sampson (32) p. 60. 3, Pyrrhotite is found at the Bishop 
and Wilshire Bishop Creek mines. Tucker (11) p. 474, Schroter (2) 
p. 53, Lenhart (1) p. 4. 4, Pyrrhotite is present in small quantities in 
the ores of the Darwin Mining District, Hall and MacKevett (4) p. 62. 

Kern County: 1, Pyrrhotite occurs in contact deposits with scheelite 
in the Green Mountains (sec. 19, T. 25 S., R. 32 E., M. D.), Storms (15) 
p. 768, Hess and Larsen (17) p. 262, and 2, in the Big Blue group (T. 
25 S., R. 33 E., M. D.), Prout (1) p. 413. 3, Pyrrhotite (troilite?) was 
one of the constituents of the San Emigdio meteorite, Whitfield (3) 
p. 114. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Pyrrhotite occurs with other sulphides, sider- 
ite and annabergite, in Pacoima Canyon, 12 miles northeast of San Fer- 
nando, Tucker (4) p. 318, (8) p. 42, R. J. Sampson (10) p. 176, 
D'Arcy (3) p. 269. 

Madera County: 1, Pyrrhotite was found in the old Buchanan mine, 
H. W. Turner (12) p. 696. 2, Large masses of pyrrhotite, reported to 
carry several percent of cobalt and nickel, occur about 12 miles north- 
east of Madera, R. P. McLaughlin and Bradley (3) p. 559. 3, Pyrrho- 
tite occurred at the Ne Plus Ultra mine near Daulton, Forstner (4) 
p. 747. 

Marin County: 1, Tabular crystals have been found on Mount Tam- 
alpais (N. R.). 

Mariposa County: 1, Thick bodies of pyrrhotite occur in the Green 
Mountain mine, Forstner (4) p. 747. 2, The mineral occurs abundantly 
in the ore at the Croesus prospect on Merced River, 2 miles north of 
Bagby, A. Knopf (11) p. 39, and 3, 1 mile north of Trumbull Peak, 
near Incline, W. W. Bradley (13) p. 84. 4, The mineral is present in 
the Zona Copper Company tunnel on Merced River, Hanks (12) p. 316. 

Mono County: 1, Pyrrhotite is abundant in quartz at the Tioga mine, 
H. W. Turner (4) p. 469 ; and 2, it is found at Laurel Creek and upper 
Mammoth Valley, Mayo (4) pp. 84, 85. 

Nevada County: 1, Pyrrhotite was found in the mines of Grass Val- 
ley and Nevada City, Lindgren (12) p. 118, Knaebel (1) p. 393. 2, The 
mineral was also found in the Meadow Lake Mining District, Conkling 

(I) p. 184, Lindgren (5) p. 205. 3, The mineral occurred massive at 
the Yuba mine, Washington Mining District, Irelan (4) p. 47, and 
4, it was reported in considerable quantity and said to carry platinum 
in the Liberty Hill area. Hill (3) p. 8. 

Orange County: 1, Pyrrhotite is found with sphalerite on the north 
bank of San Juan creek in the south southwest part of the Elsinore 
quadrangle, about 1^ miles east of the western quadrangle boundary, 
E. S. Larsen et al. (18) p. 48. 

Plumas County: 1, Pyrrhotite occurs in masses between sandstone 
and serpentine about 1^ miles south of Taylorsville, Diller (9) p. 47, 

(II) p. 115. 

Riverside County: 1, Minor amounts of pyrrhotite occur at Long 
Canyon (sec. 7, T. 6 S., R. 5 W., S. B.), R. J. Sampson (9) p. 514, 



312 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

2, in the old City quarry. Riverside, A. F. Rogers (19) p. 582, and 

3, at Crestmore, Keller (2) p. 141. 4, The mineral occurs with siderite 
in the Old Dominion mine in the Santa Ana Mountains, E. S. Larsen 
et al. (18) p. 48. 

San Diego County: 1, A large body of nickel-bearing pyrrhotite 
associated with chalcopyrite, pyrite and violarite occurs on a contact 
of gabbro and fine-grained schist, at the Friday copper mine (sec. 
15, T. 13, S., R. 4 E., S. B.), Julian Mining District, Calkins (2) p. 
78, Hudson (1) p. 219, Creasey (1) p. 27. 2, Pyrrhotite has been found 
near Descanso, Tucker (8) p. 371, and 3, at the Echo mine near Lake- 
side, W. W. Bradley (28) p. 495. 

Santa Clara County: 1, Pyrrhotite occurs in the ore of the Hooker 
Creek mine (sec. 10, T. 9 S., R. 1 W., M. D.), 7 miles south of Los 
Gatos, F. F. Davis (p.c. '53). 

Shasta County: 1, Pyrrhotite was found with pyrite at some of 
the copper mines, and noticed at the Black Diamond copper mine 
and Sutro mines. Tucker (9) pp. 428, 433, L. L. Root (4) pp. 146, 149. 

Sierra County: 1, Pj^rrhotite occurred with chalcopyrite at the Lost 
Cabin prospect (N. R.). 

Siskiyou County: 1, Pyrrhotite is prominent with chalcopyrite at 
Callahan, Aubury (1) p. 105, and 2, the mineral is said to be nickel- 
iferous at the Hummer mine, ibid. 

Trinity County: 1, A large mass of pyrrhotite associated with chal- 
copjrrite occurs at Island Mountain on the South Fork of Eel River, 
Landon (1) p. 279. 

Tulare County: 1, Pyrrhotite occurs in some of the contact deposits 
near Mineral King, Tucker (3) pp. 910, 917. 

Tuolumne County: 1, Pyrrhotite occurs in gneiss on the North Fork 
of Beaver River, H. W. Turner (22) p. 344; 2, it occurs with sphalerite 
and galena at the Soulsby mine, Irelan (5) p. 744, Storms (17) p. 873, 
and 3, with galena and sphalerite in quartz at the Montgomery, Cher- 
okee, Carlotta, Densmore, Draper and Louisiana mines. Tucker (1) 
p. 138." 4, The mineral is found on the north bank of the Tuolumne 
River east of Jawbone Creek, Mining and Scientific Press (36) p. 974. 

Ventura County: 1, Pyrrhotite occurs with nickel minerals and 

chalcopyrite at the Ventura mine (T. 1 N., R. 18 W., S. B.), Tucker 

and Sampson (20) p. 258. 

QUARTZ 

Silicon dioxide, SiOj 

Common quartz is an essential constituent of granites, granodiorites, 
quartz porphyries, rhyolites, gneisses, schists, quartzites, and sand- 
stones, and is an accessory mineral in many other kinds of rock, either 
volcanic, metamorphic, or sedimentary. Veins, ledges, seams and 
pockety masses of white quartz are common in volcanic and meta- 
morphic rocks. Rock crystal is a clear, colorless variety which is found 
as hexagonal crystals. Amethyst is a violet-colored variety sometimes 
used as a gem. It occurs in groups of crystals. Very little good ame- 
thyst has been found in the State. Rose quartz is a massive pink 
variety. Smoky quartz or cairngorm stone is a hair-brown transparent 
variety occurring as crystals. The color is readily discharged or con- 
verted to citrine yellow by heat. This is a common variety of quartz 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 313 

and some excellent large crystals have been found. Thetis hairstone 
is rock crystal containing long hair-like fibers of asbestos or actinolite. 
Phantom crystals show the outlines of one crystal within another; 
they are caused often by inclusions of green chloritic matter or 
brownish earthy material arranged about the boundaries of the crystal 
during growth. Inclusions of other minerals in quartz are common. 

No attempt has been made to report all of the occurrences of quartz 
found in the State that are referenced in the literature. The mineral 
is widespread and is so common that only occurrences of mineralogical 
interest should be included. However, some localities of minor impor- 
tance and of little mineralogical interest are noted for the historical 
record because they have been reported in early editions of Minerals 
of California. 

Alameda County: 1, Yellow crystals of quartz occur with glassy 
albite at the Newman mine on Cedar Mountain, 12 miles southeast 
of Livermore, Symons (3) p. 41. 

Alpine County: 1, Rose quartz has been found in Hope Vallev, 
CDMG (3706). 

Amador County: 1, Fine, large specimens of rock crystal, many of 
them rounded stream boulders, have come from Volcano and Oleta, 
Durrell (p.c. '45). 2, The Volcano and Oleta areas have also produced 
good specimens of amethyst, smoky and rose quartz, Symons (3) p. 41. 
3, Quartz carrying carbonaceous inclusions comes from the New York 
mine (sec. 6, T. 5 N., R. 11 E., M. D.), Preston (4) p. 140. 4, Durrell 
(p.c. '45) has reported the occurrence of quartz crystals near Fiddle- 
town, confirmed by Carlson and Clark (2) p. 214. 5, Interesting quartz 
crystals are found near the town of Mokelumne Hill, off the road to 
Glencoe, as clear crystals, individually and in groups. A detailed de- 
scription of the locality is found in Owens (1) p. 578. 

Butte County: 1, Fine rose quartz occurs near Forbestown, Sterrett 
(10) p. 324. 

Calaveras County: 1, Good rock crystal in fine large aggregates has 
been found in many of the gold mines. Mokelumne Hill, Green Moun- 
tain gravel mine near Murphy, Angels Camp, and Westpoint have 
produced large crystals. Storms (9) p. 124, F. L. Ransome (9) p. 11, 
G. E. Bailey (2) p. 468, Kunz (24) p. 65. Kunz (13) p. 587, reports 
quartz as enormous clusters of crystals in gravels, and cites a 5-inch 
flawless sphere cut from the quartz, and one flawed sphere 7| inches. 
2, Quartz colored green by pyroxene inclusions has been found on Gar- 
net Hill, Moore Creek, H. W. Turner (12) p. 706. 3, Quartz crystals 
occur in a buried deposit of gold gravel at Chili Gulch, 2| miles south 
of Mokelumne Hill, Ver Planck (5) p. 5. This may be the same locality 
as (1) above, as reported by Storms (9) and others. 

El Dorado County: 1, The best rock crystal, phantom crystal and 
smoky quartz in the State have come from near Placerville, Hanks (12) 
p. 65, Kunz (5) p. 329, (6) p. 395, (8) p. 547. 2, A blue variety of 
quartz occurring in pegmatite in this county has been named "el- 
doradoite" by Watkins (1) p. 26. 3, Quartz in good clear crystals is 
reported from the Josephine mine, near Volcanoville, Hanks (1) p. 361. 

Fresno County: 1, Smoky quartz crystals were reported from miaro- 
litic cavities in an alaskite (granite), from the Dinkey Lakes region 



314 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

by W. B. Hamilton (1). The mineral has been studied further bv A. J. 
Cohen (1) p. 570, Marshall (1), p. 535. 

Inyo County: 1, Good rock crystal and smokv quartz have been found 
in the Cerro Gordo Mining District, CDMG '(11137). 2, Crystal Hill, 
in Deep Spring Valley, has supplied many good specimens of quartz 
crystals, Webb (p.c. '45). 3, Good quartz crystals, frequently coated 
with specular hematite or chlorite, up to 3 inches, are found on "crys- 
tal ridge", 10 miles northeast of Independence, M. F. B. Strong (8) 
p. 16. 

Kern County: 1, Rose quartz has been reported north of Kernville, 
Sterrett (4) p. 837. 2, Large smokv quartz crvstals occur in pegmatite 
on Black Mountain (S^ sec. 22, f. 25 S., R 32 E., M. D.), Durrell 
(p.c. '45). 3, Quartz crystals up to 10 pounds, some colored greenish 
by epidote inclusions, are found at the Aldridge (Zelner) mine (NW^ 
sec. 27, T. 25 S., R. 32 E., M. D.), Durrell (p.c. '45). 4, Rose quartz is 
reported from the western slope of Breckenridge Mt., Paul (1), p. 26. 

Lake County: 1, Quartz inclusions in basalt near Clear Lake High- 
lands have been called "Clear Lake diamonds," Hanks (15) p. 125, 
C. A. Anderson (9) p. 635. Localities showing these quartz fragments 
and crystalline grains are referenced as "hyalite" in earlier editions 
of Minerals of California, Pabst (4), Murdoch and Webb (21), (39). 
One locality, the Manke Ranch, is available for collecting, reported 
to be good. The quartz is now referred to as "Lake County diamonds". 
Anon. (49) p. 45. 2, "Amethvstine quartz" has been mined for gems 
near Howard Springs (sees. 'lO, 20, 21 T. 12 N., R. 7 W., M. D.), 
Averill (2) p. 342, Symons (3) p. 41. The amethystine quartz is purple 
cordierite, Brice (1) p. 62. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Pseudomorphs of quartz after fluorite have 
been found in sandstone and breccia near Encino, and near the head 
of Higgins Canyon on the northern slope of the Santa Monica Moun- 
tains, Murdoch (2) p. 18. 2, Good bipyramids of quartz in basalt are 
abundant over the tunnel east of the Griffith Observatory, Webb (p.c. 
'45). 3, Quartz showing a strong blue color occurs in graphic granite 
in Pacoima Canyon (NE^ sec. 6, T. 3 N., R. 13 W., S. B.), Neuerburg 
(p.c. '49). 

Mariposa County: 1, A. F. Rogers (41) p. 327, has described the 
occurrence of a large mass of quartz showing prominent parting, at 
White Rock on the Helm Ranch, about 25 miles east of Merced ; see 
also R. J. Sampson and Tucker (4) p. 439. 

Mono County: 1, Rock crystal, amethyst and tabular drusy quartz 
(pseudomorphs after feldspar) have come from the Bodie Mining Dis- 
trict, Kunz (24) p. 67, R. G. Brown (1) p. 344, H. W. Turner (30) 
p. 795. 2, Quartz crystals up to 3 inches in diameter, with bubbles and 
cavities, occur abundantly half a mile southwest of the west end of 
Parker Lake, Durrell (p.c. '44). 

Napa County: 1, Fine groups of crystals came from the Silverado 
mine, L. L. Palmer (1) p. 29. 2, Quartz pseudomorphs after barite, col- 
ored red with cinnabar, were found at the Redington mine, Durand 
(1) p. 211. 3, Quartz crystals in float from a lava flow" are found on 
the H and M Ranch, north of the ranch house, on the flat above Putah 
Creek, F. Nelson (1), p. 40. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 315 

Placer Couyity: 1, Quartz crystals, many with inclusions of green 
chlorite, and phantoms occur at Shady Run, Durrell (p.c. '44). 

Plumas County: 1, Deep-colored rose quartz has come from Meadow 
Valley, (N. R.). 2, Veins of blue quartz in serpentine are found south- 
east of Meadow Valley, H. W. Turner (11) p. 388. 3, Quartz in peg- 
matitic granite, with quasi-cleavage, has been described from Plumas 
National Forest, 3 miles east of the junction of Indian and Squaw 
Creeks, Halden (1) p. 38. 

Riverside County: 1, Rock crystal, smoky and pink quartz are asso- 
ciated with the gem tournaline at Coahuila, Kunz (14) pp. 66, 70. 
2, Quartz, much of it showing asterism, is obtained from a pegmatite 
at the Southern Pacific silica quarry near Nuevo, Wahlstrom (1) p. 
694. 3, Smoky quartz occurs in a pegmatite near Tripp Flats (sec. 2, 
T. 7 S., R. 2 E., S. B.), Durrell (p.c. '44). 4, Quartz is common in the 
Crestmore quarry mineral suite, Woodford et al. (10) p. 368. 

Sacramento County: 1, Rock crystal of fine quality is found at Fol- 
som, CDMG (18996). 

San Benito County: 1, Amethyst crystals were found in vugs in the 
San Carlos mine of the New Idria Quicksilver Company, Symons (3) 
p. 41. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Quartz with rutile needles has been 
found in the San Bernardino Range, Kunz (16) p. 763, (24) p. 70; 
2, it is found as pseudomorphs after calcite at Hart, A. F. Rogers (3) 
p. 19 ; 3, it occurs with specular hematite and with chlorite phantoms 
in the San Bernardino Mountains about 30 miles northeast of San 
Bernardino, Kunz (16) p. 763, and 4, it has been found pseudomor- 
phous after glauberite at Searles Lake, Frondel (1) p. 420. 5, Milky 
white quartz, showing a strong lamellar cleavage (?), occurred in an 
outcrop about 5 miles south of Twenty-Nine Palms, on the road to 
AVhite Tank, Murdoch and Webb (6) p. 354. 6, Quartz pseudomorphs 
after natrolite, from 3 miles north of Calico, are represented by CDMG 
(21313). 

San Diego County: 1, Rock crystal, smoky and pink quartz are asso- 
ciated with green and pink tourmaline of the county. Large groups 
of crystals of a deep-rose color occur in the pegmatite dikes which 
carry the tourmaline at Pala, G. A. Waring (2) p. 362, 2, at Mesa 
Grande, and 3, at Rincon, Kunz (24) p. 661. Rock crystal with long 
and almost black needles of tourmaline occurs at Pala. Crystals from 
Pala and Rincon show complex forms, G. A. Waring (2) p. 362. 
Smoky and ordinary quartz from Rincon have been spectroscopically 
examined by Kennard (3) p. 393. 4, An opalescent rose quartz occurs 
at Escondido, Kunz (24) p. 68. 5, Some large crystals or rolled cobbles 
of quartz have been found on the Santa Margarita Ranch, Kunz (2) 
p. 749. 6, A large mass of rose quartz is found near the Mexican 
border, 29 miles from Tijuana on the public road from San Diego 
to Ensenada, Kunz (24) p. 68. 7, A rose quartz mass is reported from 
the quartz deposit 3^ miles WNW from Mesa Grande, Ver Planck 
(5) p. 5. 

San Francisco County: 1, Quartz pseudomorphs after apophyllite 
have been found with datolite and pectolite at Fort Point, San Fran- 
cisco, Schaller (3) p. 194, (8) p. 121, E. H. Bailey (3) p. 566. 



316 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA [BuU. 189 

Santa Clara County: 1, A. F. Rogers (30) p. 81 (33) p. 316, has 
described paramorphs of quartz after tridjrmite in rhyolite at Lone 
Hill, near Los Gatos. 2, Quartz psudomorphous after apophyllite has 
been found at Mine Hill, New Almaden, E. H. Bailey and Everhart 
(12) p. 102. 

Shasta County: 1, Diller in 1883 collected bipyramids of quartz 
showing the rare basal cleavage plane, in granite porphyry at Salt 
Creek, 26 miles north of Redding, Foshag (p.c. '36). 

Sierra County: 1, A few large, clear yellow quartz crystals have 
been found in a pegmatite at Crystal Peak, on the west side of Dog 
Valley, 5 miles west of Verdi, Nevada, Symons (3) p. 41. 

Sonoma County: 1, Radial, spherulitic quartz is found in Alexander 
Valley, Symons (p.c. '46). 2, Small clear pseudo-cubic crystals of quartz 
occur 3 miles northeast from Cloverdale, Vonsen (p.c. '45). 

Tulare County: 1, Rock crystal occurs at Three Rivers and in Drum 
Valley, Kunz (24) p. 66. 2, Rose quartz is found at Bull Run Meadows, 
CDMG (7345), and 3, ^t Yokohl, Kunz (24) p. 68. 4, Beautiful rose 
quartz occurs at the Summer rose quartz claim, 8 miles southeast of 
California Hot Springs near the Kern County line, Tucker (3) p. 
910. 5, Rose quartz occurs on the west side of Bull Run Ridge, near 
Badger, Melhase (p.c. diary), and 6, in pegmatite on the ridge west of 
Dry Creek, about 5 miles north of Lemon Cove, Stoddard (1) p. 178. 
7, Rose quartz occurs in a pegmatite with massive black allanite on 
the Casenberger Ranch near Exeter, CDMG (19659). 8, Rose quartz 
occurs on the west side of Tobias Mountain, Symons (3) p. 41. 

CHALCEDONY 

Silicon dioxide, Si02 

Many names are given to the varieties of cryptocrystalline quartz 
that may be classed under chalcedony, most of them based on color 
and structure. They include chalcedony, agate, carnelian, sard, prase, 
heliotrope or bloodstone, chrysoprase, onyx, sardonyx, jasper and flint, 
all of which are found in the State. Ordinary petrified wood is largely 
agate or chalcedony. Myrickite is a local name applied to chalcedony 
having blood-red spots and patches of cinnabar. Kinradite is a local 
name given to a spherulitic jasper. 

Chalcedony occurs in dense masses and layers, often banded. Many 
large masses of chalcedony and jasper have been deposited by springs. 
Chalcedony is a common secondary filling of cavities and fissures in 
volcanic rock, and m.ay form large geodes. 

It would be impracticable to list all occurrences of chalcedony in 
the State. The following is a selection of some of the more interesting 
or unusual. 

Amador County: 1, Chrysoprase is reported in serpentine at the 
Mooney claims 6 miles southeast of lone (sec. 34, T. 6 N., R. 10 E., 
M. D.), L. L. Root (5) p. 149, Carlson and Clark (2) p. 11. 2, Bluish 
chalcedony occurs at Volcano, CDMG (813). 

Butte County: 1, Chrysoprase is reported near Magalia, Engineering 
and Mining Journal (13) p. 653. 

Calaveras County: 1, Moss agate was found at Stockton Hill, Mining 
and Scientific Press (7) p. 146. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 317 

Fresno County: 1, Large masses of white, delicately-veined chal- 
cedony are found at Panoche, W. P. Blake (9) p. 9. 

Inyo County: 1, Pebbles of red jasper and bloodstone are found at 
the south end of Death Valley, on the road between Shoshone and 
Ashford Mill, on the west slope of Jubilee Pass, Wolff (p.c. '35), con- 
firmed by Symons (3) p. 41. 

Kern County: 1, Sapphirine chalcedony was reported near Kane 
(Koehn or Desert) Springs, probably in the hills to the north, Kunz 
(24) p. 73. 2, Petrified wood is common in Last Chance Canyon, Mur- 
doch (p.c. '45). 3, Semi-opal and variegated chalcedony are found near 
Rademacher, about 14 miles south of Inyokern, Kunz (14) p. 54. 4, 
Excellent jasper and petrified wood occur on Gem Hill (sec. 18, T. 10 
N., R. 12 W., S. B.), Lewis (4) p. 116. 

Los Angeles County: 1, The so-called moonstones found at Redondo 
Beach are chalcedony, Kunz (17) p. 755. 

Marin County: 1, A spherulitic jasper, kinradite, has been found 1 
mile south of Sausalito, Sterrett (6) p. 870. 

Modoc County: 1, Abundant and varied agates occur on the shore 
of the south end of Goose Lake, according to J. A. Edman in Sterrett 
(4) p. 807. 

Monterey County: 1, Breeciated jasper occurs in Stone Canyon, 
Nelson Creek, Symons (p.c. '46). 

Napa County: 1, Petrified wood is abundant near Calistoga, Good- 
year (4) p. 356. 

Placer County: 1, Fine geodal masses of chalcedony have been found 
at the Spanish mine, Ophir Mining District (N. R.). 

Plumas County: 1, Chrysoprase occurs in the gravels at Meadow 
Valley, Kunz (17) p. 755." 

Riverside County: 1, Chalcedony, with high iridescence when cut 
and polished, has been found near Blythe. Specimens are botryoidal, 
with interlaminated minute layers of chalcedonic quartz alternating 
with limonitic and hematitic iridescent bands, which show upon pol- 
ishing a beautiful color and a near fiery play of colors. A mining 
parcel is owned by Mr. Frank Ross of Blythe, who is developing the 
prospect for gem material as precious chalcedony, to be marketed 
under the name "Rossjewel", Webb (p.c. '57). 2, Fire agate has been 
collected in the Mule Mountains west of Palo Verde, M. F. B. Strong 
(6) p. 16. 3, Chalcedony is reported from Crestmore, Woodford, et al. 
(10) p. 367. 

San Benito County: 1, Bluish-gray chalcedony occurred as pseudo- 
morphs after barite crystals in the Phipps quicksilver mine east of 
Emmett (N. R.). 

San Bernardino County: 1, Large masses of moss agate have been 
collected in the San Bernardino Mountains, Kunz (16) p. 763. 2, 
Geodes of fine blue chalcedony occur 2 miles northeast of Leadpipe 
Springs (approx. T. 29 S., R. 45 E., M. D.), Sterrett (9) p. 650, Mel- 
hase (3) No. 7, p. 8. 3, Agate with bright-red inclusions of cinnabar 
(myrickite) is found about 15 miles northeast of Leadpipe Springs, 
Sterrett (9) p. 651. 4, Myrickite also occurs 15 miles east of Indian 
Springs (sec. 4, T. 30 S.', R. 46 E., M. D.), Sterrett (9) p. 651. 5, 
Chalcedony pseudomorphs after calcite, was collected from the Barium 



318 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Queen mine, near Lead Mountain, Durrell (p.e. '45). 6, Excellent 
pseudomorphs of chalcedony after barite come from the Mud Hills 
(sec. 20, T. 11, N., R. 1 W., S. B.), Durrell (p.c. '45). 7, Some blood- 
stone is reported from Brown Mountain, south of Wingate Pass, Ster- 
rett (8) p. 1050. 8, Red and green jasper, in part bloodstone, is re- 
ported from Canyon Springs, Sterrett (6) p. 872. 

San Diego County: 1, Red, yellow and gray chalcedony from south- 
east of Dulzura is said to polish beautifully, Kunz (26) p. 1346. 

San Francisco County: 1, Kinradite is found near Land's End Sta- 
tion, 1 mile northeast of the Cliff House, San Francisco, Kunz (24) 
p. 75, Sterrett (6) p. 870. 

San Luis Obispo County: 1, Myrickite has come from the Rinconada 
mine, CDMG (18838). 

San Mateo County: 1, Hollow chalcedony geodes, with liquid and 
a moving bubble, have been found in the beach gravels at Pescadero, 
Kunz (24) p. 71. 

Santa Clara County: 1, Decorative orbicular jasper comes from 
Paradise Valley near Morgan Hill, Melhase (3) No. 7, p. 7; The 
Mineralogist (1) p. 34. 2, Mvrickite is reported from Coyote, CDMG 

(18832). 

Siskiyou County: 1, Bloodstone is found at Bogus Mountain, 18 miles 
northeast of Yreka, Symons (3) p. 41. 

Sonoma County: 1, At the petrified forest west of Calistoga, the 
petrified wood is largely chalcedony (N. R.). 

Tulare County: Chrysoprase has been mined at several localities in 
the county : 1, 1 mile east of Lindsay, 2, Venice Hill, 3, near Visalia 
(T. 18 S., R. 26 E., M. D.), 4, Stokes Mountain (sees. 9, 10, T. 16 S., 
R. 26 E., M. D.), and 5, Deer Creek (sec. 20, T. 22 S., R. 28 E., 
M. D.), Kunz (13) p. 589, (24) pp. 12, 74, Tucker (3) p. 911. 

RAMSDELLITE 
Manganese dioxide, Mn02 

Riverside County: 1, Ramsdellite has been identified in veins of man- 
ganese oxides at the Tolbard mine, Hewett (7) p. 1440. This is the 
first reported occurrence of this mineral in California. 

REALGAR 

Arsenic monosulphide, AsS 

Alpine County: 1, Deep-red realgar coating pyrite, with minute 
white octahedrons of arsenolite, occurred in the Monitor mine, Hanks 
(12) p. 344. 

Imperial County: 1, Kelley (1) p. 137, has reported the occurrence 
of realgar with sulphur and claudetite at a sulphur prospect 6 miles 
north of the 4S Ranch and 1^ miles west of the Colorado River. 

Inyo County: 1, Realgar has been found in the Cerro Gordo Mining 
District, Loew (2) p. 186. Restudy now under way of Cerro Gordo 
minerals makes it likely that this is an invalid occurrence. Realgar is 
not a mineral typical of Cerro Gordo type occurrences. This may be 
an inadvertent error due to the name, since a Cerro Gordo (later 
Bradford) mine of San Benito County was prominent in production 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 319 

of cinnabar, where realgar might be predicted as a minor associate; 
see metacinnabar, San Benito County (3), H. E. Pemberton (p.c. '64). 

Kern County: 1, A small amount of realgar occurs with borax and 
kernite in the borate mines of the Kramer area, Schaller (45) p. 165. 

Lake County: 1, Realgar and orpiment are presumed to occur on 
the Eel River, about 15 miles northwest of Bartlett Springs (N. R.). 

Los Angeles County: 1, Very thin films and crystals of realgar ap- 
pear on fracture surfaces in massive colemanite from the Sterling 
borax mine, Tick Canyon, Stager (p.c. '47). 

Riverside County: 1, Realgar is reported with brown monticellite 
from Crestmore, Woodford et al. (10) p. 368. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Small crystals of realgar have been 
found with hanksite, pirssonite, and halite in the salt beds of Searles 
Lake (N. R.). 2, Weeks (2) p. 763, has reported that realgar occurs 
in the mines of the Calico Mining District. 3, The mineral has been 
reported 40 miles from the Needles, E. S. Dana (5) p. 1097, CDMG 
(10338). (This may be from Arizona, or even Imperial County (1).) 

Siskiyou County: 1, Realgar has come from Scott Bar, Klamath 
River, W. W. Bradley (29) p. 311. 

Sonoma County: 1, Realgar occurs in small prismatic crystals with 
metacinnabar and curtisite in the cracks and interstices of sandstone 
at Skaggs Springs (T. 10 N., R. 11 W., M. D.), F. E. Wright and 
Allen (3) p. 169, A. L. Ransome and Kellogg (1) p. 469, Everhart 
(4) p. 390. 

Trinity County: 1, Realgar has been reported from Deadwood (T. 
33 N., R. 8 W., M. D.), Bixby (2) p. 169. 2, A specimen of realgar, 
CDMG (11391), came from the northwestern part of the county. 

*REDINGTONITE, 1890 

Hydrous chromium aluminum iron and magnesium sulphate, 

(Fe.Mg) (Cr,AI)2(S04)v22HjO 

Napa County: 1, Redingtonite is a pale-purple sulphate which was 
mixed with knoxvillite from the Redington mine at Knoxville. The 
mineral was first discovered by Becker (4) p. 279 and was described 
as a new mineral by Melville and Lindgren (1) p. 23. It was also noted 
by W. W. Bradley (5) p. 83. 

* REDLEDGEITE, 1961 
Magnesium and chromium titano-silicate, IV!g8Cr,2Ti4gSi40,3fl(?) 

Nevada County: 1, The Red Ledge mine in the Washington Mining 
District contributed some unusual brilliant black crystals with chrom- 
ite and kammererite, which were described in 1928 as the new mineral 
chromrutile. Strunz (1) p. 107, has shown the identification to be 
incorrect. The crystals are a new species to which the name redledgeite 
is assigned. The small brilliant black crystals, with kammererite on 
chromite at the Red Ledge mine, were originally described by Gordon 
and Shannon (1) p. 69; see also W. W. Bradley (29) p. 69, and Pa- 
lache et al. (10) p. 560. Strunz (1) p. 107, has shown by x-ray studies, 
that redledgeite is a definite mineral and not an impure chromian 
rutile. The atomic structure of redledgeite has been shown by Strunz 
(2) p. 116 to be the same as that of cryptomelane. 



320 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

RHODOCHROSITE 
Manganese carbonate, MnCOs 

Rhodochrosite is one of the important primary minerals in deposits 
of manganese ores, and is typical of those of the Franciscan type, 
which occur in the Coast Ranges. 

Alameda County: 1, Rhodochrosite, both gray and pink, occurs com- 
monly in the manganese mines of the Livermore (Tesla) Mining Dis- 
trict, southeast of Livermore, W. W. Bradley et al. (4) p. 24. 2, Rhodo- 
chrosite occurs with oxides on the Arroyo Mocho road (NW^ sec. 9, 
T. 4 S., R. 3 E., M. D.), ibid., p. 26. 

Alpine County: 1, Pink crystals of rhodochrosite were found in the 
Colorado mine no. 2, Monitor area, Hanks (12) p. 159, Irelan (1) p. 
105, Eakle (16) p. 25, Gianella (1) p. 342. 2, Rhodochrosite is also 
found in other mines in the region. Mining and Scientific Press (9) 
p. 151, Logan (4) p. 401, Partridge (1) p. 264. 

Amador County: 1, Rhodochrosite occurs in several mines (sec. 10, 
T. 7 N., R. 11 E., M. D.), P. D. Trask et al. (4) pp. 102, 103. 

Calaveras County: 1, Rhodochrosite occurs with bementite at the Big 
Little Bear and Kellog mines (sec. 24, T. 3 N., R. 11 E., M. D.), P. D. 
Trask et al. (4) p. 60. 

Humholdt County: 1, Rhodochrosite occurs with bementite at the 
Woods (Charles Mountain) manganese claim (sec. 2, T. 1 S., R. 4 E., 
H.), P. D. Trask et al. (4) p. 77. 

Madera County: 1, Rhodochrosite occurs in a replacement deposit 
with rhodonite and specular hematite at Agnew Meadows (T. 3 S., 
R. 26 E., M. D.), P. D. Trask et al. (4) p. 79, M. F. B. Strong (2) p. 23. 
2, P. D. Trask et al. (4) p. 130, also report rhodochrosite, rhodonite, 
manganite and psilomelane from a locality near Coarse Gold 

Mariposa County: 1, Rhodochrosite occurs with rhodonite and spes- 
sartite at the Surprise claim (sec. 23, T. 3 S., R. 17 E., M. D.), P. D. 
Trask et al. (4) p. 132. 

Mendocino County: 1, Rhodochrosite occurs in the Mount Sanhedrin 
group at Impassible Rock (sec. 30, T. 20 N., R. 11 W., M. D.), W. W. 
Bradley et al. (4), P. D. Trask et al. (4) p. 136 ; 2, Cinco de Mayo (sec. 
27, T. 24 N., R. 11 W., M. D.), ibid., (1) p. 134; 3, Thomas (sec. 22, T. 
17 N., R. 12 W., M. D.), ibid., p. 141, and 4, Brereton (sec 31, T. 23 N., 
R. 11 W., M. D.), Taliaferro and Hudson (3) p. 238. 

Placer County: 1, Small druses of rhodochrosite have been found in 
some of the mines of the county (N. R. ). 

San Bernardino County: 1, Rhodochrosite has been reported as a vein 
mineral in quartz at the Sagamore mine. New York Mountains, Cloud- 
men et al. (1) p. 790. 

San Joaquin County: 1, Rhodochrosite occurs in the Ladd mine at 
Corral Hollow, W. W. Bradley et al. (4) p. 65, P. D. Trask et al. (4) 
p. 86. 

Santa Clara County: 1, Rhodochrosite occurred as pink crystals show- 
ing unusual faces in the manganese boulder near Alum Rock Park, 5 
miles east of San Jose, A. F. Rogers (21) p. 446. 2, The mineral is 
found in the Jones group (sec. 27, T. 6 S., R. 5 E., M. D.), P. D. Trask 
et al. (4) p. 87, and 3, from the manganese property on the Miller 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 321 

Ranch, on the Sierra Road on the extreme southeast point of Los 
Buellis Hills, Crittenden (1) p. 64. 

Siskiyou County: 1, Rhodoehrosite occurs in quartzite at the Oro 
Fino no. 2 (sec. 17, T. 43 N.. R. 9 W., M. D.), P. D. Trask et al. (4) 
p. 60. 

Sonoma County: 1, Massive gray rhodoehrosite occurs with bemen- 
tite of the Aho property (sec. 15, T. 8 N., R. 12 W., M. D.), 6 miles 
west of Cazadero, P. D. Trask et al. (4) p. 89. 

Stanslaus County: 1, Rhodoehrosite was found with calcite and pyro- 
lusite in the Buckeye manganese mine. Hospital Creek, Laizure (3) 
p. 213, Taliaferro and Hudson (3) p. 239. 

Tuolumne County: 1, Rhodoehrosite occurs with bementite at the 
Hughes mine (sec. 17, T. 2 S., R. 15 E., M. D.), P. D. Trask et al. (4) 
p. 91. 

Trinity County: There are at least a dozen localities at which man- 
ganese ores, carrying more or less rhodoehrosite with bementite and 
oxides, are found in the southern half of the county. The detail of 
these localities is given by P. D. Trask et al. (4) pp. 194-206. The 
names of the properties are : Armstrong, Bertha, Blue Jay, Dahrman, 
Emma, Hale Creek, Lucky Bill, Manganese Queen, Rainy Day, Shell 
View, and Spider. W. W. Bradley et al. (4) pp. 89-91, describe some 
of these also. 

RHODONITE 
Manganese silicate, MnSiOs 

Rhodonite is one of the important primary minerals of manganese 
ores, and is typical of strongly metamorphosed areas, such as those 
in the deposits on the west side of the Sierra Nevada. A summary of 
collecting localities for rhodonite is found in Anon. (45) p. 18. 

Alameda County: 1, Rhodonite occurs in the Corral Hollow man- 
ganese deposits, Wilke (p.c. '36). 

Amador County: 1, Rhodonite is present in several of the manganese 
deposits of the county: Alexander, Custer, Du Frene, Everett, Jones, 
Perini, Peyton, and Stirnaman. The exact locations are given by P. D. 
Trask et al. (4) pp. 102, 103. 

Butte County: 1, Rhodonite occurs in several deposits (T. 20 N., 
R. 7 E., M. D.), P. D. Trask et al. (4) pp. 104, 105. 

Calaveras County: 1, Rhodonite is found in the following deposits: 
Airola, Callahan, Daniels, Gorham, Harrington, Hauselt, and Pescia, 
P. D. Trask et al. (4) pp. 106, 107. 

El Dorado County: 1, Rhodonite occurs in the Martinez gold claim 
(see. 13, T. 9 N., R. 10 E., M. D.), P. D. Trask et al. (4) p. 111. 

Fresno County: 1, Rhodonite occurs in the Crisle, Harper, McMurtry, 
Price, Trewick and Woods claims, P. D. Trask et al. (4) p. 112. 

Humboldt County: 1, Rhodonite is found in the Sam Brown claim 
(sec. 15, T. 8 N., R. 4 E., H.), P. D. Trask et al. (4) p. 116, and 2, 
at the Woods (Charles Mountain) manganese claim (sec. 2, T. 2 S., 
R. 4 E., H.), CDMG (18766). 

Kern County} 1, Rhodonite in large crystals was found at the 0. K. 
mine (sec 27(?), T. 26 S., R. 34 E., M. D.), P. D. Trask et al. (4) p. 
123. 2, Other occurrences in the county include the Big Indian, Cul- 



322 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

bert Manganese Queen and Midlothian, ibid., pp. 123, 124. 3, Small 
amounts of rhodonite suitable for cutting have been found in the 
Rand Mining District, Troxel and Morton (2) p. 50. 4, Rhodonite of 
fine cutting quality is found on the Tejon Ranch in a locality de- 
scribed as "west of Rosamond", Anon. (45) p. 20. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Massive deep-pink rhodonite occurs on 
Portal Ridge, near Lancaster. Several deposits are found here (T. 5, 6 
N., R. 12, 13, 14 W., S. B.), P. D. Trask et al. (4) p. 128. 

Madera County: 1, Rhodonite occurs with rhodochrosite, pyrolusite, 
manganite and psilomelane near Coarse Gold, P. D. Trask et al. (4) 
p. 130. 2, The mineral occurs with garnet and epidote in crystalline 
limestone on the south side of Shadow Creek Canyon in the Ritter 
Range, Erwin (1) p. 67, Goudey (1) p. 26, and 3, on the Garnet Lake 
side of Shadow-Garnet divide, ibid., p. 26. 4, At the Agnew Meadows 
deposit, P. D. Trask et al. (4) p. 63, reports rhodonite. 

Mariposa County: 1, Rhodonite is found at the Donnelly, Robie and 
Surprise properties, P. D. Trask et al. (4) p. 132. 

Monterey County: 1, Beach boulders of gem-quality rhodonite have 
been found at Lime Kiln Creek, Crippen (p.c. '51). 2, Rhodonite has 
been collected along the beaches near Jade Cove, south of Monterey, 
Anon. (45) p. 20. 

Nevada County: 1, P. D. Trask et al. (4) pp. 147, 148, locate 15 
occurrences of rhodonite in the county. Averill (13) p. 141, notes one 
of these, Manga-Chrome or Stearns and Owens. 

Placer County: 1, Several rhodonite deposits are in the vicinity of 
Forest Hill, P. D. Trask et al. (4) p. 149. 

Plumas County: 1, Good red rhodonite has come from Genesee 
Valley (T. 25, 26 N., R. 11 E., M. D.), P. D. Trask et al. (4) p. 153. 
2, Rare but good material occurred with copper at the Diadem lode. 
Meadow Valley, H. W. Turner (12) p. 590, (9) p. 6. 3, Good gem 
rhodonite has been reported to occur near Taylorsville, Sterrett (4) p. 
837. 4, Several localities are listed by P. D. Trask et al. (4) pp. 151- 
153. These include Benner, Burch and Woody, Cannon, Crystal Lake, 
Dickie Bird, Iron Queen, Liberty, Lost Soldier, Rush Creek, Sunset 
and Valley View. 

Riverside County: 1, Rhodonite was found with pyrolusite and 
psilomelane near Elsinore (sees. 23, 24, T. 5 S., R. 4 W., S. B.), W. W. 
Bradley et al. (4) p. 58. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Minor amounts of rhodonite have been 
found near Colton, Hanks (12) pp. 316, 345, Mining and Scientific 
Press, (22) p. 152, and 2, in pebbles at the summit of Cajon Pass, 
Murdoch and Webb (11) p. 552. 3, The Grafton Hills rhodonite prop- 
erty has produced beautiful specimens of rhodonite. Anon. (45) p. 18. 

San Diego County: 1, Beautiful specimens of rhodonite have come 
from the Anza State Park, near the Riverside Countv line, Tucker 
and Reed (26) p. 29. 2, The Ruby deposit (sec. 16, T. 18 S., R. 8 E., 
S. B.) has rhodonite with spessartite, P. D. Trask et al. (4) p. 85. 3, 
The mineral occurs with manganese oxides near Jacumba, Berkholz 
(15a) p. 26. 

Shasta County: 1, Rhodonite-bearing deposits are found in Goat 
Camp, Nigger Hill and Victor claims, P. D. Trask et al. (4) p. 182. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 323 

Siskiyou County: 1, Excellent rhodonite occurs at Sawyers Bar, 
CDMG (15180). 2, Massive red rhodonite occurs on Indian Creek, 
near Happy Camp, W. "W. Bradley (23) p. 217. Many other occur- 
rences are listed by P. D. Trask et al. (4) pp. 183-185. 

Trinity County: 1, Rhodonite occurs with rhodochrosite at the Man- 
ganese Queen claim (sec. 26, T. 30 N., R. 12 W., M. D.), P. D. Trask 
et al. (4) p. 200. 2, The mineral also occurs at the Shell View claim 
(sec. 16, T. 4 S., R. 6 E.. H.), ibid., p. 202, and 3, at the Spider claim 
(sec. 20, T. 28 N., R. 11 W., M. D.), ibid., p. 203. 

Tulare County: 1, Coarse, massive rhodonite occurs as a contact 
metamorphic mineral near Lemon Cove (sees. 22, 34, T. 16 S., R. 27 
E., M. D.), Tucker (3) p. 911, Sterrett (7) p. 1063. 2, Occasional 
layers of rhodonite, formed by metamorphism of manganiferous cherts, 
are found near Greasy Creek and on the west side of Dry Creek, Dur- 
rell (2) p. 32. 

Tuolumne County: 1, Rhodonite was found with pyrolusite on Rose 
Creek near Columbia, P. D. Trask et al. (4) p. 207. 2, The mineral 
occurs as veins altering to manganese oxides 2 miles north of Sonora, 
Hanks (12) p. 345, W. W. Bradley et al. (4) p. 91. Other occurrences 
are listed (Flaming Arrow, Hog Mountain, Hughes, Pedro, West 
Wonder) by P. D. Trask et al. (4) pp. 207, 208. 

Yuha County: 1, Rhodonite occurs in the Clemens claim (sec 29, T. 
19 N., R. 7 E., M. D.), P. D. Trask et al. (4) p. 208. 

*RIVERSIDEITE, 1917 
Hydrous calcium silicate, near xCaOSiOj- JHjO 

Riverside County: 1, Riversideite was described in 1917 by Eakle 
(15) p. 327, as a new mineral. It was associated with a second new 
mineral named by Eakle, ibid., crestmoreite. Subsequently restudy of 
the original specimens showed the riversideite to have been the mineral 
tobermorite, H. F. W. Taylor (1), p. 155. Thus riversideite was a dis- 
credited species. More recently, a white fibrous compound called cal- 
cium silicate hydrate 9 A has been considered by Heller and Taylor (1) 
p. 39, to be most likely the same as the material described by Eakle as 
riversideite, and accordingly they believe it should be given this name. 
It has so far been identified from Crestmore only in admixture with 
residual wilkeite. It appears that riversideite should be reinstated as a 
new species. 

R5MERITE 
Hydrous iron sulphate, near Fe2+Fe3*2(S04)4-12H20 

Alpine County: 1, Romerite occurs as brittle, chestnut-brown crystals 
in masses and on stalactites of melanterite, at the Leviathan sulphur 
mine, 7 miles east of Markleeville, Gary (1) p. 489, Nichols (1) p. 172. 

Contra Costa County: 1, A little romerite has been found in the 
Mount Diablo mine (SEi sec. 29, T. 1 N., R. 1 E., M. D.), C. P. Ross 
(2) p. 42, Pampeyan (1) p. 24. 

Napa County: 1, Tiny, light-brown crystals of romerite occur with 
other hydrous iron sulphates at the Corona mercury mine, CDMG 
identification, 1964. 



324 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

San Benito County: 1, Romerite occurs as stalactitic masses in the 
Stayton mine, Lone Tree, two miles south of Antimony Peak near 
Hollister, Anon. (39), p. 195. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Romerite occurs with alunite, coquimbite, 
krausite and other sulphates in the Calico Hills near Borate, about 6 
miles northeast of Yermo, Foshag (19) p. 352. 

Trinity County: 1, Small bro^\^l crystals of romerite, showing com- 
plex forms, occurring on altered pyrrhotite from Island Mountain, were 
described by Landon (1) p. 279. 

ROSASITE 
Basic copper zinc carbonate, (Cu,Zn)2(OH)2C03 

Inyo County: 1, Rosasite is reported as relatively common at Cerro 
Gordo, occurring as botryoidal crusts or individual spherules on smith- 
sonite and hemimorphite, H. E. Pemberton (2) p. 16. 

♦ROSCOELITE— Vanadium Mica, 1875 
Basic potassium/aluminum/vanadium silicate, near K(V,AI)3Si30,5(OH)2 

Vanadium is a rare constituent of some igneous rocks, and is occa- 
sionally found in small amounts in biotite. Roscoelite is unique in 
having a large percentage of vanadium in place of iron, thus forming 
a vanadium-mica. 

El Dorado County: 1, Layers of a dark-green micaceous mineral, up 
to half an inch in thickness, interlaminated with gold, found at the 
Stuckslager or Sam Sims mine (sec. 24, T. 11 N., R. 9 E., M. D.) on 
Granite Creek, near Coloma, proved to be a new mineral which was 
named roscoelite by James Blake (2) v. 31. It was later described and 
analyzed by Genth (7) p. 32, Roscoe (1) p. 110, Hillebrand et al. (2) 
p. 456, Hillebrand (3) p. 70. 2, Several hundred pounds of roscoelite 
were found in Big Red Ravine, near the old Sutter Mill, (sec. 31, T. 
11 N., R. 10 E., M. D.), but were destroyed to obtain the interlaminated 
gold. Hanks (4) p. 428, (7) p. 263. 3, Roscoelite was reported by Kim- 
ble (1) pp. 343, 344, from the surface soil at the eastern base and part 
of the slope of Mount Thompson. The mineral occurred also in pockets. 
Determination of the optical properties was made by F. E. Wright (1) 
p. 305. 4, An occurrence of roscoelite in quartz was found also in the 
Tip Top vein (sec. 7, T. 11 N., R. 10 E., M. D.), Hanks (12) p. 349. 
This is represented by a beautiful specimen, CDMG (5768). Hille- 
brand et al. (2) pp. 457, 458, described in detail 5 occurrences of ros- 
coelite in this locality. 

Kern County: 1, Subordinate amounts of roscoelite have been found 
in the Miracle mine, Keyn River Uranium area (SE^ sec. 17, T. 27 S., 
R. 32 E., M.D.) Troxel and Morton (2) p. 333. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Roscoelite has been doubtfully reported near 
Los Angeles, W. W. Bradley (28) p. 498. 

ROZENITE 
Hydrous ferrous sulphate, FeSO^^HjO 

Napa County: 1, Pale blue-green rozenite occurs with romerite, me- 
lanterite and coquimbite as a coating on black chert and silicified shale 
fragments at the Corona mercury mine, CDMG identification by 
x-rav '64. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 325 

Santa Cruz County: 1, Chestermau (p.c. '64) reports rozenite in the 
mineral suite from the Pacific Limestone Products (Kalkar) quarry 
at Santa Cruz, x-ray identification. 

RUTILE 

Titanium dioxide, Ti02 

Strilverite is tantalian rutile. Sagenite is rutilated quartz. 

Rutile, as a rock constituent occurring in microscopic crystals, is 
common in many of the metamorphic rocks of the State. Small grains 
and crystals are frequently found in beach and river sands. 

Alpine County: 1, Granular and subhedral rutile occurs with lazu- 
lite and andalusite about 10 miles SSW from Markleeville, W. W. 
Bradley (29) p. 311. 

Amado7- County: 1, Needles of rutile in quartz, forming sagenite, 
have been reported to occur at Tylers Ranch near Oleta (N.R.). 

Butte County: 1, Rutile was a constituent of the gold washings at 
Cherokee, Silliman (12) p. 133. 

Contra Costa County: 1, Irregular patches of brown rutile occur 
with sphene in glaucophane schist near the south end of the Berkeley 
Country Club, Coats (p.c. '36). 

Fresno County: 1, Brownish-red rutile crystals occur with ilmenite 
near Friant (N.R.). 2, Striated prismatic crystals of rutile have been 
found in glaucophane schist near Panoche, Foshag (p.c. '36). 

Marin County: 1, Fair-sized prismatic crystals of rutile have been 
found in a boulder of glaucophane schist on the beach of the Tiburon 
Peninsula, about 150 yards north of California Point, Vonsen (p.c. 
'36). 2, Rutile occurs sparingly at the Hein Bros, quarry near Peta- 
luma, Watters (p.c. '62). 

Mendocino County: 1, Long prismatic crystals of rutile embedded in 
chlorite occur in glaucophane schist in a highway cut about 3^ miles 
north of Longvale on the new Covelo road, Vonsen (p.c. '37). 

Mono County: 1, Abundant minute specks of rutile occur in andalu- 
site at the mine of Champion Sillimanite, on the western slope of the 
White Mountains, 7 miles east of Mocalno, north of Bishop, Pack (1) 
p. 151, Kerr (3) p. 627. 2, Crystals of rutile up to an inch in Length 
are found on the Moreau Claim about a mile from locality (1), Kerr 
(3) p. 627. 3, Rutile occurs in small reddish-brown crystals in white 
quartzite with bands of blue lazulite on Green Creek one mile west of 
Green Lake (sec. 28 (?), T. 3 N., R. 24 E., M.D.), Woodhouse 
(p.c. '35). 

Placer County: 1, Rutile has been reported at Michigan Bluff 

(N.R.). 

Riverside County: 1, A small mass of striiverite was found at the 
Anita mine (sec. 22, T. 6 S., R. 1 E., S.B.), Fisher (1) p. 86. 2, Rutile 
is found in the Wet Weather quarry, Crestmore, Woodford et al. (10) 
p. 368. 

San Benito County: 1, Slender, doubly-terminated red crystals of 
rutile (?) as much as a quarter of an inch in size appear in altered 
serpentine, associated with perovskite and andradite garnet, half a mile 
south of the Gem mine, Watters (p.c. '51). This occurrence has subse- 



326 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [BuU. 189 

quently turned out to be a possible new mineral. The material is still 
under study, Murdoch (p.c. '64). 

San Bernardino County: 1, Discontinuous concentrations of rutile 
occur in thin beds of quartzite near the Mojave River southwest of 
Barstow (SE^ SWi sec. 21, T. 9 N., R. 3 W., S.B.), W. H. Grant 
(p.c. '47). 

San Diego County: 1, Abundant minute crystals of rutile occur scat- 
tered through the quartz of the dumortierite dike near Alpine, 
Schaller (7) p. 211. 

Santa Clara County: 1, Rough crystals of rutile occur in glauco- 
phane schist in the Coyote Valley about 6 miles east of Morgan Hill, 
The Mineralogist (4) p. 41. 

SABUGALITE 
Hydrous uranium aluminum phosphate, H AI(LI02)4(P04)16H20 

Lassen County: 1, Sabugalite is reported from the Western Mining 
Corporation lease near Doyle, CDMG (21659). 

*SAHAMALITE, 1954 

Magnesium iron carbonate, with rare earth elements, 

(Mg,Fe) (Ce,La,Nd,Pr)2(C03)4 

San Bernardino County: 1, Minute tabular crystals, almost micro- 
scopic in size, were discovered in barite-dolomite rock in the bastnaesite 
deposit at Mountain Pass, and were named as a new mineral and de- 
scribed by Jaffe et al. (2) p. 721. 

SAL AMMONIAC 
Ammonium chloride, NH^CI 

Imperial County: 1, Sal ammoniac (?) was found as a crust in fis- 
sures near the mud volcanoes at Niland, J. L. Le Conte (1) p. 5. 

Inyo County: 1, According to G. E. Bailey (2) p. 106, sal ammoniac 
is found as efflorescences at some of the fissure springs in Death Valley. 

Los Angeles County: 1, A white crystalline incrustation of sal ammo- 
niac was found in the Monterey shale of Burning Mountain (at the 
Bernheimer Gardens), A. F. Rogers (7) p. 373, Clearwater (1) p. 2. 

Santa Barbara County: 1, Crusts of sal ammoniac, 5 mm thick, asso- 
ciated with sulphur, came from burning oil-shales on the Hope Ranch, 
A. F. Rogers (7) p. 373. 

*SALMONSITE, 1912 
Hydrous iron and manganese phosphate, Mn92*Fe23+(P04)8-14H20 

San Diego County: 1, Salmonsite is a bul¥-yellow alteration product 

of hureaulite, associated with fibrous "palaite" and blue strengite, 

which was discovered in the Stewart mine at Pala. It was described as 

a new mineral and analyzed by Schaller (29) p. 144, E. S. Larsen (11) 

p. 129. 

SAMARSKITE 

A niobate and tantalate of the rare earth elements probably AB20jwith 
A=Y,Er,Ce,La,U,Ca,Fe„Pb,Th;BrrNb,Ta,Ti,Sn,W,Zr 

Riverside County : 1, Samarskite ( ? ) has been reported from the 
Southern Pacific silica quarry near Nuevo, W. W. Bradley (28) p. 207. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 327 

An aggregate of poorly formed crystals and grains, found associated 
with cyrtolite in quartz and feldspar at the Southern Pacific silica 
quarry, was named nuevite for the locality, Murdoch (19) p. 1219. 
The mineral has since been shown by x-ray pattern to be samarskite, 
Murdoch (26) p. 358. 

*SANBORNITE, 1931 
Barium silicate, BaSi205 

Fresno County: 1, Sanbornite occurs at Rush Creek (sec. 16, T. 11 
S., R. 25 E.), Big Creek mining area, CDMG (21751), Anon. (41) p. 
11. The deposit appears to be the largest yet known. The mineral oc- 
curs as tabular bodies of sanbornite-bearing rock, paralleling the bed- 
ding of the enclosing metamorphic rock. The sanbornite is associated 
with taramellite, witherite, and rare gillespite, together with several 
unidentified minerals, Matthews and Alfors (1) p. 2, CDMG (21769). 
2, Sanbornite occurs in quartzite with taramellite, gillespite, quartz, 
and pyrrhotite near Big Creek (sees. 22 27, T. 11 S., R. 25 E.), Alfors 
and Stinson (5) p. 27. 

Mariposa County: 1, Sanbornite was first found in California with 
celsian and gillespite in a metamorphic rock 1 mile north of Trumbull 
Peak, near Incline. It was described and named by A. F. Rogers (39) 
p. 161, (36) p. 84, W. W. Bradley (17) p. 82, with analysis by 0. C. 
Shepard. Douglass (1) shows sanbornite which was originally discov- 
ered in California to be orthorhombic in crystallization instead of tri- 
clinic as first described. Melhase (5) p. 3, gives details of its first dis- 
covery and exact location. 

SASSOLITE 
Boron hydroxide, B(0H)3 

Inyo County: 1, Sassolite with ginorite is reported by R. D. Allen 
and Kramer (6) p. 56, from the Mott prospect near the head of Twenty 
Mule Team Canyon in Death Valley. The mineral occurs as pale yellow- 
ish-brown masses with embedded ginorite. 

Kern County: 1, Sassolite occurs as thin, small, colorless flakes as 
crystals in the California Borate Company property in the Kramer 
borate area (Western borax mine of earlier references) with other 
borate minerals, G. I. Smith et al. (1). 2, Sassolite is found as an ef- 
florescence at the exposed contact of shale and basalt in the Pacific 
Coast Borax Company mine, Kramer borate area, G. I. Smith et al. 
(1) p. 1070. 

Lake County: 1, Sassolite was found as an efflorescence at Siegler 
Springs, John A. Veatch (2) p. 180, G. E. Bailey (2) p. 54. 

Sonoma County: 1, Sassolite is reported by R. L. Smith (J) p. 1204, 
in a specimen collected from The Geysers. 

Tehama County: 1, Sassolite occurred as an efflorescence at Tuscan 
(Lick) Spring, G. E. Bailey (2) p. 69. 

SBORGITE 

Hydrous sodium borate, NaBjOg-SHjO 

Inyo County: Sborgite is found at three separate places in Twenty 
Mule Team Canyon, as surficial growths by alteration from other borate 
minerals, McAllister (7) p. B300. 1, The mineral occurs at Widow No. 



328 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

3 mine, 10 miles southeast of Twenty Mule Team Canyon, in stalac- 
tites, and 2, at two other localities near Twenty Mule Team Canyon, 
McAllister (7) p. B300. In each case thermonatrite is an associated 
mineral. 

SCAPOLITE 

Scapolite is the name given to a group of rock-forming silicates consisting of 
isomorphous mixtures of marialite, Na4(Al3Si9024)CI; intermediate member, 
wernerite; meionite, Ca4(Al5Si4024)C03 

The scapolites are in general formed by contact metamorphism. 

Inyo County: 1, Scapolite was found at the Pine Creek tungsten 
mine in a contact zone with idocrase and wollastonite, Hess and Larsen 
(1) p. 276. 2, A specimen of scapolite with chrysocolla, CDMG (21326), 
has been received from 3 miles east of Dodd Spring, Ubehebe Mining 
District. The scapolite occurrences are described by McAllister (4) 
p. 60. 

Kern County: 1, Scapolite occurs in a contact zone of scheelite ore 
at Weldon, Kelso Creek, Hess and Larsen (17) p. 266. 

Nevada County: 1, Scapolite was doubtfully identified on a schist 
contact at Nevada City and Grass Valley, Lindgren (12) p. 91. 

Riverside County: 1, Scapolite occurs at Crestmore as white radiat- 
ing aggregates of fine needles in contact rock with wollastonite and 
diopside, Eakle (15) p. 350, J. W. Daly (1) p. 649, and as long prisms 
in blue calcite, Woodford et al. (10) p. 362. 2, The mineral occurs pre- 
dominantly in small dikes with pyroxene, apatite and sphene, at the 
iron-ore deposit in the Eagle Mountains, Harder (6) p. 54. 3, Scapolite 
is found also in the contact rocks of the new City quarry, south of 
Riverside, G. M. Richmond (1) p. 725. 

Tiilare County: 1, Scapolite occurs in a metamorphic rock with 
wollastonite, calcite and diopside southwest of Three Rivers (S| sec. 
25, T. 17 S., R. 28 E., M.D.), Durrell (p.c. '35). 

SCAWTITE 
Basic silicate and carbonate of calcium, Ca7Si(0,(C03(OH)4 

Riverside County: 1, Small tabular crystals of scawtite have been 
found lining veins in massive diopside-wollastonite-spurrite rock on the 
910' level of the Commercial quarry at Crestmore, Murdoch (30) p. 
1347, (31) p. 505, Murdoch and Duncan McConnell (34) p. 498, J. D. 
C. McConnell (2) p. 510. 

*SCHAIRERITE, 1931 
Sodium sulphate with fluorine, chlorine, Na3S04(F,CI) 

San Bernardino County: 1, Schairerite was discovered as a new min- 
eral in drill samples from Searles Lake. The minute crystals were de- 
scribed by Foshag (17) p. 133. The mineral, associated with galeite and 
sulphohalite, is discussed by Pabst et al. (21) pp. 485-510. The mineral 
occurs in a saline layer near the base of the Lower Salt, G. I. Smith and 
Haines (3) p. P32. Shairerite has been reported from other parts of 
the deposit, but in most of these occurrences galeite has been misidenti- 
fied as schairerite, ibid. The mineral has also been reported in nepheline 
syenites from the Kola Peninsula, USSR, Kogarko (1) p. 839. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 329 

SCHEELITE 
Calcium tungstate, CaW04 

Seheelite is the principal tungsten mineral of the State, and a vast 
number of deposits exist, some of them important. A comprehensive 
compilation of occurrences was published in Volume 38 of the Cali- 
fornia Journal of Mines and Geology, numbers 3 and 4, 1942. Prospect- 
ing with ultraviolet light has been responsible for the discovery of 
many occurrences. The principal producing areas are in Inyo, Kern, 
and San Bernardino counties, but smaller deposits occur in many of the 
others, and references will be given to these, by counties. General refer- 
ences are Jenkins (1) and Krauskopf (1), the latter covering Madera, 
Fresno, and Tulare counties; see also Bateman (3). 

No attempt has been made to report all of the occurrences of sehee- 
lite found in the State that are referenced in the literature. The mineral 
is widespread and is so common that only occurrences of mineralogical 
interest should be included. However, some localities of minor impor- 
tance and of little mineralogical interest are noted for the historical 
record because they have been reported in early editions of Minerals of 
Califor7iia. 

Calaveras County: 1, Crystals of seheelite up to two inches in length 
have been found in the tactite of Garnet Hill, W. B. Clark and Lydon 
(4) p. 121. 

Fresno County: 1, Seheelite occurs one mile southwest of Dunlap 
(sec. 3, T. 14 S., R. 26 E., M.D.), Kerr (6) p. 139. 2, Seheelite is the 
common tungsten mineral in the Mt. Morrison quadrangle, and occurs 
in many prospects. In some of these production has occurred, Rinehart 
and Ross (2) p. 92 ; see also Mono County (4). 

Inyo County: 1, The most important occurrence of seheelite is at the 
Pine Creek tungsten mine, at an elevation of 11,000 feet, where the 
seheelite is accompanied by considerable molybdenite, and occurrs at 
the contact of granite and metamorphic rocks, Hess and Larsen (17) 
p. 275, Tucker (4) p. 301. 2, Another important area is in the Tungsten 
Hills, northwest of Bishop, where a number of deposits occur, A. Knopf 
(6) pp. 238, 247, Tucker (4) pp. 302, 303, Tucker and Sampson (25) 
pp. 462, 466, Lemmon (5) pp. 507, 511, Bateman et al. (2) pp. 31-42. 
Other references are as follows: Engineering and Mining Journal (17) 
p. 186, (30) p. 84, A. Knopf (6) pp. 247, 248, Tucker (4) p. 301, 
Tucker and Sampson (25) pp. 463-467, Ridgway and Davis (1) p. 
569, Lemmon (7) pp. 79-104, Tucker and Sampson (30) pp. 567-571. 
3, Seheelite is found at the Copper Queen, 4 miles south of Oasis (sec. 
7, T. 6 S., R. 37 E., M.D.), Kerr (6) p. 141; 4, on the northeast flank 
of the Inyo Mountains (sec. 19, T. 8 S., R. 37 E., M.D.), ibid., p. 141, 
and 5, in Trail Canyon, Sheephead claim (T. 19 S., R. 46 E., M.D.), 
ibid., p. 147. 6, Seheelite occurs in the Darwin mines in well-formed 
crystals, Butner (1) pp. 1-6, Hall and MacKevett (4) pp. 62, 76. 
7, Seheelite has been mined in Armstrong Canyon, north of Division 
Creek, J. G.Moore (1) p. 146. 

Kern County: 1, Translucent to transparent crystals of seheelite up 
to 1 inch across have been found at the Aldridge mine (NW^ sec. 27, 
T. 25 S., R. 32 E., M.D.), Durrell (p.c. '45). 2, Schaller (46) p. 237, 



330 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

has shown so-called cuproscheelite from the Green Monster mine 12 
miles east of White River to be a mixture of seheelite and cuprotungs- 
tite. 3, A number of deposits occur in the neighborhood of Cedar Creek 
and Isabella, Storms (15) p. 768, Mining and Scientific Press (41) 
p. 887, Hess and Larsen (17) pp. 263, 265, Tucker (4) p. 315, Tucker 
and Sampson (29) pp. 332, 333, (30) pp. 575-579, Dale (1) p. 1896, 
Tucker and Sampson (32) pp. 61-64, 121, Troxel and Morton (2) pp. 
294-326. Other localities: Hess (10) p. 35, (12) p. 988, (14) p. 48, 
Hulin (1) pp. 70, 97. 4, In the Gorman area, seheelite occurs with 
cassiterite and ludwigite, L. R. Page (3) p. 202, Troxel and Morton (2) 
p. 294; 5, Cottonwood Canyon (T. 30 S., R. 35 E., M.D.), Kerr (6) p. 
151, and 6, Indian Creek, 12 miles east of Caliente (T. 30 S., R. 33 E., 
M.D.), ibid., p. 151. 7, Seheelite occurs in disseminated grains in tac- 
tite and in quartz veins near Havilah, Troxel and Morton (2) p. 27. 
8, The principal mineral mined in the deposits in Indian Wells Canyon 
is seheelite, ibid., p. 37. 9, Seheelite with some wolframite, occurs in 
the High-low mine in Jawbone Canyon, ibid., p. 37. 10, Large crystals 
of seheelite have been found in a gold vein at the Minnehaha mine, near 
Loraine, ibid., p. 41. 11, Small pods of seheelite have been mined in the 
Piute mining area, ibid., p. 46. 12, Seheelite has been mined from small 
leases in quartz veins 4 miles south of Tehachapi, ibid., p. 52. 13, Sehee- 
lite in tactite occurs in the Weldon tungsten area southwest of Weldon, 
ibid., p. 52. 14, Seheelite is an associated mineral in the Baltic gold 
mine (SEi sec. 1, T. 30 S., R. 40 E., M.D.), ibid., p. 94, and 15, in the 
Black Mountain King mine (center of sec. 27, T. 25 S., R. 32 E., M.D.), 
clear seheelite crystals occur in a gouge zone, ibid., p. 296. 16, Seheelite 
and powellite are locally important in a tactite zone in the Lake Isabella 
region, R. L. Engel (1) p. 24. 

Madera County: 1, Many occurrences of seheelite are found in the 
Jackass Creek area (T. 4 S., R. 24, 25 E., M.D.), Kerr (6) p. 157, Tren- 
grove (1) p. 4; 2, North Fork, San Joaquin River (T. 8 S., R. 23, 24 E., 
M.D.), ibid., p. 156, and 3, Yellowjacket (sees. 3, 4, 10, T. 5 S., R. 23 E., 
M.D.), ibid., p. 157, Trengrove (1) p. 4. 4, Seheelite has been reported 
since 1947 in various localities in the following areas : sec. 10, T. 9 S., 
R. 22 E., M.D., and sees. 4, 5, T. 7 S., R. 22 E., M.D., Logan (24) p. 466. 

Marin County: 1, Seheelite has been found in the Tomales Bay area. 
Anon. (17) p. 4. 2, Scheelite-bearing alluvium and seheelite in place on 
contacts of metamorphic rocks with quartz diorite have been found on 
Inverness Ridge on the Point Reyes Peninsula. Two properties have 
been explored. The first, known as the Bender deposit is f mile west 
of Sir Prances Drake highway on the banks of the stream that enters 
Tomales Bay at Willow Point, where some seheelite crystals up to a 
quarter of an inch across have been found in place. The second prop- 
erty is known as the Noren deposit, at tlie junction of the Bear Valley 
Road and Sir Frances Drake highway, one mile from Point Reyes 
Station. These two alluvial occurrences and their bedrock associates 
probably are the same as the reported occurrence (1), Ver Planck (3) 
p. 265. 

Mono County: 1, Seheelite is found in tactite north of Tioga Pass 
(sec. 6, T. 2 N., R. 25 E., M.D.), Kerr (6) p. 160, and 2, near Topaz 
Lake (T. 7, 8, 9 N., R. 22, 23 E., M.D.), ibid., p. 160. 3, Seheelite is 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 331 

widely distributed in the metamorphic rocks of the Casa Diablo Moun- 
tain quadrangle, north of Bishop. The Black Rock mine is the most 
productive of the mineral, Rinehart and Ross (1) p. 11. 4, Scheelite is 
the common tungsten mineral in the Mt. Morrison quadrangle, espe- 
cially at the Hilton Creek and other mines in the area, Rinehart and 
Ross (2) p. 92; see also Fresno County (2). 

Placer County: 1, Scheelite in tactite zones has been reported from 
11 miles west of Lake Tahoe on the upper reaches of the Rubicon 
River, Anon. (14) p. 2. 

Riverside County: 1, Scheelite is found in the Alice group (sees. 25, 
36, T. 1 S., R. 23 E., S.B.), Kerr (6) p. 162; 2, six miles southwest of 
Perris, ibid., p. 161, and 3, Beatty claims, 6 miles west of Ferris (sees. 
32, 33, 34, T. 4 S., R. 4 W., S.B.), ibid., p. 161. 4, Considerable scheelite, 
associated with radiating black tourmaline needles, has been found in 
Temescal Canyon, near Corona, Knowlton (p.c. '57). 

San Bernardino County: 1, Very important deposits of scheelite 
occur in the Atolia and Stringer areas, near Randsburg, G. C. Brown 
(1) p. 522, Cloudman et al. (1) p. 830, Hulin (1) pp. 70, 97. 2, The 
mineral occurs with bismutosphaerite (?) in the Morongo Mining 
District,, Hess and Larsen (17) p. 262, Tucker (4) p. 374, and 3, with 
cassiterite in the Ivanpah Mountains (sec. 30, T. 15 N., R. 14 E., S.B.), 
Tucker and Sampson (30) p. 585, (15) p. 498. Other occurrences: Surr 
(3) p. 9, J. H. Williams (1) p. 545, Engineering and Mining Journal 
(24) p. 730, Cloudman et al (1) p. 839, W. W. Bradley (26) p. 345, 
Tucker and Sampson (27) p. 78, (30) pp. 584, 585, (32) p. 68, Gardner 
(1) p. 261, 4, Scheelite occurs in tactite at the Starbright tungsten 
mine, 25 miles northwest of Barstow (sec. 19, T. 12 N., R. 1 E., S.B.), 
Anon. (16) p. 1, L. A. Wright et al. (5) p. 152, Hazenbush (1) p. 201. 

San Diego County: 1, Scheelite occurs in aplite dikes in Mason Val- 
ley, 60 miles east of San Diego, close to the Mexican border, Kerr (6) 
p. 165, and 2, in tactite, in the Laguna Mountains (sec. 28, T. 15 S., R. 
4 E., S.B.), ibid., p. 165. 

Trinity County: 1, Scheelite occurs at Stewart Fork, 10 miles north- 
west of Minersville (sec. 10, T. 35 N., R. 9 W., M.D.), Kerr (6) p. 166. 

Tulare County: 1, The mineral is found at Mineral King, near Em- 
pire mine (sees. 11, 16, T. 17 S., R. 31 E., M.D.), Kerr (6) p. 167; 2, 
near Middle Fork, Kaweah River (sec. 13, T. 16 S., R. 29 E., M.D.), ibid., 
p. 167; 3, Brush Creek near Fairview (sec. 36, T. 22 S., R. 32 E., M.D.), 
ibid., p. 168, and 4, Tule Indian Reservation (see. 7, T. 22 S., R. 30 E., 
M.D.), ibid., p. 168. 5, Large quantities of weA-formed crystals have 
been discovered at the Tyler Creek tungsten mine near California Hot 
Springs, Anon. (37) p. 6. Goodwin (1) pp. 336-367, 369, describes the 
Tyler Creek occurrence, including diagrams of the scheelite crystals 
(Nl sec. 35, T. 23 S., R. 30 E., M.D.). 

Tuolumne County: 1, Scheelite occurs at Dorothy Lake, Yosemite 
National Park (sec. 20, T. 4 N., R. 22 E., M.D.), Kerr (6) p. 168. An 
additional reference to the county is Logan (23) p. 81. 

Tula County: 1, Scheelite has been observed at Stephens, Dobbins 
Ranch (sec. 7, T. 17 N., R. 7 E., M.D.), Kerr (6) p. 169. 

References to other localities of lesser commercial importance are 
listed as follows: Alpine, Tucker and Sampson (30) p. 565; 0. P. 
Jenkins (1) p. 311; Amador, W. W. Bradley (28) p. 498; Calaveras, 



332 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

W. W. Bradley (30) p. 491; El Dorado, W. W. Bradley (32) p. 318; 
Fresno, Engineering and Mining Journal (19) p. 1045, W. W. Bradley 

(2) p. 470, Tucker and Sampson (30) pp. 565, 566, Chesterman (1) p. 
276, Laizure (9) p. 54, Thickstun (1) p. 29; Humboldt, Forstner et al. 

(3) p. 372; Madera, Tucker and Sampson (30) p. 580, W. W. Bradley 
(31) p. 294, Laizure (9) p. 55, Thickstun (1) p. 79; Mariposa, W. W. 
Bradley (29) p. 311, Tucker and Sampson (30) p. 580; Mono, Loew 
(1) p. 656, Hess and Larsen (17) p. 277, Mayo (4) pp. 83, 84, R. J. 
Sampson (14) p. 147, Lemmon (6) pp. 581-593; Nevada, Mining and 
Scientific Press (22) p. 124 (first discovery of the mineral in Cali- 
fornia), Hanks (12) p. 353, E. MacBoyle (1) p. 29, Farmin (3) p. 224; 
Plumas, Tucker and Sampson (30) p. 581 ; Riverside, Hess and Larsen 
(17) p. 260, Tucker and Sampson (30) p. 587, (33) p. 125; San Diego, 
Tucker (10) p. 353, Tucker and Sampson (30) p. 587, (35) pp. 155-157, 
Symons (4) p. 364; Shasta, Partridge (1) p. 318, Tucker and Sampson 
(30) p. 587; Sierra, CDMG (20198); Triyiitrj, J. C. O'Brien (2) p. 
142; Tulare, Franke (1) p. 464, Tucker and Sampson (30) p. 588, 
Partridge (1) p. 319, Laizure (9) p. 57, 0. P. Jenkins (1) pp. 172-179; 
Tuolumne, Hamilton (4) p. 130, W. W. Bradley (31) p. 286, L. A. 
Wright et al. (5) p. 139. 

SCHROECKINGERITE 

Hydrous sodium calcium uranyl carbonate sulphate with fluorine 

NaCa3UO2(CO3)3SO4F-10H2O 

Kern County: 1, Schroeckingerite is noted as one of the uranium 
minerals in the Miller Ranch deposit (SE^ sec. 1 T. 30 S., R. 30 E., 
M.D.), 6 miles north of Cantil, Troxel and Morton (2) pp. 327, 333. 

San Luis Obispo County: 1, Schroeckingerite occurs as scaly ag- 
gregates in a decomposed plutonic rock from the Pozo area, Woodhouse 
(p.c. '57). 

Ve7itura County : 1, The mineral is reported from the northwest por- 
tion of the county, CDMG (21613). 

*SCHUETTEITE, 1959 
Mercury oxy-sulphate, 1-19380402 

Contra Costa County: 1, Schuetteite has been found in small amount 
in the Mt. Diablo mine, Pampeyan (1) p. 24. 

Lake County: 1, Schuetteite, a new mineral described first from Lake 
County, occurs as coatings on cinnabar-bearing basalt at the Sulphur 
Bank mine, E. H. Bailey et al. (10) p. 1034. Several localities where 
schuetteite has been artifically formed, on the bricks of mercury fur- 
naces, are also reported in California, ibid. 

SCOLECITE 

Hydrous calcium aluminum silicate, CaAl2Si30,(,-3H20 

Scolecite is a zeolite formed as a secondary mineral in cavities of 
igneous rocks and sometimes as veins in such rock. 

Plumas County: 1, Scolecite occurs as a hydrothermal mineral in 
small veinlets of finely radial fibers at the Engels mine, Graton and 
McLaughlin (4) p. 18. 

Riverside County: 1, The CDMG has identified scolecite from Crest- 
more. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 333 

SCORODITE 
Hydrous ferric arsenate, FeAsO^^HjO 

Imperial County: 1, Scorodite from this county is represented by 
CDMG (19794). 

Inyo County: 1, Scorodite occurred in the Noonday mine, near 
Tecopa, Woodhouse (p.c. '45). 

Kern County: 1, Scorodite is reported to occur with arsenopyrite at 
the Contact mine (sec. 10, T. 10 N., R. 15 W., S.B.), Tucker (37) 
p. 207. 

Mariposa County: 1, Pale-green crystals of scorodite were found as 
an alteration product of arsenopyrite associated with pitticite on the 
South Fork of Merced River, near the mouth of Devils Gulch, A. F. 
Rogers (7) p. 375. 

San Diego County: 1, Scorodite was found with arsenopyrite near 
Moreno Lake, F. M. Hamilton (4) p. 759, CDMG (19699). 

Sierra County: 1, Small quantities of scorodite have been found in 
the Forest (Alleghany) Mining District, Lindgren (20) p. 52. 

Tuolumne County: 1, Scorodite has been reported from Jamestown 

as druses and crusts of gray-green octahedral crystals, Goudey (3) 

p. 12. 

SCORZALITE 

Basic phosphate of aluminum magnesium and ferrous iron, 
(Fe2%Mg)Al2(P04)2(OH)2 (an iron-rich iazulite) 

Madera County: 1, Scorzalite is reported from the west side of the 
Ritter Range as gem material, Smerud and McDonald (1) p. 20. This 
may be identical with Iazulite, Madera County (1). 

Mono County: 1, Scorzalite occurs associated with hematite and 
quartz in a pegmatite-like mass in the lower group of patented claims 
of the Mono County andalusite mine on the west slope of White Moun- 
tains, "Woodhouse (p.c. '54). 

*SEARLESITE, 1914 
Hydrous sodium borosilicate, NaB(Si03)2- H2O 

Kern County: 1, Searlesite is cited as an associate of sassolite and 
probertite at the California Borate Company mine, Kramer borate 
area, G. I. Smith et al. (1) p. 1070, H. E. Pemberton et al. (1) p. 31. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Searlesite was found as a new mineral in 
a drill core of the Searles Deep Well, at a depth of 540 feet, E. S. 
Larsen and Hicks (1) p. 438. It was described and named by them, 
with an analysis by Hicks. H. S. Gale (13) p. 292, also comments on the 
occurrence. The mineral occurred as spherulites of radiating fibers 
embedded in mud. It has since been found at other horizons in the 
Upper Salt, Bottom Mud, and Mixed Layer, Hay and Moiola (1) p. 
324, G. I. Smith and Haines (3) p. P33. Further study of the chem- 
istry of searlesite shows that material from rhyolitic tuffs and brines 
combine to form searlesite, phillipsite and potash feldspar, Hay and 
Moiola (2) p. P76A. 

SENARMONTITE 
Antimony trioxide, Sb203 

Inyo County: 1, Senarmontite was found with cervantite and stibnite 
at the property of the Skidoo Mining Company, Mining and Scientific 
Press (38) p. 368. 



334 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Santa Clara County: 1, Possible crystals of senarmontite were re- 
ported from the county by Goldsmith (3) p. 369. 

SEPIOLITE — Meerschaum 
Hydrous basic magnesium silicate, Mg8Si,203Q(OH)4(OH2)4-8H20 

Inyo County: 1, Sepiolite was mentioned by Hanks (12) p. 353, as 
possibly occurring at the Half Dollar mine. 

Riverside County: 1, Sepiolite occurs as fine interlocking fibers in 
small veins in calcite at Crestmore, J. W. Daly (1) p. 651. The mineral 
has been found as brown-stained pellets in limestone in the Commercial 
quarry, Murdoch (p.c. '57). 

SERENDIBITE 
Calcium magnesium aluminum borosilicate, (Ca,Mg)jAl5BSi3O20 

Riverside County: 1, A massive granular aggregate of dark-blue, 
glassy serendibite occurs in thin bands in limestone at the new City 
quarry, 2 miles south of Riverside, G. M. Richmond (1) p. 725. 2, The 
mineral occurs at Commercial quarry, Crestmore, as irregular grains 
in calcite and colorless idocrase (?), Morton (p.c. '58). 

SERPENTINE 

Serpentine as a name is appropriately applied to a group of minerals, 
and is also used loosely as a rock name. The mineral and rock occur- 
rences of frequency in California described as "serpentine" in the 
literature usually cannot be separated, and the localities given must be 
so viewed. As used in the literature, serpentine as a mineral is in fact 
composed of one or more of the minerals chrysotile, lizardite or anti- 
gorite. Bastite, marmolite, picrolite and williamsite are varieties which 
are reported to have been found in California, but several of these 
names have been discredited and should be discarded. The rock serpen- 
tine or serpentinite is an alteration product of basic igneous rocks rich 
in magnesium silicates. The only variety of commercial importance is 
the fibrous or asbestiform variety known as chrysotile, which occurs in 
narrow veins in massive serpentine. Massive serpentine rock ranges in 
color from light-green to greenish-black, but very little of it can be 
utilized as an ornamental stone on account of its foliated and sheared 
structure. The serpentine group of minerals has been studied and 
classification and nomenclature clarified by Faust and Fahey (2), 
pp. 1-91. 

Serpentine is abundant in the Coast Ranges from Del Norte County 
to San Diego County, and on the west flank of the Sierra Nevada. Some 
important or interesting localities are : 

Amador County: 1, Veins of chrysotile occur in a dark-green serpen- 
tine at the Mace mine, 2^ miles east of lone. Tucker (1) p. 5. 

Calaveras County: 1, Veins of short-fiber chrysotile occur in the 
serpentine on the ridge northwest of the Stanislaus River, about 6 
miles southeast of Copperopolis (sees. 21, 22, T. 1 N., R. 13 B., M.D.), 
Tucker (1) p. 55, Diller (17) p. 53. 2, Veinlets of chrysotile asbestos 
up to 1 mm thick are found in serpentine (S^ NE^ sec. 2, T. 4 N., R. 
13 E., M.D.), L. D. Clark (1) p. 17. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 335 

El Dorado County: 1, Veins of fibrous chrysotile are found at French 
Hill, 6 miles north of Greenwood (see. 36, T. 13 N., R. 9 E., M.D.), 
Logan (9) p. 404, (19) p. 207. 2, A good quality of fibrous chrysotile 
occurs near Georgetown (sec. 24, T. 12 N., R. 10 E., M.D.), Logan 
(19) p. 207. 

Fresno County: 1, Serpentine containing veinlets of chrysotile occurs 
in the Dinuba quadrangle (sec. 22, T. 11 S., R. 23 E., M.D.), as cores 
in nodules, altered outwardly to talc and actinolite, G. A. Macdonald 
(4) p. 276. 2, Serpentine is found near Hernandez, E. Sampson (1) p. 
138, and 3, at the head of Los Gatos Creek in fine crude fibers, Diller 
(19) p. 55L 

Inyo County: 1, Veins of cross-fiber asbestos (chrysotile) occur in 
dolomite in Death Valley, at the Indian Camp asbestos mine, Murdoch 
(p.c. '51). . 

Kern County: 1, Chrysotile veins occur in serpentine in Jawbone 
Canyon (see. 7, T. 30 S., R. 36 E., M.D.), G. C. Brown (1) p. 476. 

Humboldt County: 1, Lateritic ores from this county carry nickel- 
bearing serpentine (lizardite), garnierite, clinochrysotile and anti- 
gorite, Montoya and Baur (1) p. 1228. 

Lake County: 1, Becker (4) p. Ill, gives analyses by Melville of the 
serpentine at Sulphur Bank. 2, Fibrous chrysotile in serpentine occurs 
north of Middletown, Bowles and Stoddard (1) p. 300. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Serpentine marble has been quarried com- 
mercially on Santa Catalina Island in Potts Vallev, F. J. H. Merrill 
(2) p. 483. 

Mariposa County: 1, "Bastite" occurs in considerable amount in the 
Mary Harrison mine south of Coulterville, A. Knopf (11) p. 36, and 
2, at Three Buttes (sees. 8, 16, 17, T. 6 S., R. 16 E., M.D.), California 
Academy of Sciences Proceedings (1) p. 110. 

Monterey County: 1, Fibrous chrysotile occurs in l|-foot veins in 
Burro Gorge near Jolon, Laizure (3) p. 28. 

Napa County: 1, Chrysotile asbestos in short fibers occurs in Steel 
Canyon, L. L. Root (2) p. 26. 

Nevada County: 1, ''Picrolite" occurred in the Maryland mine, 
Grass Valley, CDMG (7464). 

Placer County: 1, Long fibers of chrysotile occur at Iowa Hill (sees. 
28, 33, T. 15 N., R. 10 E., M.D.), L. L. Root (5) p. 237. 2, Broad sheets 
and long fibers of chrysotile occur in the American River Canyon near 
Towle, Diller (17) p. 53. 

Plumas County: 1, Diller (6) p. 374, gives an analysis of serpentine 
from Greenville by Melville. 

Riverside County: 1, Small grains of serpentine (probably mixed 
with "deweylite," J. W. Daly (1) p. 650) occur in the white crystal- 
line limestone at Crestmore, Eakle (15) p. 334. 2, Antigorite (platy 
serpentine) occurs with magnesite near Winchester, Murdoch (p.c. '36). 

San Benito County: 1, Becker (4) p. 110, gives an analysis by Mel- 
ville of a light-green "marmolite" from New Idria. 2, Serpentine 
occurs on Clear Creek, near Hernandez (sees. 10, 15, T. 18 S., R. 11 E., 
M.D.), Laizure (4) p. 223. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Good fibers of serpentine asbestos occur 
in an undeveloped property near Cronise, Tucker and Sampson (16) 
p. 296. 



336 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

San Francisco County: 1, Newberry (1) p. 66, gives an analysis of 
the serpentine of San Francisco. 

Shasta County: 1, Large fibrous masses of chrysotile asbestos occur 
near Sims Station, Logan (7) p. 7, E. Sampson (2) p. 316, Averill (9) 
p. 113. 

Sierra County: 1, Serpentine asbestos occurs on the west bank of 
Goodyear Creek, and elsewhere in Sierra County, W. W. Bradley (11) 
p. 154. 

Siskiyou County: 1, "Williamsite," or gem serpentine, occurs near 
Indian Creek, north of Happv Camp on the Klamath River, Melhase 
(3) p. 8. 

Trinity County: 1, Chrysotile has been mined at the Jones Brothers 
asbestos mine, 2 miles northwest of Carrville, Averill (3) p. 26, J. E. 
Allen (2) p. 117. Localities are also mentioned in Logan (7) p. 7, (9) 
p. 128. 

Tulare County: 1, Chrvsotile is found in the Serpentine east of Lind- 
say on Tule River (T. 20'S., R. 29 E., M.D.), Tucker (3) p. 905. 

SEYBERTITE— Xanthophyllite 
Basic magnesium/calcium/aluminum silicate, Ca(Mg,Al)3(AI,Si)4(0,OH),2 

Imperial County: 1, Seybertite, described as xanthophyllite, variety 
"zyberdite," is reported from the Turtle Mts., Anon. (43) p. 22. 

Riverside County: 1, Abundant, platy crystals of seybertite (xantho- 
phyllite) occur in the blue calcite at Crestmore, intimately associated 
with monticellite, and scattered through the inner contact zone, Eakle 
(14) p. 333, Woodford et al. (10) p. 375. 2, Seybertite (xanthophyllite) 
occurs in minor amounts in a contact zone 1^ miles northeast of Win- 
chester, E. S. Larsen (17) p. 36. 

SHATTUCKITE 

Basic copper silicate, Cu5(Si03)4(OH)2 

Inyo County: 1, A specimen from the Panamint Mountains has been 
found to carry shattuckite, mimetite and plancheite, along with an- 
other undetermined mineral, Freitag (p.c. '57). 

*SICKLERITE, 1912 
Lithium manganese iron phosphate, (Li,Mn2*,Fe3*)P04 

San Diego County: 1, Sicklerite, resulting from the alteration of 
lithiophilite, occurs in cleavable masses at the Vanderburg-Naylor mine 
on Heriart Hill near Pala. It was described as a new mineral from 
California and was analyzed and named by Schaller (29) p. 144. 

SIDERITE 
Ferrous carbonate, FeCOj 

Siderite is occassionally found in mining regions in drusy crystal- 
lizations associated with pyrite and galena, but does not appear to be 
common in California. 

Calaveras County: 1, Siderite occurs with albite, calcite and quartz 
at Campo Seco (N.R.). 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 337 

El Dorado County: 1, The mineral occurs with calcite and albite at 
the Red Hill mine, Kelsey Mining District (N.R.). 

Imperial County: 1, Siderite occurs with specular hematite in quartz 
near Bard (N.R.)- 

Inyo County: 1, Masses of siderite have been found at the Custer 
mine, Coso area, CDMG (7618). 2, Siderite occurs with pyrite, pyr- 
rhotite and chalcopyrite in a quartz vein at the Curran mine, half a 
mile northeast of Panamint, Murphy (2) p. 314, R. J. Sampson (7) 
p. 367, and 3, at the Mountain Girl, 4 miles south of Panamint, R. J. 
Sampson (7) p. 371. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Massive siderite occurs in the Tujunga 
Canyon, Hanks (12) p. 354, and 2, it has been found with pyrrhotite 
and annabergite in Pacoima Canyon 12 miles east of San Fernando, 
D'Arcy (3) p. 269. 

Mariposa County: 1, Siderite was found with calcite at Devils Gulch 
(N.R.). 

Mono County: 1, The mineral occurs with limonite and hematite near 
Benton, A. L. Ransome (2) p. 190. 

Plumas County: 1, The mineral was found with copper minerals at 
the Engels mine, Graton and McLaughlin (4) p. ip. 

Riverside County: 1, Siderite occurs with pyrrhotite in the old Do- 
minion mine, E. S. Larson et al. (18) p. 48. 2, Siderite occurs at Crest- 
more, underground, as honey-colored rhombohedrons, in cavities, Keller 
(p.c. '59). 

San Diego County; 1, Siderite has been recognized from Pala, Kunz 
(23) p. 942. 

Santa Clara County: 1, A deposit of siderite occurs on the Weber 
Ranch, in Los Animos Hills, 3 miles northeast of Madrone (N.R.). 2, 
Siderite occurs in large masses on Red Mountain (N.R.). 

SIDEROTIL 

Hydrous ferrous sulphate, FeSO^-SHjO 

Contra Costa County: 1, Siderotil is found in the Mount Diablo 
quicksilver mine (SEi sec. 29, T. 1 N., R. 1 E., M.D.) as a dehydration 
product of melanterite, C. P. Ross (2) p. 44, Pampeyan (1) p. 24. 

SILLIMANITE— Fibrolite 
Aluminum silicate, AljSiOs 

Sillimanite is a constituent of metamorphic gneiss and schist, often 
with kyanite, andalusite and staurolite. 

Inyo County: 1, Random fibers of sillimanite are found abundantly 
in schist at the scheelite deposit in Deep Canyon, west of Bishop, A. 
Knopf (6) p. 233. 2, Sillimanite occurs massive near Laws (N.R.). This 
unconfirmed report may refer to andalusite from the Champion Silli- 
manite mine in Mono County, and not to the mineral sillimanite. 

Kern County: 1, Sillimanite occurs in schists of the Kernville series, 
near Cook peak, W. J. Miller (6) p. 338. 

Los Angeles County: 1, The mineral occurs in schists in the San 
Rafael Hills, W. J. Miller (7) p. 5, and 2, it was observed by Beverly 
(1) pp. 344, 351, at the graphite deposits in San Francisquito, Kagel 



338 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

and Elizabeth Lake Canyons, in the western part of the San Gabriel 
Mountains. 

Mariposa County: 1, Sillimanite occurs in the schists near Mariposa 
in minute silvery prisms, H. W. Turner (12) p. 690. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Sillimanite occurs in schist at Ord Moun- 
tain, 15 miles southeast of Daggett (N. R.). 2, Sillimanite probably 
occurs in the corundum gneiss at Cascade Canyon, Foshag (p.c. '46). 

San Diego County : 1, Sillimanite is a constituent of the dumortierite 
gneiss at Dehesa, Schaller (7) p. 96; 2, it occurs 4 miles southeast of 
Fallbrook, G. A. Waring (2) p. 359; 3, abundant sillimanite up to 2 cm 
in size occurs in schists south and east of Ramona, and 4, 2 miles south 
of Mesa Grande, R. H. Merriam (p.c. '46). 5, Abundant and wide- 
spread occurrences of sillimanite as needles in quartz-muscovite-silli- 
manite schist are found south and east of Ramona (T. 12 S., R. 2 E., 
S.B.), R. H. Merriam (4) p. 228. 6, In the Mesa Grande area needles 
of sillimanite as much as 1 to 2 cm in size occur in the schists, ibid., 
p. 228. 7, Sillimanite occurs in gneiss at the entrance to Palm Canyon, 
Borego Valley, Durrell (p.c. '48). 8, Sillimanite is abundant in blocks 
of breccia in Split Mountain Canyon, Durrell (p.c. '48). 

Tuolumne County: 1, Sillimanite from this county has been analyzed 
by H. N. Stokes, F. W. Clarke (10) p. 317. 

SILVER 

Native silver, Ag 

Native silver has not been found in any large masses in the State, 
yet it is present in many gold and copper regions, and occasionally 
arborescent crystal groups, wires and thin sheets are found. It is more 
common in silver-lead areas, where it often occurs near the walls of 
veins and intrusive dikes. 

Alpine County: 1, Good specimens of native silver have come from 
the Silver Mountain Mining District, W. P. Blake (9) p. 21, R. W. 
Raymond (6) p. 12. 

Calaveras County: 1, Silver occurred in arborescent forms with the 
copper ore at Quail Hill, Mining and Scientific Press (4) p. 5. 

Del Norte County: 1, Silver was found with tetrahedrite at the 
Occidental mine, Crawford (2) p. 58. 

Fresno County: 1, Silver occurred at Millerton, Hanks (15) p. 135. 

Imperial County: 1, Silver is reported with argentite in a 'gold 
quartz vein in the Mary Lode mine, R. J. Sampson and Tucker (18) 
p. 122. 

Inyo County: 1, Occasional sprinklings of native silver occur with 
argentite in the quartz-calcite veins of Saline Valley, about 30 miles 
northeast of Mount "Whitney, T. Warner (1) p. 938, and 2, at the 
Eclipse mine, near Mazourka Canyon, Goodyear (3) p. 263. 3, Thin 
sheets of silver occur at the Sorba mine, near Darwin, Kelley (4) p. 
543; 4, it occurred in the Cerro Gordo mines, G. M. Wheeler (3) p. 62, 
and 5, it was found in the Panamint Mining District, Stetefeldt (1) 
p. 259. 

Kern County: 1, Silver is reported with other silver minerals in the 
Amalie Mining District (N. R.). Argentite and pyrargyrite are noted 
by Crawford (2) p. 605, and proustite by Dyke (1) p. 764, but neither 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 339 

of these references mention native silver. 2, Near Garloek (N. R.). This 
may have reference to the silver minerals from the Kelly Rand prop- 
erty near Randsburg, [see miargyrite, San Bernardino County (1)] to 
the east rather than to Garloek. 3, A little native silver appears in the 
Cactus Queen ores, Mojave Mining District, Troxel and Morton, (2) 
p. 49. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Native silver was associated with argentite, 
and with cobalt and nickel minerals, at the Kelsey mine, near San 
Gabriel Canyon, Storms (4) p. 244, and 2, at the 0.,K. mine, Irelan 
(4) p. 47. 3, Native silver is found at the Maria mine, Soledad Canyon, 
W. P. Blake (9) p. 21. 

Madera County: 1, Silver occurs in quartz veins at the Sullenger 
property, 3 miles northwest of Agnew Meadows on the eastern slope of 
Middle Fork Canyon, Erwin (1) p. 71. 

Mariposa County: 1, Silver occurs with proustite at the Silver Lane 
(sec. 15, T. 6 S., R. 19 E., M.D.), Laizure (8) p. 44. 

Mono County: 1, Silver occurs in narrow veins cutting granitic rocks 
on Blind Spring Hill, Benton. Good specimens have come from the 
Diana and Comanche mines of this region, Hanks (15) p. 135. 2, Some 
native silver occurs in the Silverado mine in the Patterson Mining Dis- 
trict, Whiting (1) p. 359. 3, At Bodie silver has been found in wire and 
flake form with crystallized argentite, with the copper-gold ores, Hanks 

(15) p. 135, Whiting (1) p. 391. 4, Native silver has been found at the 
Dunderberg and Napoleon mines, on Castle Peak, G. M. Wheeler (4) 
p. 184. 

Napa County: 1, Silver occurs with argentite and cerargyrite at the 
Calistoga mines, L. L. Palmer (1) p. 28. 

Placer County: 1, Silver occurred at the Gold Blossom and the Cali- 
fornia mines in the Ophir Mining District, Lindgren (7) p. 272. 2, 
The mineral also occurred at the Valley View mine, 6 miles south of 
Lincoln, as films on a talcose mass, Silliman (7) p. 351. 

Plumas County: 1, Native silver has been found in the old Poca- 
hontas mine, associated with millerite, native copper and cuprite, Craw- 
ford (1) p. 69. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Silver was first discovered in the Calico 
Mining District about 1874. The ore carried cerargyrite and native 
silver, Mining and Scientific Press (21) p. 98, Lindgren (1) p. 717, 
Storms (2) p. 382, (4) p. 337. 2, The mineral occurred in the Grape- 
vine Mining District, CDMG (4234). 3, Native silver with gold occurs 
in the Avawatz Mountains, Irelan (3) p. 501. 4, Native silver was re- 
ported from the San Gabriel mine. Mining and Scientific Press (22) p. 
152. 5, Silver was found with cerargyrite and embolite at the Alta 
mine, 1^ miles east of Riggs, Tucker (4) p. 359, Tucker and Sampson 

(16) p. 267. 6, Small flecks of silver were noted on the 150-foot level of 
the Kelly Rand mine near Randsburg, J. A. Carpenter (2) p. 135. 7, 
Native silver and cerargyrite are found in the Waterman mine (sec. 3, 
T. 10 N., R. 2 W., S.B.),'4 miles north of Barstow, L. A. Wright et al. 
(5) p. 139. 

San Mateo County: 1, Native silver is recorded from a well 478 feet 
deep at the Redwood City mine. Hanks (14) p. 94. 

Shasta County: 1, Native silver is rare in the copper deposits of this 
county, but a few arborescent specimens have come from the Bully 



340 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Hill, Afterthought and other mines, Aubury (1) p. 65, A. C. Boyle 
(1) p. 98. 2, Fine crystallized silver occurred in the old Excelsior mine. 
Copper City, Fairbanks (2) p. 32. 3, Native silver in arborescent crys- 
tal groups, associated with stephanite, tetrahedrite, galena and 
sphalerite, in a calcite-quartz gangue, occurs at the Igo Consolidated 
mines (sees. 17, 18, T. 31 N., R. 6 W., M.D.), Becker (2) p. 24, Laizure 
(1) p. 526. 4, Native silver occurs occasionally in the East Shasta 
copper-zinc area, Albers and Robertson (2) p. 71. 

SJOGRENITE 
Hydrous basic magnesium iron carbonate, MgjFe8(OH),jC03-4H20 

San Francisco County: 1, Sjogrenite occurs as a thin coating with 
hydromagnesite on fractures in serpentine at Fort Point, CDMG X-ray 
identification, 1964. 

SMALTITE 
Cobalt nickel arsenide, (Co,Ni)As3-i where x«0.5-1.0 

Calaveras County: 1, Smaltite has been found with erythrite in a 
small stringer at the Mar John mine near Sheepranch (NW:| sec. 21, 
T. 4 N., R. 14 E., M.D.), Logan (7) p. 4. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Smaltite coated with erythrite occurred with 
native silver and argentite at the Kelsey and O.K. mines near San 
Gabriel Canyon, Irelan (4) p. 47. 

Inyo County: 1, Smaltite has been found with erythrite, annabergite 
and argentite at the Bishop silver and cobalt mine, near Long>-Lake (sec. 
14, T. 9 S., R. 31 E., M.D.), Woodhouse (p.c. '36). 

Lassen County: 1, Smaltite is recorded from this county, with anna- 
bergite, Irelan (4) p. 47, CDMG (9981). 

Napa County: 1, Smaltite has been found in thin seams with eryth- 
rite in the serpentine rock of Berryessa Valley (N.R.). 

Nevada County: 1, Smaltite occurs in the Meadow Lake Mining Dis- 
trict (N.R.). 

Siskiyou County: 1, Smaltite has been reported from Callahan with 
erythrite, W. W. Bradley (28) p. 497. 

SMITHSONITE 
Zinc carbonate, ZnCOj 

Smithsonite is a secondary mineral ofter found in silver-lead mining 
areas. It is usually associated with galena, sphalerite, hemimorphite 
(calamine) and cerussite. 

Inyo County: 1, Smithsonite was found with cerussite at the Modoc 
mine (sec. 34, T. 19 S., R. 42 E., M.D.), Hanks (12) p. 368, CDMG 
(2177). 2, The mineral was also present at the Ignacio mine at Cerro 
Gordo with hemimorphite and willemite, Irelan (4) p. 47, A. Knopf 
(5) p. 97. An unusual stalactitic form of smithsonite occurs at Cerro 
Gordo, CDMG (19287), and it was found in abundance in the lime- 
stone footwall of the Cerro Gordo mine, C. W. Merriam (1) p. 43. 
Yellow cadmium-bearing smithsonite was obtained in the Cerro Gordo 
mine, CDMG (19297). 3, Smithsonite occurred with cerussite and ga- 
lina in limestone at the Redwing and Noonday mines. Resting Springs, 
C. A. Waring and Huguenin (2) p. 104. 4, Smithsonite occurred with 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 341 

galena and cerussite in limestone at the Ophir mine 10 miles northeast 
of Trona, C. A. Waring and Huguenin (2) p. 105. 5, Smithsonite has 
been found at the Swansea mine, 2^ miles northeast of Keeler, Tucker 
(11) p. 501, and 6, in the Leadfield area, ibid. p. 507. 7, Small amounts 
of smithsonite are present in the Darwin Mining District, Tucker (4) 
p. 294, Kelley (4) p. 546, Hall and MacKevett (4) p. 64; 8, in the 
Wild Rose Mining District, Tucker and Sampson (32) p. 59, and 9, 
in the Panamint Mining District, Murphy (2) p. 322. 10, Smithsonite 
occurs with galena at the Lippincott lead mine (sec. 13, T. 15 S., R. 40 
E., M.D.), McAllister (2) pp. 1-10. 

Kern County: 1, Smithsonite occurred in drusy veins at the Jewett 
mine on Cottonwood Creek (N.R.), and 2, it was found on the Tejon 
Ranch (T. 9 N., R. 18 W., S.B.), Tucker and Sampson (32) p. 65. 

Riverside County: 1, Smithsonite occurs with copper and lead min- 
erals at the Palisade 2;inc property, 2 miles from English siding on the 
California Southern Railroad, Tucker (4) p. 332. 2, Smithsonite, in 
globular grains and poorly developed crystals, has been found with 
galena and sphalerite in boulders, associated with hemimorphite, on 
the old dump of the Lone Star quarry, Crestmore, Jenni (p.c. '57). 

San Bernardino County: 1, Smithsonite occurred with hemimorphite 
at the Cuticura mine, near Daggett, CDMG (11534) ; 2, it occurred 
with cerussite, anglesite, linarite and galena in dolomite at the Ibex 
mine, Black Mountains, 6 miles north of Saratoga Springs, Cloudman 
et al. (1) p. 821 ; 3, at the Carbonate King mine (sec. 4, T. 15 N., R. 14 
E., S. B.), Tucker and Sampson (33) p. 128, Wiebelt (1) p. 1 ; 4, in the 
Clark Mountains, 5 miles northeast of Valley Wells (T. 17 N., R. 13 E., 
S. B.), Tucker (8) p. 95, and 5, with galena in the Ivanpah Mining 
District, Tucker (4) p. 363. 

Tulare County: 1, Smithsonite has been found in the Silver Crown 
group (sec. 7, T. 23 S., R. 33 E., M. D.), Tucker and Sampson (29) 
p. 331. 

SODA NITER— Chile Saltpeter 
Sodium nitrate, NaN03 

Nitrates can exist in solid form only in arid regions, and are therefore 
peculiar to desert lands, where they are sometimes left as white incrus- 
tations by evaporation. Some of these white crusts may be found in the 
California desert land, but no important deposits are known, Mansfield 
and Boardman (4) pp. 23-30. 

Imperial County: 1, Soda niter has been found along the shoreline 
of the old Salton Sea, near the Mud A^olcanoes, H. S. Gale (1) p. 27. 

Inyo County: 1, Crusts containing soda niter and niter, occurring 
along the Amargosa River and along shore lines and old beaches of 
Death Valley, were reported by G. E. Bailey (2) p. 169. 2, Crusts of 
soda niter and niter occur near Shoshone, Noble (4) p. 71. 3, The Con- 
fidence, Upper Canyon, Zabriskie, Ratcliff claims, and Furnace Creek 
nitrate fields contain small amounts of soda niter, Noble et al. (1) pp. 
22-88. 

Merced County: 1, Soda niter occurs in crusts with other sodium 
salts, from Merced Bottom, Hilgard (1) p. 25, Laizure (3) p. 182. 



342 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Riverside County: 1, Minor amounts of soda iiiter are found in the 
Vivet Eye area (T. 1 S., R. 23, 24 E., S. B.), H. W. Turner (28) p. 636, 
Noble (4) p. 54. 

San Bernardino County: 1, White incrustations containing soda niter 
and niter occur along the Amargosa River, G. E. Bailey (2) p. 169. 
2, Small amounts of soda niter have been found in the Calico Mining 
District, A. Williams (1) p. 599. 3, The Lower Canyon, Saratoga, Upper 
Canyon, Barstow syneline, Coolgardie Lake, Pilot, Leach I^ake, Owl 
Spring, Twenty-Nine Palms, West Well, Beal, Vidal and Danby Lake 
nitrate fields contain small amounts of soda niter. Noble (4) pp. 10-32. 

Tulare County: 1, Alkaline crusts containing soda niter with other 
soda salts occur in the San Joaquin Valley, near Tulare, Hilgard 
(1) p. 25. 

t*SONOMAITE, 1877 
See pickeringite 

Sonoma County: The name sonomaite was assigned to samples from 
The Geysers which were thought to be a new mineral by Goldsmith (6) 
p. 263. Subsequently the mineral was identified as pickeringite, E. S. 
Dana (6) p. 523. 

SPHALERITE— Zincblende— Black Jack 
Zinc sulphide, ZnS 

Sphalerite is very common and is prevalent in most mining regions. 
It varies from clear light-brown to very dark-brown, almost black 
masses. Its typical associate is galena, but it is also often intimately 
mixed with pyrite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, arsenopyrite and lead- 
silver minerals. 

Only the more interesting occurrences can be listed in any detail. 
For other occurrences, references will be given by counties. 

Inyo County: 1, Cleavage pieces of sphalerite up to 3 inches across, 
with fluorite and galena, have been found in the Darwin Mining Dis- 
trict, Defiance and other ore bodies, A. Knopf (4) p. 7, Kelley (4) p. 
543, Hall and MacKevett (4) p. 62. 2, Sphalerite is present in the 
Cerro Gordo ores, C. W. Merriam (1) p. 43. 

Kern County: 1, Sphalerite has been mined from the Blackhawk 
mine (SWi sec. 5, T. 31 S., R. 33 E., M.D.), near Loraine, Troxel and 
Morton (2) p. 345. 

Los Angeles County: 1, The lead mines on Santa Catalina Island 
were rich in sphalerite. Hanks (12) p. 371, Tucker (12) pp. 33-38. 2, 
Massive sphalerite, with galena and pyrrhotite, occurs at the Indicator 
mine, 12 miles from, the mouth of Pacoima Canyon, Tucker (4) p. 318. 

Mariposa County: 1, Triboluminescent sphalerite, a mixture of fine- 
grained sphalerite, barite, chalcopyrite and kaolinite, which glows when 
rubbed, occurs at the Pitch mine' (sees. 9, 10, T. 4 S., R. 15 E., M.D.), 
Eakle (5) p. 30, Eakle and Sharwood (6) p. 1000, Headden (1) p. 177. 

Merced County: 1, Triboluminescent sphalerite with barite has been 
found near Merced Falls, Laizure (3) p. 175. 

Nevada Coimty: 1, Large masses of sphalerite, with other sulphides, 
are found in the Washington Mining District, Meadow Lake, Wisker 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 343 

(1) p. 194. 2, The mineral is quite abundant in several of the mines in 
Grass Valley, Lindgren (12) p. 118. 

Orange County: 1, Sphalerite is plentiful in the Blue Light mine 
(sees. 11, 14, T. 5 S., R. 7 W., S.B.), Fairbanks (4) p. 115. 2, Sphal- 
erite is found with pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite on the north bank of 
San Juan Creek, in the southwest part of the Elsinore quadrangle, 
about 1^ miles east of the western quadrangle boundary. Veins several 
feet wide occur as irregular replacement in Triassic sediments, E. S. 
Larsen et al. (18) p. 48. 

Placer County: 1, Yellowish transparent zincblende occurs in the 
Ophir Mining District (NE^ sec. 17, T. 12 N., R. 8 E., M.D.), Lindgren 
(7) p. 273. 

Riverside County: 1, Sphalerite is one of the minerals at Crestmore, 
Kelly (2) p. 141. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Large masses of sphalerite carry the 
silver values in some of the mines of the Silver Mountain Mining Dis- 
trict, 5 miles north of Adelanto and 1 mile west of US 395, Tucker 
and Sampson (16) p. 267. 

Shasta County: 1, An extensive ore body of finely divided sphalerite 
is found at the Hobbs mine, 6 miles southwest of Round Mountain, 
Crawford (1) p. 411. 2, Sphalerite is abundant in the East Shasta 
copper-zinc ores, Albers and Robertson (3) p. 71. 

Other references are to minor occurrences, listed by counties as io\- 
lows: Alpine: Crawford (1) p. 373, Gianella (1) p. 342, W. W. Bradley 
(15) p. 488; Amador: Hulin (3) p. 352; Calaveras: Hanks (12) p. 371, 
Franke and Logan (4) p. 239; El Dorado: Logan (9) p. 406; Fresno: 
Aubury (4) p. 281; Imperial: Tucker (11) p. 267, Henshaw (1) p. 185; 
Inyo: A. Knopf (5) p. 104, Tucker (11) pp. 471, 473, Murphy (2) p. 
321, Lemmon (5) p. 505, Tucker and Sampson (32) p. 59; Kern: Hulin 
(1) p. 84, Tucker and Sampson (21) pp. 290, 329, Simpson (1) p. 409, 
Engineering and Mining Journal (28) p. 62; Los Angeles: Storms (4) 
p. 243, R. J. Sampson (10) p. 181 ; Madera: W. W. Bradley (9) p. 548, 
Erwin (1) pp. 66, 70; Mariposa: J. B. Trask (8) p. 52; Mono: CDMG 
(7273), Mayo (4) p. 84, R. J. Sampson (14) pp. 139, 140; Orange: 
Fairbanks (4) p. 117; Placer: Logan (11) p. 286, (17) pp. 16, 23; 
Plumas: Preston (2) p. 467, Graton and McLaughlin (4) p. 15; Sacra- 
mento: W. P. Blake (9) p. 9; San Bernardino: Cloudman et al. (1) p. 
790, Tucker and Sampson (17) p. 341, Erwin and Gardner (3) p. 302, 
Tucker and Sampson (32) p. 69, (33) p. 128; San Diego: F. J. H. 
Merrill (1) pp. 667, 668; San Mateo: Hanks (12) p. 371, (15) p. 135; 
Shasta: Aubury (4) p. 102, G. C. Brown (2) p. 808, Averill (4) pp. 7, 
14, 50, 57; Sierra: E. MacBoyle (3) p. 4; Siskiyou: Averill (5) p. 280; 
Trinity: Averill (9) pp. 28, 34; Tulare: Hanks (12) p. 371, Franke 
(1) p. 436; Tuolumne: Tucker (1) p. 138, Oak Hill mine (sec. 30, T. 2 
S., R. 14 E., M.D.), Logan (23) p. 54. 

SPHENE— Titanite 
Calcium titano-silicate, CaTiSiOs 

Sphene is a common accessory mineral of the granites, gneisses and 
schists of the State. It has been mentioned by many writers in their 
petrographical descriptions as a microscopic constituent of rocks. It is 



344 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

a characteristic heavy mineral of the granitic rocks of the Coast Range 
batholith, Spotts (1) pp. 1236-1237. 

Contra Costa County: 1, Sphene is mentioned as an associate of 
crossite in the schists near San Pablo, Palache (3) p. 184. 

El Dorado County: 1, Sphene was first observed in the State by 
W. P. Blake (17) p. 193, in the granite of Slippery Ford and other 
places of the Sierra Nevada. 

Fresno County: 1, Sphene is a constituent of the rocks at Fine Gold 
Gulch, Hanks (15) p. 138. 

Inyo Cou7ity: 1, Sphene occurs in small amount at the Wilshire gold 
mine west of Bishop, H. W. Turner (34) p. 888. 2, The mineral occurs 
in fair-sized crystals in the tactite at Darwin, Kelly (4) p. 540. 3, 
Sphene occurs rather abundantly in large well-formed crystals (up to 
2 inches in length), at the foot of the Palisade Glacier, Axelrod 
(p.c. '46). 

Imperial County (?): 1, Chromiferous sphene from the "southern 
California desert area," was examined by Jaffe (1) p. 640. 

Ker7i County: 1, Sphene occurs with garnet, quartz and feldspar in a 
contact-metamorphic limestone 200 yards east of Hobo Springs, near 
Havilah, Melhase (p.c. '36). 

Los Angeles County: 1, Green, brown and yellow sphene crystals up 
to i inch are found in large boulders of diorite in alluvial fan material 
in Sierra Madre Canyon, Sierra Madre, Metzer (1) p. 56. 

Marin County: 1, Sphene occurs as one of the minerals of the law- 
sonite schists on the Tiburon Peninsula, F. L. Ransome (3) p. 311. 

Mendocino County: 1, Pale yellowish crystals of sphene occur with 
lawsonite at Syke rock, 3 miles east of Longvale on the new Covelo 
road (T. 20 N., R. 14 W., M.D.), Chesterman (p.c. '51). 

Mo7W County: 1, Minute grains of sphene are scattered through the 
andalusite at the mine of Champion Sillimanite on the western slope 
of the White Mountains, 7 miles east of Malcalno, north of Bishop, 
Woodhouse (2) p. 4. 

Plumas County: 1, Sphene occurs as numerous irregular grains with 
apatite in the diorite country rock of the Superior mine, Graton and 
McLaughlin (4) p. 34. 

Riverside County: 1, Granular sphene in pale-brown grains is abun- 
dant in the quartz monzonite at Crestmore, Eakle (15) p. 330, and in 
some of the pegmatites, Woodford (11) p. 360. 2, Small crystals of 
sphene occur in the gangue of the Eagle Mountain iron ores. Harder 
(6) p. 54. 3, Sphene occurs as large yellow crystals with black tour- 
maline and quartz at a contact of granodiorite and quartzite in the 
West Riverside Hills, Eggleston (p.c. '36). 4, Crystals up to 1 by | by 
^ inches appear in granodiorite on the northwest side of Deep Canyon 
(sec. 36, T. 6 S., R. 5 E., S.B.), Webb (7) p. 344. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Considerable sphene appears in the Iron 
Age ore deposit near Dale, Harder and Rich (4) p. 234. 

San Diego County: 1, Sphene is a minor associate of dumortierite at 
Dehesa, Schaller (7) p. 211. 

San Mateo County: 1, Sphene is a notable constituent of the Montara 
granite near San Francisco, A. C. Lawson (2) p. 411. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 345 

Santa Barbara County: 1, Sphene is one of the heavy minerals pres- 
ent in the Alegria and Vaqueros formations in the Gaviota area, 
Grenden (1) p. 269. 

Santa Clara County: 1, Excellent large crystals of sphene occur in 
the eclogites of Calaveras Valley, Murgoei (1) p. 388, and 2, in the 
qiiartzite and diorite of Oak Hill, near San Jose, ibid., p. 390. 

Sonoma County: 1, Sphene is a conspicuous constituent of glau- 
cophane schists near the mouth of the Russian River, Pabst (1) p. 333. 
2, Crystals up to 1 cm in size, often concentrated along crevices in 
eclogite, have been found at the W. P. A. quarry, Mill Creek, Switzer 
(5) p. 83. 

Trinity County: 1, Sphene was found with epidote, colorless garnet 
and zircon in a soda granite-porphyry in the Irpn Mountain region, 
Weaverville quadrangle (N. R.). 

SPINEL 

Magnesium/aluminum oxide, MgAljO^ 

Picotite is a brown spinel containing chromium and iron ; it occurs 
in serpentine rocks. Pleonaste is a dark-green iron-magnesium spinel. 
Spinel occurs only as a rock constituent and appears in some of the 
gold-placer sands as ruby-red grains resembling red garnet. 

Butte Comity: 1, Small crystals of ruby spinel have been found in 
the rock of the "diamond mine" near Oroville (N. R. ). 

Fresno County: 1, Colorless, red, and black crystals of spinel 1 to 4 
ram in diameter are present in the contact metamorphosed limestone of 
the Twin Lakes area, Chesterman (1) p. 254. 

Humboldt County: 1, Ruby spinel occurs in the beach sands at Gold 
Bluff, Kunz (24) p. 47. 

l7iyo County: 1, Spinel, varietv pleonaste, has been found in the 
south end of Butte Valley, Ubehe'be Mining District, CDMG (21329), 
McAllister (4) p. 61. 

Lassen County: 1, Microscopic brown octahedral crystals of picotite 
have been found in quartz basalt at Cinder Cone, Lassen Volcanic Na- 
tional Park, Diller (3) p. 23, Finch and Anderson (1) p. 261. 

Monterey County: 1, Grains of ruby spinel have been found near 
Jolon, CDMG (15855). 

Placer County: 1, Picotite has been found at Rocklin, Hanks (12) 
p. 309, Schrader et al. (1) p. 75. 

Riverside County: 1, Specimens of spinel have come from northwest 
of Anza, and on Thomas Mountain, W. W. Bradley (29) p. 107. 2, 
Spinel, both pale and dark blue-green, has been found in minor amount 
at Crestmore, A. F. Rogers (31) p. 466, W. AV. Bradley (28) p. 498. 
3, Spinel has come from the old City quarry. Riverside, A. F. Rogers 
(19) p. 581, and 4, from the new City quarry, south of Riverside, G. M. 
Richmond (1) p. 725. 

San Benito County: 1, Pale crystals and grains of spinel have been 
found in altered serpentine half a mile downstream from the benitoite 
locality, Woodhouse (p.c. '45), Williams (p.c. '49), Watters (p.c. '51). 

Sa7i Bernardino Conyity: 1, Black spinel occurs in the basalt flows 
south of Pipes Canyon (sees. 21, 22, T. 1 N., R. 4 E., S.B.) (N. R.) ; 2, 
in basalt near Quail Springs (T. 1 S., R. 7 E., S.B.) (N. R.), and 3, 



346 MINERALS OP CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

black granular masses and small crystals of spinel have been found at 
the Dewey mine, Clark Mountain Mining District, Schaller (50) p. 816. 

San Diego County: 1, Blue spinel was reported to occur in the Mack 
mine near Rincon. The deep-green, pleonaste variety, in small octahe- 
drons, occurs there with garnet, Kunz (24) pi 48, A. F. Rogers (4) 
p. 209. 

San Luis Ohispo County: 1, Ruby spinel has been observed near San 
Luis Obispo, Kunz (1) p. 486, (24) p. 47. Some of the crystals were 
half a carat each, and of gem quality. 

Santa Barbara County: 1, Nearly perfect crystals of spinel are found 
in microscopic sizes, but quite abundantly, in the beach sands of the 
Santa Barbara coast, Norris and Woodhouse (4) p. 55. 2, Pieotite is 
found in the Franciscan rocks of the San Rafael Mountains, Wood- 
house (p.c. '63). 

Siskiyou County: 1, Pieotite occurs in the basalts of Mount Shasta, 
Wadsworth (1) p. 314, Hanks (12) p. 309. 

Tulare County: 1, Granular green spinel occurs in metamorphosed 
serpentine on the southwest side of Jlocky Hill, and in metamorphosed 
basic volcanic rocks on the southeri/slope of Woodlake Mountain, Dur- 
rell (p.c. '35). 

SPODUMENE 
Lithium aluminum silicate, LiAI{Si03)2 

Kunzite is a beautiful transparent variety, lilac or amethystine in 
color. It is sometimes called California iris. Hiddenite is an emerald- 
green spodumene. Triphane is colorless to yellow. Spodumene is found 
in large crystals and cleavage masses in pegmatites, commonly as- 
sociated with lepidolite and lithia tourmaline. 

Kern County: 1, Grains of spodumene have been identified in the 
heavy minerals from drill cores in the Lazard area, west of Lost Hills, 
R. D. Reed and Bailey (4) p. 363. 

Riverside County: 1, The variet}^ kunzite, has been found in the 
Fano (Simmons) mine (sec. 33, T. 6 S., R. 2 E., S.B.), on Cahuila 
Mountain. Kunz (23) p. 967, (24) p. 25. This kunzite shows spectro- 
scopic traces of germanium, Papish (2) p. 477. 

San Diego County: 1, The variety kunzite was first discovered in the 
White Queen mine, Pala in 1902, Kunz (26) p. 1345, and was described 
from the Pala Chief mine, Kunz (18) p. 264, (24) p. 83. The largest 
crystal found was 23 by 4 by 2 cm in dimensions. This kunzite showed 
0.043 percent gallium by spectroscopic methods, Gabriel et al. (1) p. 
119. Schaller (2) p. 265, has also recorded hiddenite and white 
spodumene from Pala; other references: Baskerville (1) p. 303, Basker- 
ville and Kunz (2) pp. 25-28, R. 0. E. Davis (1) p. 29, Sinkankas (1), 
p. 50. Spodumene associated with lithia-beryl and purpurite (?) was 
found at the Naylor-Vanderberg mine, Pala, Kunz (26) p. 1344. Kun- 
zite and hiddenite in crystals up to 11 bj^ 2 by l-J inches are reported 
in the gem pegmatites at Pala, Jahns and Wright (5) pp. 19, 30, 36. 2, 
Kunzite was found in small amounts at the Victor mine, Rincon, A. F. 
Rogers (4) p. 210. In the Clark vein, in the same locality, large rough 
crystals of spodumene occur in quartz, altering to petalite and heuland- 
ite, Murdoch (18) p. 198, Hanley (1) p. 23. 3, Kunzite was found in 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 347 

the Mountain Lily mine, Aguanga Mountain, Kunz (24) pp. 25, 62. 4, 
Small, clear pieces of spodumene have come from the Himalaya mine, 
Mesa Grande, Kunz (24) p. 135. 5, An unverified report records kun- 
zite from the Vista Chief and Mountain Belle mines, Moosa Canyon 
(Ei sec. 27, T. 10 S., R. 3 W., S.B.), Kunz (24) p. 62, F. J. H. Merrill 
(1) p. 702. 6, Kunz (18) p. 280, has reported kunzite from near Men- 
choir. 

SPURRITE 
Calcium silicate and carbonate, CajSi203C03 

Riverside County: 1, Spurrite occurs intimately associated with 
merwinite and gehlenite in the limestone at Crestmore, Foshag (2) p. 
80, Woodford (11) p. 360. 

STANNITE 
Copper iron tin sulphide, Cu2FeSnS4 

Inyo County: 1, The rich silver ore of the Thompson mine, Darwin 
Mining District, includes stannite. Hall and MacKevett (1) p. 17, ibid. 
(4) p. 62. 

Santa Cruz County: 1, Stannite occurs in crystalline limestone, as- 
sociated with franckeite and meneghinite, in the Pacific Limestone 
Products (Kalkar) quarry, 2 miles northeast of Santa Cruz, Milton and 
Chesterman (p.c. '54). 

STAUROLITE 
Basic iron magnesium aluminum silicate, (Fe,Mg)4AI]3Si8044(OH)2 

Staurolite occurs only in metamorphic rocks rich in aluminum. 

Inyo County: 1, Microscopic grains of staurolite have been found in 
quartz-mica schist on the west side of the Panamint Range near Bal- 
larat. Murphy (4) p. 345. 

STEPHANITE— Brittle Silver Ore 
Silver antimony sulphide, AgsSbS4 

Stephanite is an important and usually prominent silver mineral 
in silver areas, but it is not common in California. It is often asso- 
ciated with argentite and polybasite as an original mineral of veins. 

Alpine County: 1, Stephanite has been reported from the Morning 
Star mine, Hanks (12) p. 371, Eakle (16) p. 13, and 2, with hiibnerite 
from the Zaca mine, Gianella (1) p. 342, Partridge (1) p. 264. 

Inyo County: 1, Stephanite was found with argentite in the Cliff 
mine, northwest of the head of Deep Spring Valley, Goodyear (3) p. 
237, and 2, it occurred with tetrahedrite and argentite at the Belmont 
mine, Cerro Gordo Mining District, Tucker (4) p. 283. 

Mono County: 1, Stephanite occurred in the Blind Spring (Benton) 
Mining District, Whiting (1) p. 378, and 2, it was abundant, with 
pyrargyrite, in the Oro, Addenda and Fortuna mines, Bodie Mining 
District, Whiting (1) p. 392. 3, Stephanite is found in the Patterson 
Mining District, Sweetwater Range (N. R.). 

Nevada County: 1, Stephanite was found in the Allison Ranch mine. 
Grass Valley, Lindgren (12) p. 119. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Stephanite occurred in the St. Lawrence 
Rand mine (sec. 1, T. 30 S., R. 40 E., M. D.), F. M. Hamilton and 



348 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

Root (5) p. 170, and 2, in the Carlyle mine, near Dale (sec. 11, T. 1. 
S., R. 12 E., S. B.), Tucker and Sampson (27) p. 61. 

Shasta County: 1, Stephanite occurs with native silver, galena and 
sphalerite in a calcite-quartz gangue at the Igo Consolidated mines 
(N. R.). 

STERNBERGITE 

Silver iron sulphide, AgFe2S3 

Riverside County: 1, The Colorado School of Mines has identified 
sternbergite in material collected from Crestmore (p.c. '61). 

*STEWARTITE, 1912 
Hydrous manganese phosphate, Mn3(P04)2-4H20(?) 

San Diego County: 1, The new mineral stewartite was found as an 
abundant alteration product of lithiophilite in the Stewart mine at 
Pala. It was described and named by Schaller (29) p. 144. 

STIBICONITE 
Hydrous antimony oxide, Sb3+Sb5*2(0,OH,H20)7, Ca replacing Sb^* 

Stibiconite occurs as an alteration product of stibnite or native 
antimony. 

Inyo County: 1, The bright- or orange-yellow alteration product of 
stibnite in Wild Rose Canyon may be stibiconite, D. E. White (1) p. 
317, and 2, it has been doubtfully reported from Cerro Gordo, CDMG 

(8584). 

Kern County: 1, Stibiconite has been found with native antimony at 
Little Caliente Springs, CDMG (11671), and 2, on Erskine Creek, 
Behre (1) p. 332. 

San Benito County: 1, Stibiconite has been reported from the Stay- 
ton mine, W. W. Bradley (28) p. 343, Anon. (39) p. 195. 

San Bernardino County: 1, An occurrence of stibiconite has been re- 
ported from the Old Woman Mountains, W. W. Bradley (28) p. 207. 
2, Stibiconite is questionablv identified, with stibnite and cinnabar, 
from the Red Devil claim near Danbv (NW^ T. 6 N., R. 18 E., S.B.), 
about 12 miles SE of Essex, G. W. Walker et al. (5) p. 24. 

San Luis Ohispo County: 1, Stibiconite has been found with cer- 
vantite at the Marquart mine (T. 26 S., R. 9 E., M.D.), Eckel et al. (1) 
pp. 537, 543. 

* STIBIOFERRITE— Stibiaferrite, 1873 
Hydrous antimony/iron oxide and silicate, Sb205-Fe203Si02- HjO- 

Santa Clara County: 1, A substance described as a new antimony 
mineral was found as a coating on stibnite at an unidentified location 
in the county. Goldsmith (3) p. 366. It was studied and named stibio- 
ferrite. See also Palache et al. (10) p. 599. 

STIBIOTANTALITE 

Niobate and tantalate of antimony, Sb(Ta,Nb)04 

San Diego County: 1, Stibiotantalite was found in small amounts in 
the pegmatite veins at Mesa Grande associated with gem tourmaline. 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 349 

pink beryl, quartz, orthoclase, lepidolite and cassiterite. It was de- 
scribed and analyzed by Penfield and Ford (8) p. 61. It was noted by 
Schaller (25) p. 352. Ungeraach (1) p. 92, observes that stibiotantalite 
is not ismorphous with columbite. Stibiotantalite is listed as specimen 
No. 53-84-2 in University of Wisconsin Collections, and is reported in 
a paper on general investigation of columbium and tantalum minerals 
as "from Mesa Verde" (Table, p. 436), Hutchinson (1) p. 432. The 
correct locality is Mesa Grande (letter, Hutchinson to University of 
Wisconsin to Webb, from Harvard Collection, specimen No. 87843, 
7/22/58). 2, Stibiotantalite is very rare, but present in the pegmatites 
of Heriart Hill, Pala, Jahns and Wright (5) p. 31. 

STIBNITE— Antimonite 
Antimony sulphide, Sb2S3 

Stibnite is the common ore of antimony, and numerous deposits of it 
exist in the State. It occurs generally as veins in granitic rocks and 
schists. In gold and copper regions stibnite is a common associate of 
galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, pyrite and tetrahedrite. It is character- 
istically associated with cinnabar. 

Alameda County: 1, Large masses of stibnite occur at Mount Oso, in 
the Mount Diablo Range, J. B. Trask (2) p. 94, (4) p. 390. 

Alpine County: 1, Stibnite occurs with pyrargyrite and proustite at 
the Exchequer mine. Silver Mountain, R. W. Raymond (9) p. 22. 

Calaveras County: 1, Stibnite has been observed with gold at Mo- 
kelumne Hill (N.R.), and 2, with cinnabar at the Oro y Plata mine 
near Murphy, H. W. Turner and Ransome (18) p. G. 

Colusa County: 1, Stibnite occurs with cinnabar and gold at the 
Manzanita mine, Becker (4) p. 367, Anon. (54) p. 30. 

Contra Costa County: 1, Stibnite occurs at the Mount Diablo quick- 
silver mine, with metacinnabar, C. P. Ross (2) p. 41, Pampeyan (1) 
p. 24. The mineral occurs as fine thread-like crystals associated with 
valentinite at the Mount Diablo quicksilver mine, Oyler (p.c. '61). 

Inyo County: 1, In the Cerro Gordo Mining District, stibnite was 
found with the silver-lead ores, and some limonite specimens from there 
seem to be pseudomorphs after long prismatic stibnite crystals (N.R.). 
The confirmation of stibnite at Cerro Gordo still is unobtained. It may 
be that this report, like metacinnabar, San Benito (3), is actually from 
San Benito County, and the locality is the Bradford (Cerro Gordo) 
mine, and that the entry was misplaced in Inyo County. 2, Large bodies 
of stibnite with cervantite occur on the western slope of the Panamint 
Range near Wild Rose Springs, Crawford (1) p. 21. 3, A large outcrop 
of stibnite occurs on the eastern slope of the Argus Mountains, between 
Revenue and Shepards Canyons, C. A. Waring and Huguenin (2) p. 
60. 4, Blades of stibnite up to 4 inches in length, partly oxidized to 
cervantite, are found in the Darwin Mining District, Kelley (4) p. 544, 
Hall and MacKevett (4) p. 79. 5, Stibnite has been mined ^, miles 
south of Bishop, Tucker and Sampson (32) p. 58. Bateman (3) p. 82, 
reports stibnite as "3^ miles SW of Bishop (SE cor. sec. 23, T. 7 S., 
R. 32 E., M.D.) ". This is probably confirmation of the occurrence given 
by Tucker and Sampson (32). The stibnite occurs as localized stringers 
in a fault zone, sometimes with quartz and pyrite. 6, Stibnite occurs 



350 MINERALS OF CALIFORNIA [Bull. 189 

as lenses and pods in limestone at the Old Dependable antimony mine 
(NEi T. 19 S., R. 45 E., M. D.), Norman and Stewart (2) p. 29, and 
7, at the Rocket claim (sec. 29, T. 22 S., R. 43 E., M. D.), ibid., p. 84. 
Kern County: 1, The deposits of stibnite in the San Emigdio Moun- 
tains at the head of San Emigdio Canyon (sec. 10, T. 9 N., R. 21 W., 
S.B.) have long been known and were the first worked in the state, 
W. P. Blake (7) p. 292, Angel (2) p. 225. 2, Veins of stibnite are 
plentiful in the mountains in the northeastern part of the county. On 
Erskine Creek stibnite has been found with native antimony, W. W. 
Bradley (11) pp. 21, 22. 3, Stibnite also occurs near Caliente, Boalich 
and Castello (2) p. 11; 4, in the Tom Moore mine. Clear Creek, W. W. 
Bradley (11) pp. 21, 22; 5, near Tehachapi, W. W. Bradley (11) p. 21 ; 
6, near Kernville, Hanks (12) p. 375; 7, at Hot Springs; and 8, near 
Havilah, Watts (2) p. 237. 9, Minute spherulites of stibnite occur in 
kernite and borax near Kramer, Schaller (45) p. 165; 10, 30 miles west 
of Koehn (Cane) (sees. 5, 6, T. 30 S., R. 31 E., M. D.), G. C. Brown 

(1) p. 476; 11, near Amalie (sec. 34, T. 30 S., R. 32 E., M. D.), Tucker 
and Sampson (32) p. 61, and 12, rarely in Golden Queen mine, near 
Mojave, J. W. Bradley (p.c. '45) confirmed by Troxel and Morton 

(2) p. 54. 

Lake County: 1, Stibnite has been found with cinnabar at Sulphur 
Bank on Clear Lake, W. P. Blake (29) p. 642, D. E. White and Rober- 
son (2) p. 405. It is being deposited now, C. P. Ross (3) p. 339, (5) 
p. 451, Everhart (1) p. 139. 

Los Angeles County: 1, Stibnite has been found in the mountains 
south of Lancaster, Aubury (3) p. 359, and 2, in Pacoima Canyon, 
with cobalt-nickel ores, Tucker (13) p. 288. 

Merced County: 1, Fine specimens of prismatic stibnite have come 
from the Stayton (McLeod) Mining District (sec. 32, T. 11 S., R. 7 E., 
M. D.), Laizure (3) p. 175, and 2, from the Red Metal mine (sec. 32, 
T. 11 S., R. 7 E., M. D.), Irelan (3) p. 350. 

Mono County: 1, Stibnite is common in the Blind Spring Mining 
District, associated with the silver-lead ores, and good specimens have 
come from the Comanche, Comet and Diana mines, Loew (1) p. 653. 
2, Stibnite occurs in Bloody Canyon (T. 1 S., R. 25 E., M. D.), Hanks 
(12) p. 375. 

Monterey County: 1, Stibnite occurs at Los Burros mines (sec. 1, T. 
24 S., R. 5 E., M. D.), Preston (4) p. 261. 

Napa County: 1: Fibrous bands of stibnite occurred with cinnabar 
at the Manhattan and the Boston or old Redington mines at Knoxville, 
W. W. Bradley (5) p. 86. 

Nevada County: 1, Stibnite occurs with galena in quartz at the Red 
Ledge mine, E. MacBoyle (1) p. 67, and 2, in the Mohawk antimony 
mine near Nevada City, ibid., pp. 13, 67. 

Orange County : 1, Stibnite occurs with -galena and sphalerite in the 
Dunlap mine, head of Santiago Canyon, Hanks (14) p. 119. 

Placer County: 1, Stibnite occurs with gold-bearing quartz in the St. 
Laurence mine, Ophir Mining District, C. A. Waring (4) p. 350. 

Riverside County: 1, Stibnite is reported from the Wet Weather 
quarry, Crestmore, Woodford et al. (10) p. 369. 2, Fine-grained stib- 



1966] DESCRIPTIONS 351 

nite was found near Corona, F. J. H. Merrill (2) p. 524. 3, Stibnite 
occurs in Mabey Canyon, Tucker and Sampson (32) p. 65. 

San Benito County: 1, There are numerous veins of stibnite in as- 
sociation with the cinnabar deposits, especially in the northeastern part 
of the county. Fine crystallized specimens have come from the Rip Van 
Winkle, Alta, Gleason and Shriver claims on Antimony Peak, north- 
east of Hollister, Hanks (12) p. 374, Crawford (1) p. 22. Some of the 
good crystals were measured by Eakle (9) p. 231. 2, Long divergent 
prisms of stibnite have come from the Blue Wing vein of the Stayton 
quicksilver mine, Aubury (2) p. 148. 

San Bernardino County: 1, Stibnite was found in a boulder at the 
Centennial mine, Hanks (12) p. 375, De Groot (1) p. 461. 2, A small 
vein of stibnite associated with wolframite was found on Clark Moun- 
tain, Hess (14) p. 41^, Tucker and Sampson (16) p. 204; 3, it occurred 
with scheelite at Atolia, Hess (14) p. 49, Lemmon and Dorr (4) p. 
219, and 4, in large crystals in the silver ores of the Rand Mining Dis- 
trict, Hulin (1) p. 99. 5, Stibnite is present with wolframite at the 
Sagamore mine. New York Mountains, Aubury (4) p. 332. 6, The 
mineral is found occasionally at the Calico mines with realgar, Weeks 
(2) p. 768. 7, Stibnite is reported from the Desert Antimony mine (sec. 
18, T. 16 N., R. 14 E., S. B.), 2^ miles east of Mountain Pass, L. A. 
Wright et al. (5) p. 60. 

San Luis Ohispo County: 1, Stibnite occurs near the head of the San 
Simeon Creek, Logan (3) p. 676. 2, Radiating prisms of stibnite in 
quartz occur near Cambria, CDMG (13827). 3, Beautiful crystalline 
stibnite with pyrite in quartz occurs on the South Fork of San Simeon 
Creek, near the summit of the Santa Lucia Range (N. R.). 

Santa Clara County: 1, Large divergent colum